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Thu, 05/23/2019 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: Author(s): Chandrashekhar Singh, Chandra Prakash, Pallavi Mishra, Kavindra Nath Tiwari, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Raghunath Shahaji More, Vijay Kumar, Jasmeet SinghAbstractThe present study evaluated hepatoprotective role of ethanol extract of P. integrifolia leaves (EEPL) on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced toxicity in mice. Mice were administered with...
Thu, 05/23/2019 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: Author(s): Homa Arak, Mohammad Amir Karimi Torshizi, Mehdi Hedayati, Shaban RahimiAbstractThe amelioration of aflatoxicosis in ducklings was examined by feeding molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) synthesized to target the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) analog molecule [5, 7-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC)] as a smart and novel toxin binder in comparison to a...
Wed, 05/01/2019 - 01:12
Publication date: Available online 29 April 2019Source: Author(s): Di Wang, Jiaorong Qu, Haiyue Jiang, Yu JiangAbstractScars can have a dramatic impact on patients' physical appearance and function. Injection of botulinum toxin has been used to prevent scar formation at the site of injury and to remodel scars that have already formed. The purpose of this review is to assess the safety and...
Sat, 04/27/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: Author(s): Sumei Ling, Xiulan Li, Danping Zhang, Ke Wang, Wenwen Zhao, Qiang Zhao, Rongzhi Wang, Jun Yuan, Sijie Xin, Shihua WangAbstractTetrodotoxin (TTX) is a neurotoxin mainly responsible for severe neurological illness, and okadaic acid (OA) is another important lipophilic toxin to humans. In this study, we developed a gold strip for...
Fri, 04/19/2019 - 01:12
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Author(s): Lucian Del Fabbro, Cristiano Ricardo Jesse, Marcelo Gomes de Gomes, Carlos Borges Filho, Franciele Donato, Leandro Cattelan Souza, André Rossito Goes, Ana Flásvia Furian, Silvana Peterini BoeiraAbstractThe mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) has strong estrogenic effects and elicits reproductive toxicity. Chrysin is a natural flavonoid...
Tue, 04/16/2019 - 01:13
Publication date: Available online 14 April 2019Source: Author(s): Sharif Najafi, Ehsan Sanati, Mahsa Khademi, Fateme Abdorrazaghi, Reza Kazempoor Mofrad, Zahra RezasoltaniAbstractIn recent years, there is a growing interest in new medical applications of botulinum toxin, including pain control, osteoarthritis treatment, and wound healing. While clinical applications of botulinum toxin seem...
Fri, 04/05/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Author(s): Carolina Valenzuela, Cristian Torres, Vanina Muñoz, Juan Carlos Simbaina, Andrella Sánchez, Tamara Bustamante, Joaquín M. Sepúlveda, Robin Piron, Miguel Del Campo, Néstor LagosAbstractObjetiveTo evaluate Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) as a local anesthetic drug, for pain control during and after piglet castration.Study designProspective,...
Fri, 04/05/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: June 2019Source: , Volume 164Author(s): Yongfeng Zhou, Yongcheng Jin, Hao Yu, Anshan Shan, Jinglin Shen, Changhai Zhou, Yun Zhao, Hengtong Fang, Xin Wang, Junmei Wang, Yurong Fu, Rui Wang, Ruihua Li, Jing ZhangAbstractAflatoxins are widely occurring food contaminants that are particularly harmful to dairy products and cows. The plant polyphenol resveratrol has been reported to...
Fri, 03/08/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 6 March 2019Source: Author(s): A. Rogowska, P. Pomastowski, G. Sagandykova, B. BuszewskiAbstractMycotoxins are natural compounds produced as secondary metabolites by mold fungi belonging mainly to the Fusarium family, commonly found on plants such as corn or small grains in the temperate climate zone. One of these mycotoxins is zearalenone, which is classified...
Thu, 03/07/2019 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 5 March 2019Source: Author(s): Ionelia Taranu, Daniela Eliza Marin, Mihai Palade, Gina Cecilia Pistol, Veronica Sanda Chedea, Mihail Alexandru Gras, Catalin RotarAbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the potential of a grape seed byproduct to mitigate the harmful damage produced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at systemic level in plasma and liver as well as...
Sat, 01/19/2019 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2019Source: Author(s): Giulia Bellon, Andrea Venturin, Stefano Masiero, Alessandra Del FeliceAbstractComplex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by hyperalgesia, autonomic and trophic alterations of bones, muscles and skin. It is supported by neurogenic inflammation and impairment of sympathetic nervous system. Botulinum Toxin (BTX) is an...
Thu, 12/06/2018 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Author(s): Maryam Khanian, Mohammad-Amir Karimi-Torshizi, Abdolamir AllamehAbstractGrowing broiler chicks on a diet contaminated with aflatoxins (200 or 2000 ppb) for entire growth period resulted in increased oxidative stress and liver damage markers. The toxicity was subsided in broilers received a specific aflatoxin-binding probiotic i....
Sat, 11/24/2018 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Author(s): Paul M. D'Agostino, Michael J. Boundy, Tim D. Harwood, Wayne W. Carmichael, Brett A. Neilan, Susanna A. WoodAbstractTo date Paralytic shellfish toxin (PST) variants in cyanobacteria have primarily been characterized using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection. In this study we re-evaluated...
Sat, 11/17/2018 - 01:10
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Author(s): Luana Fiorella Mincarelli, José Ricardo Paula, Pedro Pousão-Ferreira, Rui Rosa, Pedro Reis CostaAbstractDomoic acid (DA) is a neurotoxin naturally produced by Pseudo-nitzschia diatoms that may be transferred through the marine food web and cause mass mortality events at higher trophic levels. Yet, the effects of the dissolved...
Sat, 11/17/2018 - 01:10
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2018Source: Author(s): Yanli Xie, Wei Wang, Shujie ZhangAbstractAflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus flavus and other fungi. Soil, crops, food, feed, etc. were susceptible to aflatoxin B1 contamination, which caused adverse economic and health consequences. It is necessary to search for microorganisms or microbial...
Sat, 11/17/2018 - 01:10
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Author(s): Emna El Golli-Bennour, Rim Timoumi, Meriam Koroit, Hassen Bacha, Salwa Abid-EssefiAbstractKefir is a fermented milk with numerous health favors counting restorative properties of bacterial flora, reduction of the symptoms of lactose intolerance, immune system stimulation, cholesterol reduction, as well as anti-mutagenic and...
Wed, 11/14/2018 - 01:10
Publication date: Available online 12 November 2018Source: Author(s): A.E. Vlasenko, P.V. Velansky, A.V. Chernyshev, V.G. Kuznetsov, T. Yu. MagarlamovAbstractFor the first time search for tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues in the extracts of nemerteans using HPLC-MS/MS was performed. TTX analogues were detected in two nemertean species in addition to TTX: 7 analogues were detected in the...
Mon, 11/05/2018 - 01:12
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Author(s): Songcheng Yu, Leiliang He, Fei Yu, Lie Liu, Chenling Qu, Lingbo Qu, Jie Liu, Yuming Wu, Yongjun WuAbstractDeoxynivalenol (DON), Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) have strong toxicity to humans and exist widely in grain and food. It is necessary to screen these mycotoxins to guarantee food safety. In order to develop a...
Sun, 11/04/2018 - 01:07
Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Author(s): Monali Mukherjee, H.K. Manonmani, Praveena BhattAbstractAflatoxin B1 (AFB1), is one of the most toxic mycotoxins found to contaminate various food commodities like cereals, dried fruits, tree nuts, spices and crude vegetable oils. In spite of considerable progress in analytical techniques, there is still a need to develop rapid...
Fri, 10/12/2018 - 01:11
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2018Source: Author(s): Enjie Diao, Dongliang Ren, Tingwu Liu, Jianmei Zhang, Weicheng Hu, Hanxue HouAbstractPatulin often contaminates fruits and fruit-base products, which seriously threats the health of consumers. In this study, ozone was used to degrade patulin in aqueous solution, and investigated the cytotoxicity of patulin after ozone...
Fri, 09/28/2018 - 01:14
Publication date: Available online 26 September 2018Source: Author(s): Yue Wang, Jian Zhang, Yulu Wang, Kerong Wang, Hong Wei, Lixin ShenAbstractZearalenone (ZEN) causes serious diseases in both animals and humans and thereby leads to substantial economic losses. The elimination of ZEN contamination from food and feed is an important concern worldwide. This study aimed to screen a bacterium that...
Fri, 09/07/2018 - 01:10
Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Author(s): Yasushi Torii, Mikio Sasaki, Min-Chul Shin, Norio Akaike, Ryuji KajiAbstractBotulinum toxin type A (subtype A1) is used as therapeutic agent for some neurological disorders causing spasticity. The toxin products have an upper dosage limit, and their adverse events, such as side effects of diffusion following high-dose...
Thu, 08/30/2018 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Author(s): Csilla Pelyhe, Benjámin Kövesi, Erika Zándoki, Balázs Kovács, Márta Erdélyi, Szabina Kulcsár, Miklós Mézes, Krisztián BaloghAbstractCo-occurrence of mycotoxin contamination of feeds is a frequent problem, therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of T-2 toxin and deoxynivalenol (DON) on lipid...
Thu, 08/30/2018 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Author(s): Yoko Kato-Unoki, Yuki Takai, Masato Kinoshita, Toshitaka Mochizuki, Ryohei Tatsuno, Yohei Shimasaki, Yuji OshimaAbstractThe pufferfish saxitoxin- and tetrodotoxin-binding protein 2 (PSTBP2), which is involved in toxin accumulation, was knocked out in Takifugu rubripes embryos by using clustered regularly interspaced short...
Thu, 08/30/2018 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2018Source: Author(s): Sheraz Ahmed Bhatti, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Zahoor Ul Hassan, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Aisha Khatoon, Zain ul Abidin, Muhammad Raza HameedAbstractThis study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary ochratoxin A (OA), in the presence and absence of L-carnitine (LC) and vitamin E (VE), on the humoral immune responses of White...
Sat, 08/25/2018 - 01:08
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Author(s): Magdalena Gajęcka, Agnieszka Waśkiewicz, Łukasz Zielonka, Piotr Goliński, Anna Rykaczewska, Sylwia Lisieska-Żołnierczyk, Maciej T. GajęckiAbstractMost plant materials are contaminated with small doses of Fusarium mycotoxins and its modified forms that exert subclinical toxic effects on humans and animals. The aim of this study...
Sat, 08/04/2018 - 01:13
Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Author(s): Dietrich Mebs, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Werner Pogoda, Joseph Vargas Alvarez, Raffael Ernst, Gunther Köhler, Stefan W. ToennesAbstractFrogs of the family Dendrobatidae are known to contain toxic alkaloids in their skin secretion, but Allobates species of the closely related Aromobatidae family are considered to lack toxic secretions...
Fri, 07/27/2018 - 01:12
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: Author(s): Anna Rykaczewska, Magdalena Gajęcka, Michał Dąbrowski, Anita Wiśniewska, Justyna Szcześniewska, Maciej T. Gajęcki, Łukasz ZielonkaAbstractThe aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to low doses of zearalenone (ZEN) induces changes in the serum biochemical profile and body weights (BW). Pre-pubertal gilts (with BW of up...
Fri, 07/27/2018 - 01:12
Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: Author(s): Nakisa Abbasian, Saeideh Momtaz, Maryam Baeeri, Mona Navaei-Nigjeh, Rohollah Hosseini, Mohammad AbdollahiAbstractGlobally, food and animal feed contamination with mycotoxins is one of the most important challenges affecting human health. Zearalenone is a non-steroidal mycotoxin with estrogen-like activity that has been reported to...
Wed, 07/11/2018 - 01:13
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: Author(s): Priyanka Soni, Md. Sajid Ghufran, Santosh R. KanadeAbstractThe compulsive and insidious secondary metabolite aflatoxin B1, produced by the opportunistic fungi Aspergillus flavus, upholds a distinguished place in midst of the toxicants causing fatal hazards to humans. Aflatoxins alter the function of host cells by inducing multiple...
Tue, 07/03/2018 - 09:34
Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018 Source: Author(s): Siying Chang, Yang Su, Yuchen Sun, Xiangyu Meng, Baoming Shi, Anshan Shan A study was conducted to determine the effects of zearalenone (ZEN) on the mRNA expression of pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive and rostane receptor (CAR), and phase I and II enzymes as well as the toxicity in the liver of female...
Thu, 05/31/2018 - 16:12
Publication date: August 2018 Source:, Volume 150 Author(s): Fang Gan, Yulan Yang, Yun Chen, Chaoping Che, Cuiling Pan, Kehe Huang The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bush sophora root polysaccharide (BSRPS) on the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatotoxicity and to explore the underlying mechanisms. The primary chicken hepatocytes were used as the model in the...
Wed, 05/30/2018 - 16:07
Publication date: July 2018 Source:, Volume 149 Author(s): Mikhail Kalinichev
Mon, 05/28/2018 - 16:04
Publication date: August 2018 Source:, Volume 150 Author(s): Dietrich Mebs, Max Lorentz, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita, Daniela C. Rößler, Raffael Ernst, Stefan Lötters For the first time, alcohol extracts of Atelopus hoogmoedi from the Guiana Shield in Suriname and Guyana were analyzed for the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and of its analogues by high resolution hydrophilic interaction...
Sat, 05/26/2018 - 15:35
Publication date: August 2018 Source:, Volume 150 Author(s): Shurong Hu, Xiaowen Dou, Lei Zhang, Yanjun Xie, Shihai Yang, Meihua Yang A rapid screening of the most toxic aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in medicinal materials of radix and rhizome was performed by an immune chromatography method for the first time. The colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip was prepared after optimization...
Sat, 05/26/2018 - 15:35
Publication date: August 2018 Source:, Volume 150 Author(s): Nan Zheng, Huan Zhang, Songli Li, Jiaqi Wang, Jia Liu, Hui Ren, Yanan Gao Aflatoxins, including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and M1 (AFM1), are natural potent carcinogens produced by Aspergillus spp. These compounds, which can often be detected in dairy foods, can cause diseases in human beings. However, the molecular...
Sat, 05/26/2018 - 15:35
Publication date: August 2018 Source:, Volume 150 Author(s): Lucía Soliño, Pedro Reis Costa Ciguatoxins (CTXs) are fish metabolism products and a result of biotransformation of precursor gambiertoxins produced, in the first instance, by benthic dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa. Ciguatoxins are potent neurotoxins that selectively open voltage gated sodium channels in excitable...
Tue, 05/01/2018 - 13:04
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:, Volume 148 Author(s): Andrew D. Turner, Maggie Broadwater, Frances Van Dolah A receptor binding assay (RBA) for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxicity is formally validated through collaborative study and approved for regulatory monitoring use in the US for mussels and clams. However, to date, the method has not been tested on...
Mon, 04/30/2018 - 12:54
Publication date: 15 June 2018 Source:, Volume 148 Author(s): Mete Yilmaz, Amanda J. Foss, Andrew I. Selwood, Mihriban Özen, Michael Boundy Aphanizomenon gracile is one of the most widespread Paralytic Shellfish Toxin (PST) producing cyanobacteria in freshwater bodies in the Northern Hemisphere. It has been shown to produce various PST congeners, including saxitoxin (STX),...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Yingchun Zhang, Christopher P. Smith Botulinum toxin's (BoNT) success in treating several pain disorders has triggered interest in its application for pelvic pain disorders. This article summarizes results presented at the recent Neurotoxins Meeting in Madrid, Spain, in January 2017. It does not include BoNT use for Interstitial...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Cristina Tassorelli, Grazia Sances, Micol Avenali, Roberto De Icco, Daniele Martinelli, Vito Bitetto, Giuseppe Nappi, Giorgio Sandrini OnabotulinumtoxinA has been approved for the prophylaxis of chronic migraine following the demonstration of efficacy in two large controlled trials. Data collected from pragmatic...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Francisco Cardoso The aim of this article is to provide a review of the use of injections of botulinum toxin in the management of selected symptoms and signs of Parkinson's disease and other forms of parkinsonism. Sialorrhea is defined as inability to control oral secretions, resulting in excessive saliva in the oropharynx. There...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): H.A. Jinnah, Cynthia L. Comella, Joel Perlmutter, Codrin Lungu, Mark Hallett Background Numerous studies have established botulinum toxin (BoNT) to be safe and effective for the treatment of cervical dystonia (CD). Despite its well-documented efficacy, there has been growing awareness that a significant proportion of CD...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Joseph Jankovic The therapeutic applications of botulinum toxin (BoNT) have grown manifold since its initial approval in 1989 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of strabismus, blepharospasm, and other facial spasms. Although it is the most potent biologic toxin known to man, long-term studies have...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Antoniangela Cocco, Alberto Albanese Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are increasingly used in clinical practice for several indications. Following the pioneering years of discoveries, the recent years have witnessed an increase of new indications and new toxin brands. We review here the clinical trials on BoNTs performed since...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Manuela López de la Paz, Daniel Scheps, Marcel Jurk, Fred Hofmann, Jürgen Frevert Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most potent toxic proteins to mankind known but applied in low doses trigger a localized muscle paralysis that is beneficial for the therapy of several neurological disorders and aesthetic treatment. The...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Phillip H. Beske, Aaron B. Bradford, Katie M. Hoffman, Sydney J. Mason, Patrick M. McNutt Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are exceedingly potent neurological poisons that block cholinergic release in the peripheral nervous system and cause death by asphyxiation. While post-exposure prophylaxis can effectively eliminate toxin...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): O. Rossetto Botulinum neurotoxins are the most potent toxins known. The double receptor binding modality represents one of the most significant properties of botulinum neurotoxins and largely accounts for their incredible potency and lethality. Despite the high affinity and the very specific binding, botulinum neurotoxins are...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Kwok-ho Lam, Ruifeng Qi, Shun Liu, Amelie Kroh, Guorui Yao, Kay Perry, Andreas Rummel, Rongsheng Jin Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are causative agents of the life-threatening disease botulism. They are naturally produced by species of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum as stable and non-covalent complexes, in which...
Fri, 04/27/2018 - 12:24
Publication date: 1 June 2018 Source:, Volume 147 Author(s): Yukako Fujinaga, Michel R. Popoff Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are potent toxins which induce flaccid paralysis by inhibiting the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junctions. They associate with non-toxic proteins (ANTPs or NAPs) to form complexes of various sizes which are resistant to acidic pH and protease...

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