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Toxins

Sat, 06/15/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 342: Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Swine Feeding from Spain Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060342 Authors: Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares Vicente Rodríguez-Estévez Plácido Arenas-Fernández Ana M. García-Campaña Laura Gámiz-Gracia A survey including 228 pig feed samples from Spain has been developed, exploring the occurrence of 19 mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and...
Fri, 06/14/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 341: Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity and Disturbance of Cell Cycle in HepG2 Cells Exposed to OTA and BEA: Single and Combined Actions Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060341 Authors: Juan-García Tolosa Juan Ruiz Mycotoxins are produced by a number of fungal genera spp., for example, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Fusarium, and Claviceps. Beauvericin (BEA) and...
Thu, 06/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 337: Cold Plasma Treatment as an Alternative for Ochratoxin a Detoxification and Inhibition of Mycotoxigenic Fungi in Roasted Coffee Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060337 Authors: Paloma Patricia Casas-Junco Josué Raymundo Solís-Pacheco Juan Arturo Ragazzo-Sánchez Blanca Rosa Aguilar-Uscanga Pedro Ulises Bautista-Rosales Montserrat Calderón-Santoyo Ochratoxin...
Wed, 06/12/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 333: Effects of Dietary Zearalenone on Oxidative Stress, Cell Apoptosis, and Tight Junction in the Intestine of Juvenile Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060333 Authors: Ya-Li Wang Xiao-Qiu Zhou Wei-Dan Jiang Pei Wu Yang Liu Jun Jiang Shang-Wen Wang Sheng-Yao Kuang Ling Tang Lin Feng Zearalenone (ZEA) is a prevalent...
Wed, 06/12/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 334: Rural Subsistence Maize Farming in South Africa: Risk Assessment and Intervention models for Reduction of Exposure to Fumonisin Mycotoxins Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060334 Authors: Johanna Alberts John Rheeder Wentzel Gelderblom Gordon Shephard Hester-Mari Burger Maize is a staple crop in rural subsistence regions of southern Africa, is mainly...
Tue, 06/11/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 331: Occurrence of Tetrodotoxin in Bivalves and Gastropods from Harvesting Areas and Other Natural Spaces in Spain Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060331 Authors: Lucía Blanco Jorge Lago Virginia González Beatriz Paz Maria Rambla-Alegre Ana G. Cabado Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin that is receiving increasing interest in the European Union because...
Sat, 06/08/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 329: Occurrence of the Ochratoxin A Degradation Product 2′R-Ochratoxin A in Coffee and Other Food: An Update Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060329 Authors: Franziska Sueck Vanessa Hemp Jonas Specht Olga Torres Benedikt Cramer Hans-Ulrich Humpf Food raw materials can contain the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA). Thermal processing of these materials may result in...
Sat, 06/08/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 330: Application of Zearalenone (ZEN)-Detoxifying Bacillus in Animal Feed Decontamination through Fermentation Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060330 Authors: Shiau-Wei Chen Han-Tsung Wang Wei-Yuan Shih Yan-An Ciou Yu-Yi Chang Laurensia Ananda Shu-Yin Wang Jih-Tay Hsu Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogenic mycotoxin which can cause loss in animal production....
Fri, 06/07/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 328: Fumonisins: Impact on Agriculture, Food, and Human Health and their Management Strategies Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060328 Authors: Madhu Kamle Dipendra K. Mahato Sheetal Devi Kyung Eun Lee Sang G. Kang Pradeep Kumar The fumonisins producing fungi, Fusarium spp., are ubiquitous in nature and contaminate several food matrices that pose detrimental...
Thu, 06/06/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 326: Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Toxin Genes in Clinical Isolates of Clostridium perfringens: Coexistence of Alpha-Toxin Variant and Binary Enterotoxin Genes (bec/cpile) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060326 Authors: Asami Matsuda Meiji Soe Aung Noriko Urushibara Mitsuyo Kawaguchiya Ayako Sumi Mayumi Nakamura Yuka Horino Masahiko Ito Satoshi...
Wed, 06/05/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 319: Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside Content Is Highly Associated with Deoxynivalenol Levels in Two-Row Barley Genotypes of Importance to Canadian Barley Breeding Programs Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060319 Authors: James R. Tucker Ana Badea Richard Blagden Kerri Pleskach Sheryl A. Tittlemier W. G. Dilantha Fernando Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a multipurpose...
Tue, 06/04/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 318: In Vitro Mutagenic and Genotoxic Assessment of a Mixture of the Cyanotoxins Microcystin-LR and Cylindrospermopsin Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060318 Authors: Leticia Díez-Quijada Ana I. Prieto María Puerto Ángeles Jos Ana M. Cameán The co-occurrence of various cyanobacterial toxins can potentially induce toxic effects different than those observed for...
Mon, 06/03/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 315: Mitigating Aflatoxin Contamination in Groundnut through A Combination of Genetic Resistance and Post-Harvest Management Practices Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060315 Authors: Manish K. Pandey Rakesh Kumar Arun K. Pandey Pooja Soni Sunil S. Gangurde Hari K. Sudini Jake C. Fountain Boshou Liao Haile Desmae Patrick Okori Xiaoping Chen Huifang...
Fri, 05/31/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 312: Mycotoxins at the Start of the Food Chain in Costa Rica: Analysis of Six Fusarium Toxins and Ochratoxin A between 2013 and 2017 in Animal Feed and Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060312 Authors: Andrea Molina Guadalupe Chavarría Margarita Alfaro-Cascante Astrid Leiva Fabio Granados-Chinchilla Mycotoxins are secondary...
Thu, 05/30/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 308: Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Ochratoxin A in Beers and Wines Commercialized in Paraguay Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060308 Authors: Andrea Alejandra Arrúa Juliana Moura Mendes Pablo Arrúa Francisco Paulo Ferreira Gabriela Caballero Cinthia Cazal Man Mohan Kohli Inocencia Peralta Gabriela Ulke Danilo Fernández Ríos Alcoholic beverages can...
Thu, 05/30/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 309: Separation and Purification of Aflatoxins by Centrifugal Partition Chromatography Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060309 Authors: Gábor Endre Zsófia Hegedüs Adiyadolgor Turbat Biljana Škrbić Csaba Vágvölgyi András Szekeres Aflatoxins are mycotoxins that are produced by several species of filamentous fungi. In the European Union, the concentration limits...
Wed, 05/29/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 304: Assorted Methods for Decontamination of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk Using Microbial Adsorbents Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060304 Authors: Jean Claude Assaf Sahar Nahle Ali Chokr Nicolas Louka Ali Atoui André El Khoury Aflatoxins (AF) are carcinogenic metabolites produced by different species of Aspergillus which readily colonize crops. AFM1 is secreted in...
Wed, 05/29/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 305: Acute Toxicity Assessment: Macroscopic and Ultrastructural Effects in Mice Treated with Oral Tetrodotoxin Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060305 Authors: Paula Abal M. Carmen Louzao Natalia Vilariño Mercedes R. Vieytes Luis M. Botana Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is an extremely toxic marine compound produced by different genera of bacteria that can reach humans...
Wed, 05/29/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 306: Tetrodotoxins Occurrence in Non-Traditional Vectors of the North Atlantic Waters (Portuguese Maritime Territory, and Morocco Coast) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060306 Authors: Marisa Silva Inés Rodríguez Aldo Barreiro Manfred Kaufmann Ana Isabel Neto Meryem Hassouani Brahim Sabour Amparo Alfonso Luis M. Botana Vitor Vasconcelos Tetrodotoxin (...
Wed, 05/29/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 307: Genotypes, Enterotoxin Gene Profiles, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Foodborne Outbreaks in Hangzhou, China Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060307 Authors: Qi Chen Sangma Xie Staphylococcal food poisoning is an illness caused by the consumption of food that contains sufficient amounts of one or more enterotoxins. In the...
Mon, 05/27/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 301: Degrading Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone Mycotoxins Using a Multifunctional Recombinant Enzyme Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050301 Authors: Md Shofiul Azam Dianzhen Yu Na Liu Aibo Wu Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic and ochratoxin A (OTA) is a hepatotoxic Fusarium mycotoxin commonly seen in cereals and fruits products. No previous investigation has studied...
Fri, 05/24/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 295: Fengycin Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 Inhibits Fusarium graminearum Growth and Mycotoxins Biosynthesis Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050295 Authors: Alvina Hanif Feng Zhang Pingping Li Chuchu Li Yujiao Xu Muhammad Zubair Mengxuan Zhang Dandan Jia Xiaozhen Zhao Jingang Liang Taha Majid Jingyuau Yan Ayaz Farzand Huijun Wu Qin...
Fri, 05/24/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 296: Time-Dependent Changes in the Intestinal Microbiome of Gilts Exposed to Low Zearalenone Doses Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050296 Authors: Katarzyna Cieplińska Magdalena Gajęcka Michał Dąbrowski Anna Rykaczewska Sylwia Lisieska-Żołnierczyk Maria Bulińska Łukasz Zielonka Maciej T. Gajęcki Zearalenone is a frequent contaminant of cereals and their by...
Thu, 05/23/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 291: Study on the Growth and Enterotoxin Production by Staphylococcus aureus in Canned Meat before Retorting Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050291 Authors: Luca Grispoldi Paul Alexanderu Popescu Musafiri Karama Vito Gullo Giusi Poerio Elena Borgogni Paolo Torlai Giuseppina Chianese Anna Giovanna Fermani Paola Sechi Beniamino Cenci-Goga Possible...
Thu, 05/23/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 292: Rapid and Simple Detection of Ochratoxin A using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer on Lateral Flow Immunoassay (FRET-LFI) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050292 Authors: Hyun-Kyung Oh Hyou-Arm Joung Minhyuk Jung Hohjai Lee Min-Gon Kim The detection of mycotoxins is crucial because of their toxicity in plants, animals, and humans. It is very important...
Thu, 05/23/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 293: Discovery of a Potential Human Serum Biomarker for Chronic Seafood Toxin Exposure Using an SPR Biosensor Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050293 Authors: Kathi A. Lefebvre Betsy Jean Yakes Elizabeth Frame Preston Kendrick Sara Shum Nina Isoherranen Bridget E. Ferriss Alison Robertson Alicia Hendrix David J. Marcinek Lynn Grattan Domoic acid (DA)-...
Wed, 05/22/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 290: Prevalent Mycotoxins in Animal Feed: Occurrence and Analytical Methods Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050290 Authors: Carolina Santos Pereira Sara C. Cunha José O. Fernandes Today, we have been witnessing a steady tendency in the increase of global demand for maize, wheat, soybeans, and their products due to the steady growth and strengthening of the livestock...
Mon, 05/20/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 280: Development of an Anti-Idiotypic VHH Antibody and Toxin-Free Enzyme Immunoassay for Ochratoxin A in Cereals Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050280 Authors: Caixia Zhang Qi Zhang Xiaoqian Tang Wen Zhang Peiwu Li Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits have been widely used for the determination of mycotoxins in agricultural products and foods,...
Mon, 05/20/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 281: Binding to The Target Cell Surface Is The Crucial Step in Pore Formation of Hemolysin BL from Bacillus cereus Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050281 Authors: Nadja Jessberger Richard Dietrich Stefanie Schwemmer Franziska Tausch Valerie Schwenk Andrea Didier Erwin Märtlbauer A major virulence factor involved in Bacillus cereus food poisoning is the three...
Wed, 05/15/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 272: Impact of Five Succinate Dehydrogenase Inhibitors on DON Biosynthesis of Fusarium asiaticum, Causing Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050272 Authors: Chao Xu Meixia Li Zehua Zhou Jiaosheng Li Dongming Chen Yabing Duan Mingguo Zhou Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a class of mycotoxin produced in cereal crops infected with Fusarium...
Wed, 05/15/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 274: Label-Free Direct Detection of Saxitoxin Based on a Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Aptasensor Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050274 Authors: Su-Ji Ha Jin-Ho Park Bobin Lee Min-Gon Kim Seafood is an emerging health food, and interest in improving the quality of seafood is increasing. Saxitoxin (STX) is a neurotoxin produced by marine dinoflagellates that...
Tue, 05/14/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 270: Assessment of Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Contamination and Associated Risk Factors in Feed and Feed Ingredients in Rwanda Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050270 Authors: Kizito Nishimwe Erin Bowers Jean de Dieu Ayabagabo Richard Habimana Samuel Mutiga Dirk Maier Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites that contaminate crops, food, and animal feeds. Aflatoxins and...
Tue, 05/14/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 271: Long Term Monitoring (2014–2018) of Multi-Mycotoxins in South African Commercial Maize and Wheat with a Locally Developed and Validated LC-MS/MS Method Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050271 Authors: Hannalien Meyer Zanele Diana Skhosana Mamsy Motlanthe Wiana Louw Egmont Rohwer Mycotoxins occur worldwide in the major grains, and producers, traders and...
Sat, 05/11/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 263: Molecular Phylogenetic Relationships, Trichothecene Chemotype Diversity and Aggressiveness of Strains in a Global Collection of Fusarium graminearum Species Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050263 Authors: Chami Amarasinghe Barbara Sharanowski W.G. Dilantha Fernando Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused principally by the species belonging to the Fusarium...
Sat, 05/11/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 264: Effects of Subcutaneous Ochratoxin-A Exposure on Immune System of Broiler Chicks Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050264 Authors: Shahzad Akbar Khan Emerson J. Venancio Mario A. Ono Eduardo V. Fernandes Elisa Y. Hirooka Cleverson F. Shimizu Alexandre Oba Karina K. M. C. Flaiban Eiko N. Itano Ochratoxin A (OTA), an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, can...
Wed, 05/08/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 258: NMR-Based Metabolic Profiles of Intact Zebrafish Embryos Exposed to Aflatoxin B1 Recapitulates Hepatotoxicity and Supports Possible Neurotoxicity Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050258 Authors: Zain Zuberi Muhamed N. H. Eeza Joerg Matysik John P. Berry A. Alia Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a widespread contaminant of grains and other agricultural crops and is...
Wed, 05/08/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 259: Recombinant Aflatoxin-Degrading F420H2-Dependent Reductase from Mycobacterium smegmatis Protects Mammalian Cells from Aflatoxin Toxicity Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050259 Authors: Che-Hsing Li Wei-Yang Li I-Ning Hsu Yung-Yu Liao Chi-Ya Yang Matthew C. Taylor Yu-Fan Liu Wei-Hao Huang Hsiang-Hua Chang Ho-Lo Huang Shao-Chi Lo Ting-Yu Lin Wei-...
Tue, 05/07/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 254: Occurrence and Risk Assessment of Mycotoxins through Polish Beer Consumption Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050254 Authors: Jan Grajewski Robert Kosicki Magdalena Twarużek Anna Błajet-Kosicka Poland is one of Europe’s leading producers and exporters of beer. The study, herein, describes the measurement of ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, nivalenol...
Tue, 05/07/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 255: Varanid Lizard Venoms Disrupt the Clotting Ability of Human Fibrinogen through Destructive Cleavage Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050255 Authors: James S. Dobson Christina N. Zdenek Chris Hay Aude Violette Rudy Fourmy Chip Cochran Bryan G. Fry The functional activities of Anguimorpha lizard venoms have received less attention compared to serpent...
Tue, 05/07/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 256: Hydrophobized Reversed-Phase Adsorbent for Protection of Dairy Cattle against Lipophilic Toxins from Diet. Efficiensy in Vitro and in Vivo Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050256 Authors: Sotnichenko Pantsov Shinkarev Okhanov The steady growth of inflammatory diseases of the udder in dairy cattle forces us to look for the causes of this phenomenon in the...
Tue, 05/07/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 257: Fusarium Mycotoxins Stability during the Malting and Brewing Processes Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050257 Authors: Piacentini Benešová Pernica Savi Rocha Hartman Čáslavský Corrêa Běláková Mycotoxins are widely studied by many research groups in all aspects, but the stability of these compounds needs further research for clarification....
Sun, 05/05/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 252: Analysis of Toxigenic Fusarium Species Associated with Wheat Grain from Three Regions of Russia: Volga, Ural, and West Siberia Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050252 Authors: Tatiana Gagkaeva Olga Gavrilova Aleksandra Orina Yuri Lebedin Ilya Shanin Pavel Petukhov Sergei Eremin Wheat grains collected in three regions of Russia—Volga, Ural,...
Thu, 05/02/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 249: Toxicity Studies of Chanoclavine in Mice Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050249 Authors: Sarah C. Finch John S. Munday Jan M. Sprosen Sweta Bhattarai Epichloë endophytes have been used successfully in pastoral grasses providing protection against insect pests through the expression of secondary metabolites. This approach could be extended to...
Tue, 04/30/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 248: Fusarium Toxins in Chinese Wheat since the 1980s Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050248 Authors: Qiu Xu Shi Wheat Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium species, is a widespread and destructive fungal disease. In addition to the substantial yield and revenue losses, diseased grains are often contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins, making them...
Mon, 04/29/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 245: Toxicity and Toxin Composition of the Greater Blue-Ringed Octopus Hapalochlaena lunulata from Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050245 Authors: Asakawa Matsumoto Umezaki Kaneko Yu Gomez-Delan Tomano Noguchi Ohtsuka The toxicity of the greater blue-ringed octopus Hapalochlaena lunulata, whose bite is...
Sun, 04/28/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 242: Altered Gene Response to Aflatoxin B1 in the Spleens of Susceptible and Resistant Turkeys Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050242 Authors: Kent M. Reed Kristelle M. Mendoza Roger A. Coulombe Susceptibility and/or resistance to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a threshold trait governed principally by glutathione S transferase (GST)-mediated detoxification. In poultry,...
Fri, 04/26/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 240: Public Health Risks Associated with Tetrodotoxin and Its Analogues in European Waters: Recent Advances after The EFSA Scientific Opinion Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11050240 Authors: Katikou Tetrodotoxin (TTX) and its analogues are naturally occurring toxins responsible worldwide for human intoxication cases and fatalities, mainly associated with pufferfish...
Mon, 04/22/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 232: Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Damages the Mouse Small Intestine Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040232 Authors: Soshi Seike Masaya Takehara Keiko Kobayashi Masahiro Nagahama Clostridium perfringens strains B and C cause fatal intestinal diseases in animals. The secreted pore-forming toxin delta-toxin is one of the virulence factors of the strains, but...
Mon, 04/22/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 233: Structural Insights to the Heterotetrameric Interaction between the Vibrio parahaemolyticus PirAvp and PirBvp Toxins and Activation of the Cry-Like Pore-Forming Domain Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040233 Authors: Shin-Jen Lin Yi-Fan Chen Kai-Cheng Hsu Yun-Ling Chen Tzu-Ping Ko Chu-Fang Lo Han-Ching Wang Hao-Ching Wang Acute hepatopancreatic...
Sun, 04/21/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 231: CesH Represses Cereulide Synthesis as an Alpha/Beta Fold Hydrolase in Bacillus cereus Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040231 Authors: Shen Tian Hairong Xiong Peiling Geng Zhiming Yuan Xiaomin Hu Cereulide is notorious as a heat-stable emetic toxin produced by Bacillus cereus and glucose is supposed to be an ingredient supporting its formation. This study...

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