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Toxins

Tue, 11/20/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 482: Modified Palygorskite Improves Immunity, Antioxidant Ability, Intestinal Morphology, and Barrier Function in Broiler Chickens Fed Naturally Contaminated Diet with Permitted Feed Concentrations of Fusarium Mycotoxins Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110482 Authors: Yefei Cheng Qiao Xu Yueping Chen Yue Su Chao Wen Yanmin Zhou This study investigated effects...
Mon, 11/19/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 481: Mycotoxins Contaminant in Kelp: A Neglected Dietary Exposure Pathway Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110481 Authors: Yanshen Li Mingxue Sun Xin Mao Yanli You Yonglin Gao Jianrong Yang Yongning Wu In order to investigated current occurrence of major mycotoxins in dietary kelp in Shandong Province in Northern China, a reliable, sensitive, and rapid liquid...
Fri, 11/16/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 477: Occurrence and Quantitative Risk Assessment of Twelve Mycotoxins in Eggs and Chicken Tissues in China Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110477 Authors: Lan Wang Qiaoyan Zhang Zheng Yan Yanglan Tan Runyue Zhu Dianzhen Yu Hua Yang Aibo Wu Aflatoxins (AFs), deoxynivalenols (DONs), and zearalenones (ZENs) are common mycotoxins that contaminate feedstuff,...
Thu, 11/15/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 475: Patulin in Apples and Apple-Based Food Products: The Burdens and the Mitigation Strategies Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110475 Authors: Lei Zhong Jason Carere Zhaoxin Lu Fengxia Lu Ting Zhou Apples and apple-based products are among the most popular foods around the world for their delightful flavors and health benefits. However, the commonly found mold...
Thu, 11/15/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 476: A Rapid, Sensitive, and Portable Biosensor Assay for the Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype A in Complex Food Matrices Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110476 Authors: Christina C. Tam Andrew R. Flannery Luisa W. Cheng Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) intoxication can lead to the disease botulism, characterized by flaccid muscle paralysis that can cause...
Mon, 11/12/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 466: Generation of Highly Efficient Equine-Derived Antibodies for Post-Exposure Treatment of Ricin Intoxications by Vaccination with Monomerized Ricin Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110466 Authors: Reut Falach Anita Sapoznikov Ron Alcalay Moshe Aftalion Sharon Ehrlich Arik Makovitzki Avi Agami Avishai Mimran Amir Rosner Tamar Sabo Chanoch Kronman Yoav...
Tue, 11/06/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 458: Development of an Immunoassay for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin-Like J, A Non-Characterized Toxin Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110458 Authors: Hisaya K. Ono Nobuaki Hachiya Yasunori Suzuki Ikunori Naito Shouhei Hirose Krisana Asano Katsuhiko Omoe Akio Nakane Dong-Liang Hu Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are the cause of staphylococcal...
Thu, 11/01/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 450: First Report on the Occurrence of Tetrodotoxins in Bivalve Mollusks in The Netherlands Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110450 Authors: Arjen Gerssen Toine H. F. Bovee Mirjam D. Klijnstra Marnix Poelman Liza Portier Ron L. A. P. Hoogenboom Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is traditionally associated with seafood from tropical regions, but recently TTX was detected in...
Wed, 10/31/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 449: The Protective Role of Bacillus velezensis A2 on the Biochemical and Hepatic Toxicity of Zearalenone in Mice Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110449 Authors: Nan Wang Peng Li Mingyang Wang Si Chen Sheng Huang Miao Long Shuhua Yang Jianbin He Zearalenone (ZEN) is an estrogen-like mycotoxin produced by Fusarium that seriously compromises the safety of...
Tue, 10/30/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 443: Impact of Dinophysis acuminata Feeding Mesodinium rubrum on Nutrient Dynamics and Bacterial Composition in a Microcosm Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110443 Authors: Han Gao Chenfeng Hua Mengmeng Tong The development of Dinophysis populations, producers of diarrhetic shellfish toxins, has been attributed to both abiotic (e.g., water column stratification) and...
Tue, 10/30/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 446: Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxin Monitoring in Commercial Wild Harvest Bivalve Shellfish in New South Wales, Australia Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110446 Authors: Hazel Farrell Penelope Ajani Shauna Murray Phil Baker Grant Webster Steve Brett Anthony Zammit An end-product market survey on biotoxins in commercial wild harvest shellfish (Plebidonax...
Sun, 10/28/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 436: Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Effects on the Metabolomic and Cytokinomic Profiling of a Hepatoblastoma Cell Line Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110436 Authors: Silvia Marchese Angela Sorice Andrea Ariano Salvatore Florio Alfredo Budillon Susan Costantini Lorella Severino Hepatoblastoma incidence has been associated with different environmental factors...
Sun, 10/28/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 438: Carbon Quantum Dots Encapsulated Molecularly Imprinted Fluorescence Quenching Particles for Sensitive Detection of Zearalenone in Corn Sample Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110438 Authors: Shao Yao Saeger Yan Song An eco-friendly and efficient one-step approach for the synthesis of carbon quantum dots (CDs) that encapsulated molecularly imprinted...
Fri, 10/26/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 428: Accumulation and Elimination Dynamics of the Hydroxybenzoate Saxitoxin Analogues in Mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis Exposed to the Toxic Marine Dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110428 Authors: Pedro Reis Costa Ana Catarina Braga Andrew D. Turner Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is a severe food-borne illness, caused by...
Fri, 10/26/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 432: Multi-Occurrence of Twenty Mycotoxinsin Pasta and a Risk Assessment in the Moroccan Population Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110432 Authors: Youssef Bouafifssa Lara Manyes Mohamed Rahouti Jordi Mañes Houda Berrada Abdellah Zinedine Mónica Fernández-Franzón In the present study, the multi-occurrence of twenty (20) mycotoxins in pasta samples consumed...
Fri, 10/26/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 433: Current Status and Future Opportunities of Omics Tools in Mycotoxin Research Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110433 Authors: Manal Eshelli M. Mallique Qader Ebtihaj J. Jambi Andrew S. Hursthouse Mostafa E. Rateb Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of low molecular weight produced by filamentous fungi, such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium...
Tue, 10/23/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 422: Detection of Shiga Toxin 2 Produced by Escherichia coli in Foods Using a Novel AlphaLISA Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110422 Authors: Cheryl M. Armstrong Leah E. Ruth Joseph A. Capobianco Terence P. Strobaugh Fernando M. Rubio Andrew G. Gehring Amplified luminescent proximity homogenous assay-linked immunosorbent assay (AlphaLISA) is comprised of a...
Tue, 10/23/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 423: The Acute Toxicity of Tetrodotoxin and Tetrodotoxin–Saxitoxin Mixtures to Mice by Various Routes of Administration Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10110423 Authors: Sarah C. Finch Michael J. Boundy D. Tim Harwood Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin associated with human poisonings through the consumption of pufferfish. More recently, TTX has been identified...
Sat, 10/20/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 420: Identification of Causative Ciguatoxins in Red Snappers Lutjanus bohar Implicated in Ciguatera Fish Poisonings in Vietnam Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100420 Authors: Dao Viet Ha Aya Uesugi Hajime Uchida Pham Xuan Ky Dang Quoc Minh Ryuichi Watanabe Ryoji Matsushima Hiroshi Oikawa Satoshi Nagai Mitsunori Iwataki Yasuwo Fukuyo Toshiyuki Suzuki...
Tue, 10/16/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 417: RNA-Seq Analysis for Assessing the Early Response to DSP Toxins in Mytilus galloprovincialis Digestive Gland and Gill Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100417 Authors: María Verónica Prego-Faraldo Luisa Martínez Josefina Méndez The harmful effects of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins on mammalian cell lines have been widely assessed. Studies in bivalves...
Mon, 10/15/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 415: Antibody Microarray Immunoassay for Simultaneous Quantification of Multiple Mycotoxins in Corn Samples Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100415 Authors: Xian Zhang Zuohuan Wang Yun Fang Renjie Sun Tong Cao Narayan Paudyal Weihuan Fang Houhui Song We developed and tested a prototype of an antibody microarray immunoassay for simultaneous quantitative...
Sat, 10/13/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 413: Evaluating the Bioactivity of a Novel Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Peptide Brevinin-1GHa from the Frog Skin Secretion of Hylarana guentheri and Its Analogues Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100413 Authors: Qi Chen Peng Cheng Chengbang Ma Xinping Xi Lei Wang Mei Zhou Huimin Bian Tianbao Chen Many antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been identified from...
Wed, 10/10/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 409: Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube for One-Step Cleanup of 21 Mycotoxins in Corn and Wheat Prior to Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry Analysis Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100409 Authors: Dongmei Jiang Dizhe Wei Liuqing Wang Shuai Ma Yuanfang Du Meng Wang One-step solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a multiwalled carbon nanotube (...
Tue, 10/09/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 407: Protective Effect of N-Acetylcysteine against Oxidative Stress Induced by Zearalenone via Mitochondrial Apoptosis Pathway in SIEC02 Cells Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100407 Authors: Jingjing Wang Mengmeng Li Wei Zhang Aixin Gu Jiawen Dong Jianping Li Anshan Shan Zearalenone (ZEN), a nonsteroidal estrogen mycotoxin, is widely found in feed and...
Mon, 10/08/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 405: Interaction of Clostridium perfringens Iota Toxin and Lipolysis-Stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor (LSR) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100405 Authors: Masahiro Nagahama Masaya Takehara Keiko Kobayashi Iota toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens is a binary, actin ADP-ribosylating toxin that is organized into the enzymatically active component Ia and the...
Fri, 09/28/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 398: The Effects of Autophagy and PI3K/AKT/m-TOR Signaling Pathway on the Cell-Cycle Arrest of Rats Primary Sertoli Cells Induced by Zearalenone Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100398 Authors: Bing-jie Wang Wang-long Zheng Nan-nan Feng Tao Wang Hui Zou Jian-hong Gu Yan Yuan Xue-zhong Liu Zong-ping Liu Jian-chun Bian A high concentration of Zearalenone...
Fri, 09/28/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 399: Dinophysis acuta in Scottish Coastal Waters and Its Influence on Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxin Profiles Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100399 Authors: Sarah C. Swan Andrew D. Turner Eileen Bresnan Callum Whyte Ruth F. Paterson Sharon McNeill Elaine Mitchell Keith Davidson Diarrhetic shellfish toxins produced by the dinoflagellate genus Dinophysis are a...
Thu, 09/27/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 395: Anatomical Distribution of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins (DSTs) in the Japanese Scallop Patinopecten yessoensis and Individual Variability in Scallops and Mytilus edulis Mussels: Statistical Considerations Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100395 Authors: Ryoji Matsushima Hajime Uchida Ryuichi Watanabe Hiroshi Oikawa Izumi Oogida Yuki Kosaka Makoto Kanamori...
Thu, 09/20/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 381: Immunogenicity of a Bivalent Non-Purified Recombinant Vaccine against Botulism in Cattle Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10100381 Authors: Clóvis Moreira Marcos R. A. Ferreira Carlos E. P. da Cunha Rafael A. Donassolo Paula F. Finger Gustavo M. S. G. Moreira Denis Y. Otaka Loise A. de Sousa José D. Barbosa Ângela N. Moreira Felipe M. Salvarani...
Fri, 09/14/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 375: Extended Targeted and Non-Targeted Strategies for the Analysis of Marine Toxins in Mussels and Oysters by (LC-HRMS) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090375 Authors: Inès Dom Ronel Biré Vincent Hort Gwenaëlle Lavison-Bompard Marina Nicolas Thierry Guérin When considering the geographical expansion of marine toxins, the emergence of new toxins and the...
Fri, 09/14/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 376: Dietary Deoxynivalenol (DON) May Impair the Epithelial Barrier and Modulate the Cytokine Signaling in the Intestine of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090376 Authors: Torfinn Moldal Aksel Bernhoft Grethe Rosenlund Magne Kaldhusdal Erling Olaf Koppang Impaired growth, immunity, and intestinal barrier in mammals, poultry, and...
Thu, 09/13/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 372: A New Concept to Secure Food Safety Standards against Fusarium Species and Aspergillus Flavus and Their Toxins in Maize Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090372 Authors: Balazs Szabo Beata Toth Eva Toth Toldine Monika Varga Nandor Kovacs Janos Varga Sandor Kocsube Andrea Palagyi Ferenc Bagi Dragana Budakov Vera Stojšin Sanja Lazić Marija Bodroža-...
Mon, 09/10/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 366: Correction: Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B1. Toxins 2017, 9, 371 Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090366 Authors: Shahid Rajput Lvhui Sun Niya Zhang Mahmoud Khalil Xin...
Thu, 09/06/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 362: Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Occurrence in Non-Traditional Invertebrate Vectors from North Atlantic Waters (Azores, Madeira, and Morocco) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090362 Authors: Marisa Silva Verónica Rey Aldo Barreiro Manfred Kaufmann Ana Isabel Neto Meryem Hassouani Brahim Sabour Ana Botana Luis M. Botana Vitor Vasconcelos Paralytic...
Tue, 09/04/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 357: Fumonisin Distribution in Maize Dry-Milling Products and By-Products: Impact of Two Industrial Degermination Systems Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090357 Authors: Francesca Vanara Valentina Scarpino Massimo Blandino In temperate areas, the main limitation to the use of maize in the food chain is its contamination by B-series fumonisins (FBs) during...
Sat, 09/01/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 350: The Genotoxicity of Caecal Water in Gilts Exposed to Low Doses of Zearalenone Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090350 Authors: Katarzyna Cieplińska Magdalena Gajęcka Adriana Nowak Michał Dąbrowski Łukasz Zielonka Maciej T. Gajęcki Zearalenone is a toxic low-molecular-weight molecule that is naturally produced by moulds on crops as a secondary metabolite....
Sat, 09/01/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 351: Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)—Secreted Serine Protease EspP Stimulates Electrogenic Ion Transport in Human Colonoid Monolayers Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090351 Authors: C. Ming Tse Julie G. In Jianyi Yin Mark Donowitz Michele Doucet Jennifer Foulke-Abel Fernando Ruiz-Perez James P. Nataro Nicholas C. Zachos James B. Kaper Olga Kovbasnjuk...
Sat, 09/01/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 353: Interaction of 2′R-ochratoxin A with Serum Albumins: Binding Site, Effects of Site Markers, Thermodynamics, Species Differences of Albumin-binding, and Influence of Albumin on Its Toxicity in MDCK Cells Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090353 Authors: Zelma Faisal Diána Derdák Beáta Lemli Sándor Kunsági-Máté Mónika Bálint Csaba Hetényi Rita Csepregi Tamás...
Wed, 08/29/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 347: Colon Microbiome of Pigs Fed Diet Contaminated with Commercial Purified Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090347 Authors: Kondreddy Eswar Reddy Jin Young Jeong Jaeyong Song Yookyung Lee Hyun-Jeong Lee Dong-Wook Kim Hyun Jung Jung Ki Hyun Kim Minji Kim Young Kyoon Oh Sung Dae Lee Minseok Kim Deoxynivalenol (DON) and...
Wed, 08/29/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 348: A Risk Assessment of Aflatoxin M1 Exposure in Low and Mid-Income Dairy Consumers in Kenya Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090348 Authors: Sara Ahlberg Delia Grace Gideon Kiarie Yumi Kirino Johanna Lindahl Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a human carcinogen, is found in milk products and may have potentially severe health impacts on milk consumers. We assessed the risk...
Mon, 08/27/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 345: Effects of Nano-Composite Adsorbents on the Growth Performance, Serum Biochemistry, and Organ Weights of Broilers Fed with Aflatoxin-Contaminated Feed Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090345 Authors: Mookiah Saminathan Jinap Selamat Atena Abbasi Pirouz Norhani Abdullah Idrus Zulkifli The exploration of feed mycotoxin adsorbents to mitigate the adverse...
Sat, 08/25/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 344: Effective Adsorption of Patulin from Apple Juice by Using Non-Cytotoxic Heat-Inactivated Cells and Spores of Alicyclobacillus Strains Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090344 Authors: Marina Sajid Sajid Mehmood Chen Niu Yahong Yuan Tianli Yue Patulin (PAT) is a major threat to many food products, especially apple and apple products, causing human health risks...
Wed, 08/22/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 341: Clostridium perfringens Enterotoxin: The Toxin Forms Highly Cation-Selective Channels in Lipid Bilayers Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10090341 Authors: Roland Benz Michel R. Popoff One of the numerous toxins produced by Clostridium perfringens is Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (CPE), a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 35.5 kDa exhibiting three different...
Tue, 08/14/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 329: A Novel Sensitive Cell-Based Immunoenzymatic Assay for Palytoxin Quantitation in Mussels Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080329 Authors: Marco Pelin Silvio Sosa Valentina Brovedani Laura Fusco Mark Poli Aurelia Tubaro The marine algal toxin palytoxin (PLTX) and its analogues are some of the most toxic marine compounds. Their accumulation in edible marine...
Tue, 08/14/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 330: Biological Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 by Cell-Free Extracts of Bacillus velezensis DY3108 with Broad PH Stability and Excellent Thermostability Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080330 Authors: Xian Shu Yuting Wang Qing Zhou Minghao Li Hao Hu Yuhan Ma Xue Chen Jun Ni Weiwei Zhao Shengwei Huang Lifang Wu (1) Background: Aflatoxin contamination in...
Sat, 08/11/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 327: Feasibility of A Novel On-Site Detection Method for Aflatoxin in Maize Flour from Markets and Selected Households in Kampala, Uganda Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080327 Authors: Alex Paul Wacoo Deborah Wendiro Sarah Nanyonga Joseph F. Hawumba Wilbert Sybesma Remco Kort In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high demand for affordable and accessible methods...
Thu, 08/09/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 324: Human Poisoning from Marine Toxins: Unknowns for Optimal Consumer Protection Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080324 Authors: Natalia Vilariño M. Carmen Louzao Paula Abal Eva Cagide Cristina Carrera Mercedes R. Vieytes Luis M. Botana Marine biotoxins are produced by aquatic microorganisms and accumulate in shellfish or finfish following the food web....
Mon, 08/06/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 316: Low Doses of Ochratoxin-A Decrease IgY and IgA Production in Broiler Chicks Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080316 Authors: Shahzad A. Khan Emerson J. Venancio Eduardo V. Fernandes Elisa Y. Hirooka Alexandre Oba Karina K. M. C. Flaiban Eiko N. Itano The mycotoxin, ochratoxin-A (OTA), produced by some fungi, and is a natural contaminant of many foods and...
Mon, 08/06/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 319: Distribution Analysis of Twelve Mycotoxins in Corn and Corn-Derived Products by LC-MS/MS to Evaluate the Carry-Over Ratio during Wet-Milling Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080319 Authors: Juhee Park Dong-Ho Kim Ji-Young Moon Jin-Ah An Young-Woo Kim Soo-Hyun Chung Chan Lee This study investigated the distribution of twelve mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2...
Sat, 08/04/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 314: Accumulation and Biotransformation of Dinophysis Toxins by the Surf Clam Mesodesma donacium Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080314 Authors: Juan Blanco Gonzalo Álvarez José Rengel Rosario Díaz Carmen Mariño Helena Martín Eduardo Uribe Surf clams, Mesodesma donacium, were shown to accumulate toxins from Dinophysis acuminata blooms. Only pectenotoxin 2 (...

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