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Toxins

Tue, 08/14/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 329: A Novel Sensitive Cell-Based Immunoenzymatic Assay for Palytoxin Quantitation in Mussels Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080329 Authors: Marco Pelin Silvio Sosa Valentina Brovedani Laura Fusco Mark Poli Aurelia Tubaro The marine algal toxin palytoxin (PLTX) and its analogues are some of the most toxic marine compounds. Their accumulation in edible marine...
Tue, 08/14/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 330: Biological Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 by Cell-Free Extracts of Bacillus velezensis DY3108 with Broad PH Stability and Excellent Thermostability Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080330 Authors: Xian Shu Yuting Wang Qing Zhou Minghao Li Hao Hu Yuhan Ma Xue Chen Jun Ni Weiwei Zhao Shengwei Huang Lifang Wu (1) Background: Aflatoxin contamination in...
Sat, 08/11/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 327: Feasibility of A Novel On-Site Detection Method for Aflatoxin in Maize Flour from Markets and Selected Households in Kampala, Uganda Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080327 Authors: Alex Paul Wacoo Deborah Wendiro Sarah Nanyonga Joseph F. Hawumba Wilbert Sybesma Remco Kort In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high demand for affordable and accessible methods...
Thu, 08/09/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 324: Human Poisoning from Marine Toxins: Unknowns for Optimal Consumer Protection Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080324 Authors: Natalia Vilariño M. Carmen Louzao Paula Abal Eva Cagide Cristina Carrera Mercedes R. Vieytes Luis M. Botana Marine biotoxins are produced by aquatic microorganisms and accumulate in shellfish or finfish following the food web....
Mon, 08/06/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 316: Low Doses of Ochratoxin-A Decrease IgY and IgA Production in Broiler Chicks Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080316 Authors: Shahzad A. Khan Emerson J. Venancio Eduardo V. Fernandes Elisa Y. Hirooka Alexandre Oba Karina K. M. C. Flaiban Eiko N. Itano The mycotoxin, ochratoxin-A (OTA), produced by some fungi, and is a natural contaminant of many foods and...
Mon, 08/06/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 319: Distribution Analysis of Twelve Mycotoxins in Corn and Corn-Derived Products by LC-MS/MS to Evaluate the Carry-Over Ratio during Wet-Milling Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080319 Authors: Juhee Park Dong-Ho Kim Ji-Young Moon Jin-Ah An Young-Woo Kim Soo-Hyun Chung Chan Lee This study investigated the distribution of twelve mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2...
Sat, 08/04/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 314: Accumulation and Biotransformation of Dinophysis Toxins by the Surf Clam Mesodesma donacium Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080314 Authors: Juan Blanco Gonzalo Álvarez José Rengel Rosario Díaz Carmen Mariño Helena Martín Eduardo Uribe Surf clams, Mesodesma donacium, were shown to accumulate toxins from Dinophysis acuminata blooms. Only pectenotoxin 2 (...
Sat, 07/28/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 308: Detoxification- and Immune-Related Transcriptomic Analysis of Gills from Bay Scallops (Argopecten irradians) in Response to Algal Toxin Okadaic Acid Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10080308 Authors: Cheng Chi Sib Sankar Giri Jin Woo Jun Sang Wha Kim Hyoun Joong Kim Jeong Woo Kang Se Chang Park To reveal the molecular mechanisms triggered by okadaic acid (...
Tue, 07/17/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 296: Biomarker Evaluation and Toxic Effects of an Acute Oral and Systemic Fumonisin Exposure of Pigs with a Special Focus on Dietary Fumonisin Esterase Supplementation Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070296 Authors: Hanna Schertz Sven Dänicke Jana Frahm Dian Schatzmayr Ilse Dohnal Gerlinde Bichl Heidi E. Schwartz-Zimmermann Sonia Colicchia Gerhard Breves...
Mon, 07/16/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 293: Characterisation of the Mycobiota on the Shell Surface of Table Eggs Acquired from Different Egg-Laying Hen Breeding Systems Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070293 Authors: Łukasz Tomczyk Łukasz Stępień Monika Urbaniak Tomasz Szablewski Renata Cegielska-Radziejewska Kinga Stuper-Szablewska Microbial safety is an important factor contributing to the egg...
Mon, 07/16/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 294: Multi-Mycotoxin Occurrence in Dairy Cattle Feeds from the Gauteng Province of South Africa: A Pilot Study Using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070294 Authors: Rumbidzai Changwa Wilfred Abia Titus Msagati Hlengilizwe Nyoni Khanyisa Ndleve Patrick Njobeh The indispensable nature of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in agricultural systems is...
Thu, 07/12/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 288: Detection of the Potential Inactivation of Tetrodotoxin by Lactic Acid Bacterial Exopolysaccharide Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070288 Authors: Nguyen Hoang Khue Tu Nghe Van Dat Le Van Canh Doan Thi Thanh Vinh Screening for compounds that can neutralize the toxicity of tetrodotoxin (TTX) or reduce its negative effects is necessary. Our study tested the TTX...
Mon, 07/09/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 284: Toxicity Assay for Citrinin, Zearalenone and Zearalenone-14-Sulfate Using the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as Model Organism Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070284 Authors: Julia Keller Antje Borzekowski Hajo Haase Ralph Menzel Liliane Rueß Matthias Koch To keep pace with the rising number of detected mycotoxins, there is a growing need for fast and...
Fri, 07/06/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 282: Distribution of Tetrodotoxin in the New Zealand Clam, Paphies australis, Established Using Immunohistochemistry and Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070282 Authors: Laura Biessy Kirsty F. Smith Michael J. Boundy Stephen C. Webb Ian Hawes Susanna A. Wood Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is one of the most potent...
Thu, 07/05/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 279: Overview on the Mycotoxins Incidence in Serbia in the Period 2004–2016 Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070279 Authors: Bozidar Udovicki Kris Audenaert Sarah De Saeger Andreja Rajkovic With an average annual production of 6.9 M tonnes and 2.5 M tonnes of maize and wheat respectively, Serbia is one of the main grain producers and exporters in Europe. Cereals...
Wed, 07/04/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 276: Low Levels of Chito-Oligosaccharides Are Not Effective in Reducing Deoxynivalenol Toxicity in Swine Jejunal Explants Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070276 Authors: Juliana Gerez Letícia Buck Victor Hugo Marutani Caroline Maria Calliari Ana Paula Bracarense Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin that affects the intestinal morphology of animals, impairing...
Tue, 07/03/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 273: Effect of Suspended Particulate Matter on the Accumulation of Dissolved Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins by Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) under Laboratory Conditions Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070273 Authors: Aifeng Li Meihui Li Jiangbing Qiu Jialiang Song Ying Ji Yang Hu Shuqin Wang Yijia Che In recent years, detection of trace amounts of...
Tue, 07/03/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 274: Purification and Characterization of Native and Vaccine Candidate Mutant Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Stable Toxins Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070274 Authors: Morten L. Govasli Yuleima Diaz Ephrem Debebe Zegeye Christine Darbakk Arne M. Taxt Pål Puntervoll Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), which secretes the heat-stable toxin (ST) is...
Mon, 07/02/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 266: Oxygen Consumption Rate Analysis of Mitochondrial Dysfunction Caused by Bacillus cereus Cereulide in Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070266 Authors: Marlies Decleer Jelena Jovanovic Anita Vakula Bozidar Udovicki Rock-Seth E. K. Agoua Annemieke Madder Sarah De Saeger Andreja Rajkovic The emetic syndrome of Bacillus cereus is a...
Mon, 07/02/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 267: Comparison of Three Modelling Approaches for Predicting Deoxynivalenol Contamination in Winter Wheat Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070267 Authors: Cheng Liu Valentina Manstretta Vittorio Rossi H. J. van der Fels-Klerx Forecasting models for mycotoxins in cereal grains during cultivation are useful for pre-harvest and post-harvest mycotoxin management. Some...
Thu, 06/28/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 264: Toxicity of Ochratoxin to Early Life Stages of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070264 Authors: Linda Tschirren Seraina Siebenmann Constanze Pietsch Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a known contaminant in fish feed but its effect on fish health remains rather unknown. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations of...
Wed, 06/27/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 262: Transcriptome Analysis of C. elegans Reveals Novel Targets for DON Cytotoxicity Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070262 Authors: Rong Di Hanzhong Zhang Michael A. Lawton Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp. that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease in cereal crops. Ingestion of food contaminated with DON poses serious human health...
Sun, 06/24/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 258: Assessment of the Acute and Subchronic Toxicity and Mutagenicity of Sideritis scardica Griseb. Extracts Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070258 Authors: Björn Feistel Tankred Wegener Piotr Rzymski Ivo Pischel Sideritis scardica Griseb. has a long history of collection from the wild as a traditional remedy for respiratory and gastrointestinal complaints. It has...
Fri, 06/22/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 256: Interaction of Ochratoxin A and Its Thermal Degradation Product 2′R-Ochratoxin A with Human Serum Albumin Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10070256 Authors: Franziska Sueck Miklós Poór Zelma Faisal Christoph G. W. Gertzen Benedikt Cramer Beáta Lemli Sándor Kunsági-Máté Holger Gohlke Hans-Ulrich Humpf Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxic secondary metabolite...
Sun, 06/17/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 247: Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Bovine Mastitis in Eight Countries: Genotypes, Detection of Genes Encoding Different Toxins and Other Virulence Genes Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10060247 Authors: Valentina Monistero Hans Ulrich Graber Claudia Pollera Paola Cremonesi Bianca Castiglioni Enriqueta Bottini Alejandro Ceballos-Marquez Laura Lasso-Rojas...
Fri, 06/15/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 243: Evaluation of Mycotoxin Residues on Ready-to-Eat Food by Chromatographic Methods Coupled to Mass Spectrometry in Tandem Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10060243 Authors: Dionisia Carballo Guillermina Font Emilia Ferrer Houda Berrada Simultaneous determination of twenty-seven mycotoxins in ready-to-eat food samples using “Quick Easy Cheap Rough and...
Thu, 06/14/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 241: Toxins of Locus of Enterocyte Effacement-Negative Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10060241 Authors: Maike Krause Holger Barth Herbert Schmidt Studies on Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) typically examine and classify the virulence gene profiles based on genomic analyses. Among the screened strains, a subgroup of...
Thu, 06/14/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 242: Application of Low-Fermenting Yeast Lachancea thermotolerans for the Control of Toxigenic Fungi Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium verrucosum and Fusarium graminearum and Their Mycotoxins Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10060242 Authors: Randa Zeidan Zahoor Ul-Hassan Roda Al-Thani Virgilio Balmas Samir Jaoua Mycotoxins are important contaminants of food and...
Wed, 06/13/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 239: Monocyte Response to Different Campylobacter jejuni Lysates Involves Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and the Lysosomal–Mitochondrial Axis: When Cell Death Is Better Than Cell Survival Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10060239 Authors: Barbara Canonico Gianna Di Sario Erica Cesarini Raffaella Campana Francesca Luchetti Loris Zamai Claudio Ortolani Maria Gemma...
Wed, 06/06/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 232: Diel Variations in Cell Abundance and Trophic Transfer of Diarrheic Toxins during a Massive Dinophysis Bloom in Southern Brazil Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10060232 Authors: Thiago Pereira Alves Luiz Laureno Mafra Dinophysis spp. are a major source of diarrheic toxins to marine food webs, especially during blooms. This study documented the occurrence, in late...
Fri, 06/01/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 225: The Binary Toxin CDT of Clostridium difficile as a Tool for Intracellular Delivery of Bacterial Glucosyltransferase Domains Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10060225 Authors: Lara-Antonia Beer Helma Tatge Carmen Schneider Maximilian Ruschig Michael Hust Jessica Barton Stefan Thiemann Viola Fühner Giulio Russo Ralf Gerhard Binary toxins are produced...
Fri, 06/01/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 223: Fructo-Oligosaccharide (DFA III) Feed Supplementation for Mitigation of Mycotoxin Exposure in Cattle—Clinical Evaluation by a Urinary Zearalenone Monitoring System Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10060223 Authors: Katsuki Toda Seiichi Uno Emiko Kokushi Ayaka Shiiba Hiroshi Hasunuma Daisaku Matsumoto Masayuki Ohtani Osamu Yamato Urara Shinya Missaka...
Fri, 05/25/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 216: Removal of Zearalenone and Zearalenols from Aqueous Solutions Using Insoluble Beta-Cyclodextrin Bead Polymer Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10060216 Authors: Miklós Poór Zelma Faisal Afshin Zand Tímea Bencsik Beáta Lemli Sándor Kunsági-Máté Lajos Szente Zearalenone (ZEN) is a Fusarium-derived mycotoxin, exerting xenoestrogenic effects in animals and...
Thu, 05/24/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 214: Aflatoxin B1 and M1: Biological Properties and Their Involvement in Cancer Development Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10060214 Authors: Silvia Marchese Andrea Polo Andrea Ariano Salvatore Velotto Susan Costantini Lorella Severino Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites found in feeds and foods. When the ruminants eat feedstuffs containing Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1),...
Tue, 05/22/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 212: Mechanisms of Action and Cell Death Associated with Clostridium perfringens Toxins Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050212 Authors: Mauricio A. Navarro Bruce A. McClane Francisco A. Uzal Clostridium perfringens uses its large arsenal of protein toxins to produce histotoxic, neurologic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. The major toxins involved in...
Mon, 05/21/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 211: Development of a Highly Sensitive FcMito qPCR Assay for the Quantification of the Toxigenic Fungal Plant Pathogen Fusarium culmorum Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050211 Authors: Katarzyna Bilska Tomasz Kulik Anna Ostrowska-Kołodziejczak Maciej Buśko Matias Pasquali Marco Beyer Anna Baturo-Cieśniewska Marcin Juda Dariusz Załuski Kinga Treder Joerg...
Sun, 05/20/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 209: Acid Sphingomyelinase Promotes Cellular Internalization of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050209 Authors: Masahiro Nagahama Masaya Takehara Kazuaki Miyamoto Kazumi Ishidoh Keiko Kobayashi Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin is a binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin composed of the enzymatic component Ia and receptor binding...
Tue, 05/15/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 199: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Boulardii Reduces the Deoxynivalenol-Induced Alteration of the Intestinal Transcriptome Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050199 Authors: Imourana Alassane-Kpembi Philippe Pinton Jean-François Hupé Manon Neves Yannick Lippi Sylvie Combes Mathieu Castex Isabelle Oswald Type B trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of...
Tue, 05/15/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 200: High Production of LukMF’ in Staphylococcus aureus Field Strains Is Associated with Clinical Bovine Mastitis Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050200 Authors: Jurriaan Hoekstra Victor Rutten Laura Sommeling Tine van Werven Mirlin Spaninks Birgitta Duim Lindert Benedictus Gerrit Koop Staphylococcus aureus, a major cause of bovine mastitis, produces a...
Sat, 05/12/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 198: Label-Free G-Quadruplex Aptamer Fluorescence Assay for Ochratoxin A Using a Thioflavin T Probe Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050198 Authors: Kefeng Wu Changbei Ma Han Zhao Hailun He Hanchun Chen Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most common mycotoxins contaminating feed and foodstuffs. Therefore, a great deal of concern is associated with AFB1 toxicity. In...
Fri, 05/11/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 195: Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype FA, Also Known as Serotype H Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050195 Authors: Gavin Hackett Kevin Moore David Burgin Fraser Hornby Bryony Gray Mark Elliott Imran Mir Matthew Beard We have purified and characterized recombinant botulinum neurotoxin serotype FA (BoNT/FA). This...
Fri, 05/11/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 196: Electrochemical Immunosensor for Detection of Aflatoxin B1 Based on Indirect Competitive ELISA Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050196 Authors: Farah Azri Rashidah Sukor Jinap Selamat Fatimah Abu Bakar Nor Yusof Reza Hajian Mycotoxins are the secondary toxic metabolites produced naturally by fungi. Analysis of mycotoxins is essential to minimize the...
Fri, 05/11/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 197: Designed Strategies for Fluorescence-Based Biosensors for the Detection of Mycotoxins Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050197 Authors: Atul Sharma Reem Khan Gaelle Catanante Tauqir Sherazi Sunil Bhand Akhtar Hayat Jean Marty Small molecule toxins such as mycotoxins with low molecular weight are the most widely studied biological toxins. These biological...
Thu, 05/10/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 189: Tissue Distribution and Elimination of Ciguatoxins in Tridacna maxima (Tridacnidae, Bivalvia) Fed Gambierdiscus polynesiensis Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050189 Authors: Mélanie Roué Hélène Taiana Darius André Ung Jérôme Viallon Manoella Sibat Philipp Hess Zouher Amzil Mireille Chinain Ciguatera is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of...
Thu, 05/10/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 192: Transcriptomic Analysis of Ciguatoxin-Induced Changes in Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Mice Cortical Neurons Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050192 Authors: Juan Andrés Rubiolo Carmen Vale Andrea Boente-Juncal Masahiro Hirama Shuji Yamashita Mercedes Camiña Mercedes R. Vieytes Luis M. Botana Ciguatoxins are polyether marine toxins that act as...
Tue, 05/08/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 188: Chronic Effects of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Rations with or without Increased Concentrate Proportion on the Insulin Sensitivity in Lactating Dairy Cows Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050188 Authors: Asako Kinoshita Christina Keese Ulrich Meyer Alexander Starke Christine Wrenzycki Sven Dänicke Jürgen Rehage The objective of this study was to investigate...
Mon, 05/07/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 187: Metabolites Identified during Varied Doses of Aspergillus Species in Zea mays Grains, and Their Correlation with Aflatoxin Levels Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050187 Authors: Titilayo D. O. Falade Panagiotis K. Chrysanthopoulos Mark P. Hodson Yasmina Sultanbawa Mary Fletcher Ross Darnell Sam Korie Glen Fox Aflatoxin contamination is associated with...
Thu, 05/03/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 89: Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050089 Authors: Nancy Nleya Modupeade Adetunji Mulunda Mwanza Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds,...
Wed, 05/02/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 184: Zearalenone Promotes Cell Proliferation or Causes Cell Death? Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050184 Authors: Wanglong Zheng Bingjie Wang Xi Li Tao Wang Hui Zou Jianhong Gu Yan Yuan Xuezhong Liu Jianfa Bai Jianchun Bian Zongping Liu Zearalenone (ZEA), one of the mycotoxins, exerts different mechanisms of toxicity in different cell types at...
Tue, 05/01/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 183: Ergot Alkaloids at Doses Close to EU Regulatory Limits Induce Alterations of the Liver and Intestine Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050183 Authors: Viviane Mayumi Maruo Ana Paula Bracarense Jean-Paul Metayer Maria Vilarino Isabelle P. Oswald Philippe Pinton An increase in the occurrence of ergot alkaloids (EAs) contamination has been observed in North...

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