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Toxins

Sun, 04/21/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 231: CesH Represses Cereulide Synthesis as an Alpha/Beta Fold Hydrolase in Bacillus cereus Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040231 Authors: Shen Tian Hairong Xiong Peiling Geng Zhiming Yuan Xiaomin Hu Cereulide is notorious as a heat-stable emetic toxin produced by Bacillus cereus and glucose is supposed to be an ingredient supporting its formation. This study...
Thu, 04/18/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 229: Dehydrocrenatidine Inhibits Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels and Ameliorates Mechanic Allodia in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040229 Authors: Fang Zhao Qinglian Tang Jian Xu Shuangyan Wang Shaoheng Li Xiaohan Zou Zhengyu Cao Picrasma quassioides (D. Don) Benn, a medical plant, is used in clinic to treat inflammation, pain...
Tue, 04/16/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 227: Mycotoxins during the Processes of Nixtamalization and Tortilla Production Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040227 Authors: Sara Schaarschmidt Carsten Fauhl-Hassek Tortillas are a traditional staple food in Mesoamerican cuisine, which have also become popular on a global level, e.g., for wraps or as snacks (tortilla chips). Traditional tortilla production includes...
Mon, 04/15/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 224: Occurrence of Mycotoxigenic Fusarium Species and Competitive Fungi on Preharvest Maize Ear Rot in Poland Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040224 Authors: Karolina Gromadzka Lidia Błaszczyk Jerzy Chełkowski Agnieszka Waśkiewicz Maize has become one of the most important crops for food and feed production—both as a silage and crop residue worldwide...
Mon, 04/15/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 225: Application of an Endothelial Cell Culture Assay for the Detection of Neutralizing Anti-Clostridium Perfringens Beta-Toxin Antibodies in a Porcine Vaccination Trial Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040225 Authors: Olivia K. Richard Sven Springer Jacqueline Finzel Tobias Theuß Marianne Wyder Beatriz Vidondo Horst Posthaus Background: Beta-toxin (CPB) is...
Sat, 04/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 221: An Attempt to Characterize the Ciguatoxin Profile in Seriola fasciata Causing Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Macaronesia Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040221 Authors: Pablo Estevez David Castro Ana Pequeño-Valtierra José M. Leao Oscar Vilariño Jorge Diogène Ana Gago-Martínez Ciguatera Fish Poisoning is a worldwide concern caused by the consumption of...
Sat, 04/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 222: Development and Validation of a Liquid Chromatography High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Mycotoxins and Phytoestrogens in Plant-Based Fish Feed and Exposed Fish Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040222 Authors: Johny Fæste Bogevik Berge Fernandes Ivanova New protein sources in fish feed require the...
Fri, 04/12/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 219: Mycotoxin Decontamination Efficacy of Atmospheric Pressure Air Plasma Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040219 Authors: Nataša Hojnik Martina Modic Gabrijela Tavčar-Kalcher Janja Babič James L. Walsh Uroš Cvelbar Mycotoxins, the toxic secondary metabolites of mould species, are a growing global concern, rendering almost 25% of all food produced unfit for...
Wed, 04/10/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 215: Fumonisin Production by Fusarium verticillioides in Maize Genotypes Cultivated in Different Environments Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040215 Authors: Oelton Ferreira Rosa Junior Mateus Sunti Dalcin Vitor L. Nascimento Fernando Machado Haesbaert Talita Pereira de Souza Ferreira Rodrigo Ribeiro Fidelis Renato de Almeida Sarmento Raimundo Wagner de Souza...
Wed, 04/10/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 217: Assessment of Toxic Effects of Ochratoxin A in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040217 Authors: Slaven Erceg Eva María Mateo Iván Zipancic Francisco Javier Rodríguez Jiménez María Amparo Pérez Aragó Misericordia Jiménez José Miguel Soria Mª Ángeles Garcia-Esparza Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by different...
Tue, 04/09/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 212: Roles of Shiga Toxins in Immunopathology Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040212 Authors: Moo-Seung Lee Vernon L. Tesh Shigella species and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are agents of bloody diarrhea that may progress to potentially lethal complications such as diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS) and neurological disorders. The...
Tue, 04/09/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 214: Fluorescence Spectroscopic Investigation of Competitive Interactions between Quercetin and Aflatoxin B1 for Binding to Human Serum Albumin Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040214 Authors: Tan Chen Ma Liu Zhou Zhang Guo Liu Dai Yu Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic mycotoxin found worldwide in cereals, food, and animal feeds. AFB1 binds...
Mon, 04/08/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 211: 15N Stable Isotope Labeling PSTs in Alexandrium minutum for Application of PSTs as Biomarker Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040211 Authors: Xie Li Song Zhang Hu Liang Yang The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum (A. minutum) which can produce paralyticshellfish toxins (PSTs) is often used as a model to study the migration, biotransformation,...
Sat, 04/06/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 207: Cholera Toxin Encapsulated within Several Vibrio cholerae O1 Serotype Inaba Outer Membrane Vesicles Lacks a Functional B-Subunit Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040207 Authors: Elnaz S. Rasti Angela C. Brown Cholera toxin (CT), the major virulence factor of Vibrio cholerae, is an AB5 toxin secreted through the type II secretion system (T2SS). Upon secretion, the...
Fri, 04/05/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 204: A Hylarana latouchii Skin Secretion-Derived Novel Bombesin-Related Pentadecapeptide (Ranatensin-HLa) Evoke Myotropic Effects on the in vitro Rat Smooth Muscles Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040204 Authors: Yan Lin Nan Hu Haoyang He Chengbang Ma Mei Zhou Lei Wang Tianbao Chen Amphibians have developed successful defensive strategies for combating...
Fri, 04/05/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 205: Exposure Assessment and Risk Characterization of Aflatoxin M1 Intake through Consumption of Milk and Yoghurt by Student Population in Serbia and Greece Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040205 Authors: Bozidar Udovicki Ilija Djekic Eleni P. Kalogianni Andreja Rajkovic The objective of this research was to perform an exposure assessment of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1)...
Tue, 04/02/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 198: The Pressure of Fusarium Disease and Its Relation with Mycotoxins in The Wheat Grain and Malt Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040198 Authors: Valentina Spanic Zvonimir Zdunic Georg Drezner Bojan Sarkanj Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most destructive wheat fungal diseases, causing yield loss, quality reduction, and accumulation of mycotoxins. The...
Sun, 03/31/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 196: Detection of Five Mycotoxins in Different Food Matrices in the Malaysian Market by Using Validated Liquid Chromatography Electrospray Ionization Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040196 Authors: Ali Mohamed Ali Alsharif Yeun-Mun Choo Guan-Huat Tan Mycotoxins are common food contaminants which cause poisoning and severe health...
Sat, 03/30/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 190: Nasal Colonization of Humans with Occupational Exposure to Raw Meat and to Raw Meat Products with Methicillin-Susceptible and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040190 Authors: Christiane Cuny Franziska Layer Sonja Hansen Guido Werner Wolfgang Witte Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA...
Sat, 03/30/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 192: Candida utilis ATCC 9950 Cell Walls and β(1,3)/(1,6)-Glucan Preparations Produced Using Agro-Waste as a Mycotoxins Trap Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040192 Authors: Anna Bzducha-Wróbel Marcin Bryła Iwona Gientka Stanisław Błażejak Monika Janowicz Mycotoxins are harmful contaminants of food and feed worldwide. Feed additives with the abilities to trap...
Fri, 03/29/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 188: Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Surf Clams Mesodesma donacium during a Large Bloom of Alexandrium catenella Dinoflagellates Associated to an Intense Shellfish Mass Mortality Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040188 Authors: Gonzalo Álvarez Patricio A. Díaz Marcos Godoy Michael Araya Iranzu Ganuza Roberto Pino Francisco Álvarez José Rengel Cristina Hernández...
Fri, 03/29/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 189: Dinophysis Species and Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins: 20 Years of Monitoring Program in Andalusia, South of Spain Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040189 Authors: Fernández Mamán Jaén Fernández Fuentes Ocaña Gordillo In Andalusia, the official monitoring program for toxic phytoplankton and marine biotoxins was launched in 1994 to comply with European...
Thu, 03/28/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 184: Optimized Analysis of Ergot Alkaloids in Rye Products by Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Detection Applying Lysergic Acid Diethylamide as an Internal Standard Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040184 Authors: Iris Holderied Michael Rychlik Paul Elsinghorst Analysis of ergot alkaloids remains a topic of importance and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)...
Thu, 03/28/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 187: Biomarkers for Exposure as A Tool for Efficacy Testing of A Mycotoxin Detoxifier in Broiler Chickens and Pigs Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040187 Authors: Lauwers Croubels Letor Gougoulias Devreese Applying post-harvest control measures such as adding mycotoxin detoxifying agents is a frequently-used mitigation strategy for mycotoxins. EFSA states...
Mon, 03/25/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 180: Reduction of Mycotoxins during Fermentation of Whole Grain Sorghum to Whole Grain Ting (a Southern African Food) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030180 Authors: Oluwafemi Ayodeji Adebo Eugenie Kayitesi Patrick Berka Njobeh Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites that pose health risks to exposed individuals, requiring necessary measures to reduce them....
Sat, 03/23/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 176: Harmful Effects and Control Strategies of Aflatoxin B1 Produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus Strains on Poultry: Review Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030176 Authors: Ahmed Mohamed Fouad Dong Ruan HebatAllah Kasem El-Senousey Wei Chen Shouqun Jiang Chuntian Zheng The presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in poultry diets decreases the...
Sat, 03/23/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 177: Targeted Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Clostridium perfringens Toxins Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030177 Authors: Miloslava Duracova Jana Klimentova Alena Myslivcova Fucikova Lenka Zidkova Valeria Sheshko Helena Rehulkova Jiri Dresler Zuzana Krocova Targeted proteomics recently proved to be a technique for the detection and absolute quantification...
Tue, 03/19/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 171: Multi LC-MS/MS and LC-HRMS Methods for Determination of 24 Mycotoxins including Major Phase I and II Biomarker Metabolites in Biological Matrices from Pigs and Broiler Chickens Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030171 Authors: Marianne Lauwers Siegrid De Baere Ben Letor Michael Rychlik Siska Croubels Mathias Devreese A reliable and practical multi-method...
Sun, 03/17/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 166: Development of Sensitive and Reliable UPLC-MS/MS Methods for Food Analysis of Emerging Mycotoxins in China Total Diet Study Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030166 Authors: Danlei Sun Nannan Qiu Shuang Zhou Bing Lyu Shuo Zhang Jingguang Li Yunfeng Zhao Yongning Wu With the climatic changes that have taken place during the last decade, the spectrum of...
Sat, 03/16/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 165: Variation of Fungal Metabolites in Sorghum Malts Used to Prepare Namibian Traditional Fermented Beverages Omalodu and Otombo Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030165 Authors: Sylvia N. Nafuka Jane M. Misihairabgwi Ronnie Bock Anthony Ishola Michael Sulyok Rudolf Krska Sorghum malts, which are important ingredients in traditional fermented beverages, are...
Fri, 03/15/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 163: Study on Trichothecene and Zearalenone Presence in Romanian Wheat Relative to Weather Conditions Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030163 Authors: Oana Stanciu Cristina Juan Houda Berrada Doina Miere Felicia Loghin Jordi Mañes To evaluate the influence of weather conditions on mycotoxin presence in wheat, deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3AcDON...
Wed, 03/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 159: Effects of Mycotoxins on the Intestine Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030159 Authors: Imourana Alassane-Kpembi Philippe Pinton Isabelle P. Oswald The gastrointestinal tract is the first physiological barrier against food contaminants, as well as the first target for these toxicants [...]
Wed, 03/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 160: Natural Occurrence and Co-Contamination of Twelve Mycotoxins in Industry-Submitted Cool-Season Cereal Grains Grown under a Low Heat Unit Climate Condition Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030160 Authors: Haitao Shi Warren Schwab Peiqiang Yu This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of mycotoxins in industry-submitted cool-season barley and wheat grown under low...
Wed, 03/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 161: Efficacy of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 Biodegradation Product for the Reduction of the Milk Aflatoxin M1 Content of Dairy Cows Exposed to Aflatoxin B1 Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030161 Authors: Yongpeng Guo Yong Zhang Chen Wei Qiugang Ma Cheng Ji Jianyun Zhang Lihong Zhao This study was conducted to determine the effect of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060...
Sun, 03/10/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 157: Proanthocyanidins Alleviates AflatoxinB1-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis through Mitochondrial Pathway in the Bursa of Fabricius of Broilers Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030157 Authors: Shahid Ali Rajput Cong Zhang Yue Feng Xiao Tian Wei Mahmoud Mohamed Khalil Imran Rashid Rajput Dost Muhammad Baloch Aftab Shaukat Nasir Rajput Hammad Qamar...
Tue, 03/05/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 147: The Beneficial and Debilitating Effects of Environmental and Microbial Toxins, Drugs, Organic Solvents and Heavy Metals on the Onset and Progression of Multiple Sclerosis Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030147 Authors: Mahmood Y. Hachim Noha M. Elemam Azzam A. Maghazachi Multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system is...
Tue, 03/05/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 149: Preclinical Assessment of a New Polyvalent Antivenom (Inoserp Europe) against Several Species of the Subfamily Viperinae Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030149 Authors: Alejandro García-Arredondo Michel Martínez Arlene Calderón Asunción Saldívar Raúl Soria The European continent is inhabited by medically important venomous Viperinae snakes. Vipera ammodytes...
Tue, 03/05/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 150: Occurrence and Exposure Assessment of Aflatoxins and Deoxynivalenol in Cereal-Based Baby Foods for Infants Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030150 Authors: Herrera Bervis Carramiñana Juan Herrera Ariño Lorán Aflatoxins are carcinogenic to humans and deoxynivalenol causes digestive disorders, and both mycotoxins occur frequently in cereal-based...
Fri, 03/01/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 138: Two Clostridium perfringens Type E Isolates in France Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030138 Authors: Laure Diancourt Jean Sautereau Alexis Criscuolo Michel R. Popoff Clostridium perfringens type E is a less frequently isolated C. perfringens type and has not previously been reported in France. We have characterized two recent type E isolates, C. perfringens...
Thu, 02/28/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 134: Correction: Ingenbleek, L. et al. Regional Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study in Benin, Cameroon, Mali, and Nigeria Reveals the Presence of 164 Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Foods Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11030134 Authors: Luc Ingenbleek Michael Sulyok Abimbola Adegboye Sètondji Epiphane Hossou Abdoulaye Zié Koné Awoyinka Dada Oyedele...
Sat, 02/23/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 132: Modulation of Mucin (MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC5B) mRNA Expression and Protein Production and Secretion in Caco-2/HT29-MTX Co-Cultures Following Exposure to Individual and Combined Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11020132 Authors: Xin Huang Yanan Gao Songli Li Chenqing Wu Jiaqi Wang Nan Zheng Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA...
Wed, 02/20/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 128: The Diversified O-Superfamily in Californiconus californicus Presents a Conotoxin with Antimycobacterial Activity Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11020128 Authors: Johanna Bernáldez-Sarabia Andrea Figueroa-Montiel Salvador Dueñas Karla Cervantes-Luévano Jesús A. Beltrán Ernesto Ortiz Samanta Jiménez Lourival D. Possani Jorge F. Paniagua-Solís Jorge...
Mon, 02/18/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 122: Dynamic Ochratoxin A Production by Strains of Aspergillus niger Intended Used in Food Industry of China Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11020122 Authors: Xiaomin Han Hongru Jiang Fengqin Li Thirty strains of Aspergillus niger, including 27 intended used in the food industry of China, were studied for their ochratoxin A (OTA) production on the three natural...
Sat, 02/16/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 121: Evaluation of Cellulosic Polymers and Curcumin to Reduce Aflatoxin B1 Toxic Effects on Performance, Biochemical, and Immunological Parameters of Broiler Chickens Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11020121 Authors: Bruno Solis-Cruz Daniel Hernandez-Patlan Victor M. Petrone Karine P. Pontin Juan D. Latorre Eric Beyssac Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco Ruben Merino-...
Wed, 02/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 109: Biocontrol of Aspergillus and Fusarium Mycotoxins in Africa: Benefits and Limitations Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11020109 Authors: Victor Kagot Sheila Okoth Marthe De Boevre Sarah De Saeger Fungal contamination and the consequent mycotoxin production is a hindrance to food and feed safety, international trade and human and animal health. In Africa, fungal...
Wed, 02/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 110: Aflatoxin Contamination of Milk Marketed in Pakistan: A Longitudinal Study Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11020110 Authors: Agha Waqar Yunus Nida Imtiaz Haider Khan Mohammed Nawaz Mohammed Ibrahim Yusuf Zafar A longitudinal one-year study was conducted to determine aflatoxin M1 levels in different types of milk marketed in Pakistan. Processed and raw liquid...
Wed, 02/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 112: The Effect of Probiotic Supplementation on Performance and the Histopathological Changes in Liver and Kidneys in Broiler Chickens Fed Diets with Aflatoxin B1 Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11020112 Authors: Katarzyna Śliżewska Bożena Cukrowska Stefania Smulikowska Joanna Cielecka-Kuszyk The aim of the study was to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1...
Wed, 02/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 114: Developmental Toxicity of Mycotoxin Fumonisin B1 in Animal Embryogenesis: An Overview Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11020114 Authors: Lumsangkul Chiang Lo Fan Ju A teratogenic agent or teratogen can disturb the development of an embryo or a fetus. Fumonisin B1 (FB1), produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum, is among the most commonly...
Tue, 02/12/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 106: A Recurrent Motif: Diversity and Evolution of ShKT Domain Containing Proteins in the Vampire Snail Cumia reticulata Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11020106 Authors: Marco Gerdol Manuela Cervelli Paolo Mariottini Marco Oliverio Sébastien Dutertre Maria Vittoria Modica Proteins of the ShK superfamily are characterized by a small conserved domain (ShKT),...
Sat, 02/09/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 100: Intact Staphylococcus Enterotoxin SEB from Culture Supernatant Detected by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11020100 Authors: Tonacini Stephan Vogel Avondet Kalman Crovadore Lefort Schnyder Routine identification of pathogens by MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry...

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