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Toxins

Sat, 02/17/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 86: Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020086 Authors: Esther Garcia-Cela Elsa Kiaitsi Michael Sulyok Angel Medina Naresh Magan Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from...
Sat, 02/17/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 87: An On-Site Simultaneous Semi-quantification of Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, and T-2 Toxin in Maize- and Cereal-based Feed via Multicolor Immunochromatographic Assay Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020087 Authors: Lin Xu Zhaowei Zhang Qi Zhang Wen Zhang Li Yu Du Wang Hui Li Peiwu Li Multiple-mycotoxin contamination has been frequently found in the agro-...
Tue, 02/13/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 81: Natural Occurrence of Nivalenol, Deoxynivalenol, and Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside in Polish Winter Wheat Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020081 Authors: Marcin Bryła Edyta Ksieniewicz-Woźniak Agnieszka Waśkiewicz Krystyna Szymczyk Renata Jędrzejczak The presence of mycotoxins in cereal grain is a very important food safety factor. The occurrence of “masked”...
Sun, 02/11/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 78: Natural Contamination with Mycotoxins Produced by Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium poae in Malting Barley in Argentina Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020078 Authors: María Nogueira Julieta Decundo Mauro Martinez Susana Dieguez Federico Moreyra Maria Moreno Sebastian Stenglein Two of the most common species of toxin-producing Fusarium contaminating...
Sun, 02/11/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 79: Listeriolysin O Causes ENaC Dysfunction in Human Airway Epithelial Cells Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020079 Authors: Guang Yang Helena Pillich Richard White Istvan Czikora Isabelle Pochic Qiang Yue Martina Hudel Boris Gorshkov Alexander Verin Supriya Sridhar Carlos Isales Douglas Eaton Jürg Hamacher Trinad Chakraborty Rudolf Lucas...
Sat, 02/10/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 77: Multiple Mycotoxins in Rice: Occurrence and Health Risk Assessment in Children and Adults of Punjab, Pakistan Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020077 Authors: Saima Majeed Marthe De Boevre Sarah De Saeger Waqar Rauf Abdul Tawab Fazal-e-Habib Moazur Rahman Mazhar Iqbal Mycotoxin contamination in rice can create a health risk for the consumers. In this...
Thu, 02/08/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 75: Preparation of Monoclonal Antibody for Brevetoxin 1 and Development of Ic-ELISA and Colloidal Gold Strip to Detect Brevetoxin 1 Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020075 Authors: Sumei Ling Shiwei Xiao Chengjie Xie Rongzhi Wang Linmao Zeng Ke Wang Danping Zhang Xiulan Li Shihua Wang Brevetoxin-1 (BTX-1), a marine toxin mostly produced by the...
Tue, 02/06/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 71: Chemometric Analysis of the Volatile Compounds Generated by Aspergillus carbonarius Strains Isolated from Grapes and Dried Vine Fruits Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020071 Authors: Zhan Cheng Menghua Li Philip Marriott Xiaoxu Zhang Shiping Wang Jiangui Li Liyan Ma Ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in grape production is an important problem worldwide....
Fri, 02/02/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 64: Selective Closed-State Nav1.7 Blocker JZTX-34 Exhibits Analgesic Effects against Pain Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020064 Authors: Xiongzhi Zeng Pengpeng Li Bo Chen Juan Huang Ren Lai Jingze Liu Mingqiang Rong Jingzhaotoxin-34 (JZTX-34) is a selective inhibitor of tetrodotoxin-sensitive (TTX-S) sodium channels. In this study, we found that JZTX-34...
Mon, 01/29/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 56: Interacting Environmental Stress Factors Affects Targeted Metabolomic Profiles in Stored Natural Wheat and That Inoculated with F. graminearum Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020056 Authors: Esther Garcia-Cela Elisavet Kiaitsi Angel Medina Michael Sulyok Rudolf Krska Naresh Magan Changes in environmental stress impact on secondary metabolite (SM)...
Fri, 01/26/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 54: Data Analyses and Modelling for Risk Based Monitoring of Mycotoxins in Animal Feed Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020054 Authors: H.J. van der Fels-Klerx Paulien Adamse Ans Punt Esther van Asselt Following legislation, European Member States should have multi-annual control programs for contaminants, such as for mycotoxins, in feed and food. These programs...
Tue, 01/23/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 49: Effects of Zearalenone Exposure on the TGF-β1/Smad3 Signaling Pathway and the Expression of Proliferation or Apoptosis Related Genes of Post-Weaning Gilts Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020049 Authors: Min Zhou Lijie Yang Minghui Shao Yuxi Wang Weiren Yang Libo Huang Xuemei Zhou Shuzhen Jiang Zaibin Yang Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic toxin...
Tue, 01/23/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 50: Assessment of Urinary Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in UK Children and Adolescents Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020050 Authors: Maria Papageorgiou Liz Wells Courtney Williams Kay White Barbara De Santis Yunru Liu Francesca Debegnach Brunella Miano Giorgio Moretti Stephanie Greetham Carlo Brera Stephen Atkin Laura Hardie Thozhukat Sathyapalan...
Tue, 01/23/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 52: Toxicodynamics of Mycotoxins in the Framework of Food Risk Assessment—An In Silico Perspective Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020052 Authors: Luca Dellafiora Chiara Dall’Asta Gianni Galaverna Mycotoxins severely threaten the health of humans and animals. For this reason, many countries have enforced regulations and recommendations to reduce the dietary exposure...
Sat, 01/20/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 47: Responses of Oat Grains to Fusarium poae and F. langsethiae Infections and Mycotoxin Contaminations Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10010047 Authors: Charlotte Martin Torsten Schöneberg Susanne Vogelgsang Carla Mendes Ferreira Romina Morisoli Mario Bertossa Thomas Bucheli Brigitte Mauch-Mani Fabio Mascher Recent increases of Fusarium head blight (FHB)...
Thu, 01/18/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 45: Chronic Dietary Intake of Enniatin B in Broiler Chickens Has Low Impact on Intestinal Morphometry and Hepatic Histology, and Shows Limited Transfer to Liver Tissue Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10010045 Authors: Sophie Fraeyman Siska Croubels Mathias Devreese Richard Ducatelle Michael Rychlik Gunther Antonissen The Fusarium mycotoxin enniatin B (ENN B) is...
Sat, 01/13/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 42: Comparative Response of the Hepatic Transcriptomes of Domesticated and Wild Turkey to Aflatoxin B1 Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10010042 Authors: Kent Reed Kristelle Mendoza Juan Abrahante Roger Coulombe The food-borne mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) poses a significant risk to poultry, which are highly susceptible to its hepatotoxic effects. Domesticated...
Wed, 01/10/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 38: Updated Overview of Infrared Spectroscopy Methods for Detecting Mycotoxins on Cereals (Corn, Wheat, and Barley) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10010038 Authors: Cecile Levasseur-Garcia Each year, mycotoxins cause economic losses of several billion US dollars worldwide. Consequently, methods must be developed, for producers and cereal manufacturers, to detect these...
Fri, 01/05/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 30: Biological Control Products for Aflatoxin Prevention in Italy: Commercial Field Evaluation of Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Active Ingredients Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10010030 Authors: Antonio Mauro Esther Garcia-Cela Amedeo Pietri Peter Cotty Paola Battilani Since 2003, non-compliant aflatoxin concentrations have been detected in maize produced in...
Thu, 01/04/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 28: Determination of Multi-Class Mycotoxins in Tartary Buckwheat by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10010028 Authors: Guixing Ren Yichen Hu Jinming Zhang Liang Zou Gang Zhao Considering crops are susceptible to toxicogenic fungi during plantation, pre-processing and storage, an ultra...
Mon, 01/01/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 24: ROS-Mediated Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis Induced by Zearalenone in Mouse Sertoli Cells via ER Stress and the ATP/AMPK Pathway Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10010024 Authors: Wang-Long Zheng Bing-Jie Wang Ling Wang Yu-Ping Shan Hui Zou Rui-Long Song Tao Wang Jian-Hong Gu Yan Yuan Xue-Zhong Liu Guo-Qiang Zhu Jian-Fa Bai Zong-Ping Liu Jian-...
Wed, 12/27/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 13: Modulation of Intestinal Epithelial Permeability in Differentiated Caco-2 Cells Exposed to Aflatoxin M1 and Ochratoxin A Individually or Collectively Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10010013 Authors: Yanan Gao Songli Li Jiaqi Wang Chaochao Luo Shengguo Zhao Nan Zheng Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins commonly found in milk; however,...
Wed, 12/27/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 17: Effects of Fusarium Head Blight on Wheat Grain and Malt Infected by Fusarium culmorum Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10010017 Authors: Valentina Spanic Tihana Marcek Ivan Abicic Bojan Sarkanj Fusarium head blight is a destructive disease of cereals worldwide. The aim of this research was to study the effect of heavy Fusarium infection with Fusarium culmorum and...
Fri, 12/22/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 4: Individual and Combined Effects of Fumonisin B1, Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Hepatic and Renal Membrane Lipid Integrity of Rats Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10010004 Authors: András Szabó Judit Szabó-Fodor Hedvig Fébel Miklós Mézes Krisztián Balogh György Bázár Dániel Kocsó Omeralfaroug Ali Melinda Kovács (1) Background and (2) Methods: A...
Fri, 12/22/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 5: Carbon Dioxide Mediates the Response to Temperature and Water Activity Levels in Aspergillus flavus during Infection of Maize Kernels Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10010005 Authors: Matthew Gilbert Angel Medina Brian Mack Matthew Lebar Alicia Rodríguez Deepak Bhatnagar Naresh Magan Gregory Obrian Gary Payne Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus...
Thu, 12/21/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 1: High Incidence and Levels of Ochratoxin A in Wines Sourced from the United States Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10010001 Authors: Christopher De Jesus Amanda Bartley Aaron Welch John Berry Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most prevalent mycotoxin contaminants of food crops. Among the agricultural products consequently contaminated by OTA is wine. In the present...
Thu, 12/21/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 2: Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Detection of Pacific Ciguatoxins in Toxic Samples from Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10010002 Authors: Hélène Darius Mélanie Roué Manoella Sibat Jérôme Viallon Clémence Gatti Mark Vandersea Patricia Tester R. Litaker Zouher Amzil Philipp...
Wed, 12/20/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 408: Microbial Inhibition of Fusarium Pathogens and Biological Modification of Trichothecenes in Cereal Grains Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9120408 Authors: Urszula Wachowska Danuta Packa Marian Wiwart Fungi of the genus Fusarium infect cereal crops during the growing season and cause head blight and other diseases. Their toxic secondary metabolites (mycotoxins)...
Wed, 12/20/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 407: Food-Borne Outbreak Investigation and Molecular Typing: High Diversity of Staphylococcus aureus Strains and Importance of Toxin Detection Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9120407 Authors: Sarah Denayer Laurence Delbrassinne Yacine Nia Nadine Botteldoorn Staphylococcus aureus is an important aetiological agent of food intoxications in the European Union as it can...
Fri, 12/15/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 401: Expression of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins under Stress Encountered during Food Production and Preservation Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9120401 Authors: Jenny Schelin Yusak Susilo Sophia Johler Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is the most prevalent cause of food-borne intoxications worldwide. Consumption of enterotoxins preformed in food causes violent...
Wed, 12/06/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 395: Molecular Modeling and Simulation Tools in the Development of Peptide-Based Biosensors for Mycotoxin Detection: Example of Ochratoxin Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9120395 Authors: Aby Thyparambil Ingrid Bazin Anthony Guiseppi-Elie Mycotoxin contamination of food and feed is now ubiquitous. Exposures to mycotoxin via contact or ingestion can potentially induce...
Thu, 11/30/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 388: T-2 Toxin/HT-2 Toxin and Ochratoxin A ELISAs Development and In-House Validation in Food in Accordance with the Commission Regulation (EU) No 519/2014 Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9120388 Authors: Michalina Oplatowska-Stachowiak Tim Kleintjens Nermin Sajic Willem Haasnoot Katrina Campbell Christopher Elliott Martin Salden T-2 toxin/HT-2 toxin (T-2/HT-2...
Thu, 11/23/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 381: Interaction of Cholesterol with Perfringolysin O: What Have We Learned from Functional Analysis? Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9120381 Authors: Sergey Savinov Alejandro Heuck Cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs) constitute a family of pore-forming toxins secreted by Gram-positive bacteria. These toxins form transmembrane pores by inserting a large β-barrel into...
Sun, 11/19/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 376: Microvesicle Involvement in Shiga Toxin-Associated Infection Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9110376 Authors: Annie Villysson Ashmita Tontanahal Diana Karpman Shiga toxin is the main virulence factor of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, a non-invasive pathogen that releases virulence factors in the intestine, causing hemorrhagic colitis and, in severe cases,...
Fri, 11/17/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 374: Impact of a Single Oral Acute Dose of Aflatoxin B1 on Liver Function/Cytokines and the Lymphoproliferative Response in C57Bl/6 Mice Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9110374 Authors: Angélica Ishikawa Elisa Hirooka Paula Alvares e Silva Ana Bracarense Karina Flaiban Claudia Akagi Osamu Kawamura Marcio Costa Eiko Itano Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin...
Wed, 11/15/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 371: Ameliorative Effects of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on Growth Performance, Immune Function, Antioxidant Capacity, Biochemical Constituents, Liver Histopathology and Aflatoxin Residues in Broilers Exposed to Aflatoxin B1 Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9110371 Authors: Shahid Ali Rajput Lvhui Sun Niya Zhang Mahmoud Mohamed Khalil Xin Gao Zhao Ling Luoyi...
Tue, 11/14/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 367: Management of Ciguatoxin Risk in Eastern Australia Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9110367 Authors: Hazel Farrell Shauna Murray Anthony Zammit Alan Edwards Between 2014 and 2016, five cases of ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), involving twenty four individuals, were linked to Spanish Mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) caught in the coastal waters of the state of...
Wed, 11/08/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 363: Awareness and Prevalence of Mycotoxin Contamination in Selected Nigerian Fermented Foods Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9110363 Authors: Ifeoluwa Adekoya Patrick Njobeh Adewale Obadina Cynthia Chilaka Sheila Okoth Marthe De Boevre Sarah De Saeger Fermented food samples (n = 191) including maize gruel (ogi), sorghum gruel (ogi-baba), melon seed (ogiri),...
Tue, 10/31/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 353: Aspergillus korhogoensis, a Novel Aflatoxin Producing Species from the Côte d’Ivoire Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9110353 Authors: Amaranta Carvajal-Campos Ama Manizan Souria Tadrist David Akaki Rose Koffi-Nevry Geromy Moore Stephen Fapohunda Sylviane Bailly Didier Montet Isabelle Oswald Sophie Lorber Catherine Brabet Olivier Puel Several...
Wed, 10/25/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 337: Primary and Immortalized Human Respiratory Cells Display Different Patterns of Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Release upon Exposure to Deoxynivalenol, Nivalenol and Fusarenon-X Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9110337 Authors: Silvia Ferreira Lopes Gaëlle Vacher Eleonora Ciarlo Dessislava Savova-Bianchi Thierry Roger Hélène Niculita-Hirzel The type B trichothecene...
Wed, 10/25/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 338: Shiga Toxin Glycosphingolipid Receptors in Human Caco-2 and HCT-8 Colon Epithelial Cell Lines Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9110338 Authors: Ivan Kouzel Gottfried Pohlentz Julia Schmitz Daniel Steil Hans-Ulrich Humpf Helge Karch Johannes Müthing Shiga toxins (Stxs) released by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) into the human colon are the...
Wed, 10/25/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 339: Investigation of Non-Covalent Interactions of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1) with Serum Albumin Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9110339 Authors: Miklós Poór Mónika Bálint Csaba Hetényi Beatrix Gődér Sándor Kunsági-Máté Tamás Kőszegi Beáta Lemli Aflatoxins are widely spread mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus species. Consumption of aflatoxin-...
Tue, 10/24/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 336: Effect of Clostridium perfringens β-Toxin on Platelets Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9100336 Authors: Anne Thiel Helga Mogel Julia Bruggisser Arnaud Baumann Marianne Wyder Michael Stoffel Artur Summerfield Horst Posthaus Clostridium perfringens β-toxin (CPB) is the major virulence factor of C. perfringens type C causing a hemorrhagic enteritis in...
Sat, 10/21/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 335: Rapid Assessment of the Toxicity of Fungal Compounds Using Luminescent Vibrio qinghaiensis sp. Q67 Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9100335 Authors: Qijie Jian Liang Gong Taotao Li Yong Wang Yu Wu Feng Chen Hongxia Qu Xuewu Duan Yueming Jiang Most tropical fruits after harvest are very perishable because of fungal infection. Since some pathogenic fungi...
Fri, 10/20/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 334: Chronic Exposure to the Fusarium Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol: Impact on Performance, Immune Organ, and Intestinal Integrity of Slow-Growing Chickens Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9100334 Authors: Stephanie Chen Yi-Hung Li Mei-Fong Lin This study investigates the long-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) consumption on avian growth performance, on the proliferation...
Sat, 10/14/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 324: Recent Advances in Mycotoxin Determination for Food Monitoring via Microchip Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9100324 Authors: Yan Man Gang Liang An Li Ligang Pan Mycotoxins are one of the main factors impacting food safety. Mycotoxin contamination has threatened the health of humans and animals. Conventional methods for the detection of mycotoxins are gas...
Fri, 10/13/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 319: Shiga Toxins Induce Apoptosis and ER Stress in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9100319 Authors: Jun-Young Park Yu-Jin Jeong Sung-Kyun Park Sung-Jin Yoon Song Choi Dae Jeong Su Chung Byung Lee Jeong Kim Vernon Tesh Moo-Seung Lee Young-Jun Park Shiga toxins (Stxs) produced by Shiga toxin-producing bacteria...
Fri, 10/13/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 321: Anti-Salmonella Activity Modulation of Mastoparan V1—A Wasp Venom Toxin—Using Protease Inhibitors, and Its Efficient Production via an Escherichia coli Secretion System Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9100321 Authors: Yeon Ha Sam Kim Chae Lee Chang-Hwan Bae Joo-Hong Yeo Il-Suk Kim Sang Gal Jin Hur Ho-Kyoung Jung Min-Ju Kim Woo Bang A previous study...
Fri, 10/13/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 318: Palladium Nanoparticles-Based Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer Aptasensor for Highly Sensitive Detection of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9100318 Authors: Hui Li Daibin Yang Peiwu Li Qi Zhang Wen Zhang Xiaoxia Ding Jin Mao Jing Wu A highly sensitive aptasensor for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) detection was constructed based on...
Fri, 10/13/2017 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 9, Pages 323: Combined Venom Gland Transcriptomic and Venom Peptidomic Analysis of the Predatory Ant Odontomachus monticola Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins9100323 Authors: Kohei Kazuma Keiichi Masuko Katsuhiro Konno Hidetoshi Inagaki Ants (hymenoptera: Formicidae) have adapted to many different environments and have become some of the most prolific and successful insects. To...

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