toxins

Wed, 10/28/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum toxin type B (BoNT/B) has been recommended as an alternative for patients who have become resistant to botulinum toxin type A (BoNT/A). This study aimed to compare the clinical effect, within a patient, of four injections with low doses of rimabotulinumtoxinB with the effect of the preceding abobotulinumtoxinA (aboBoNT/A) injections. Methods: In 17 patients with cervical dystonia (CD)...
Sun, 10/25/2020 - 00:00
Bacillus cereus Hemolysin BL is a tripartite toxin responsible for a diarrheal type of food poisoning. Open questions remain regarding its mode of action, including the extent to which complex formation prior to cell binding contributes to pore-forming activity, how these complexes are composed, and the properties of the pores formed in the target cell membrane. Distinct complexes of up to 600...
Sat, 10/24/2020 - 00:00
In this study, we developed an aptamer-based fluorescent sensing platform for the detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) based on RecJf exonuclease-assisted signal amplification and interaction between graphene oxide (GO) and the OTA aptamer (OTA-apt). After optimizing the experimental conditions, the present aptamer-based sensing system can exhibit excellent fluorescent response in the OTA assay, with...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 00:00
Alternaria alternata is an important phytopathogen causing fruit black rot and also producing a variety of mycotoxins, such as alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) as two main contaminants. This could lead to economic losses of agricultural products as well as human health risks. In this study, magnolol extracted from the traditional Chinese herb, Mangnoliaofficinalis,...
Tue, 10/20/2020 - 00:00
Two randomized, placebo-controlled studies evaluated the pulmonary function safety of onabotulinumtoxinA (onabotA) for treatment of upper and/or lower limb spasticity. Patients with stable baseline respiratory status received one or two treatments with placebo, 240 U, or 360 U of onabotA. Pulmonary function tests, adverse events, and efficacy were measured at least every 6 weeks for 18 weeks (...
Mon, 10/19/2020 - 00:00
The goal of this study was to investigate the toxicokinetic characteristics of aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) in broiler chickens and the effect of calcination of a Tunisian montmorillonite clay on the in vivo absorption of AFG1. In this study, broiler chickens were randomly distributed into four groups of 10 animals. Group 1 was administered AFG1 (2 mg/kg body weight (BW)) by single intravenous injection (...
Thu, 10/15/2020 - 00:00
Clostridium perfringens poses a serious threat to small ruminants by causing moderate to severe enterotoxaemia. Due to its ability to produce a wide arsenal of toxins, it is ranked among the most prevalent and important pathogens in livestock. This study focused on the molecular characterization of different Clostridium perfringens types along with their antimicrobial resistance profile. An...
Wed, 10/14/2020 - 00:00
Mycotoxins are important food contaminants that commonly co-occur with modified mycotoxins such as mycotoxin-glucosides in contaminated cereal grains. These masked mycotoxins are less toxic, but their breakdown and release of unconjugated mycotoxins has been shown by mixed gut microbiota of humans and animals. The role of different bacteria in hydrolysing mycotoxin-glucosides is unknown, and this...
Wed, 10/14/2020 - 00:00
Aflatoxins (AF) are hepatocarcinogenic metabolites produced by several Aspergillus species. Crop infection by these species results in aflatoxin contamination of cereals, nuts, and spices. Etiology of aflatoxin contamination is complicated by mixed infections of multiple species with similar morphology and aflatoxin profiles. The current study investigates variation in aflatoxin production...
Tue, 10/13/2020 - 00:00
Peptide toxins isolated from venomous creatures, long prized as research tools due to their innate potency for ion channels, are emerging as drugs as well. However, it remains challenging to understand why peptide toxins bind with high potency to ion channels, to identify residues that are key for activity, and to improve their affinities via mutagenesis. We use WaterMap, a molecular dynamics...
Sat, 10/10/2020 - 00:00
Effects of folic acid and protein levels on growth and serum chemistry in pigs fed aflatoxin were determined in two experiments. Increasing aflatoxin (250 to 800 ppb) decreased (P < 0.05) weight gain and feed intake for both of the 35-day trials. In Experiment 1, increasing aflatoxin (0, 250, 500 ppb), increased linearly (P < 0.05) aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline...
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 00:00
Mycotoxigenic fungi and their toxins are a global concern, causing huge economic and health impacts in developing countries such as Ethiopia, where the mycotoxin control system is inadequate. This work aimed to review the occurrences of agriculturally essential fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium and their major mycotoxins in Ethiopian food/feedstuffs. The incidents of crucial...
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 00:00
Clostridium (C.) perfringens is the causative agent of several diseases and enteric infections in animals and humans. The pathogenicity of the bacterium is largely mediated by the production of a wide range of toxins. Individual C. perfringens strains produce only subsets of this toxin repertoire, which permits the classification in seven toxinotypes (A–G). In addition, a variety of...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 00:00
Chronic stroke survivors with spastic hemiplegia have various clinical presentations of ankle and foot muscle spasticity patterns. They are mechanical consequences of interactions between spasticity and weakness of surrounding muscles during walking. Four common ankle and foot spasticity patterns are described and discussed through sample cases. The patterns discussed are equinus, varus,...
Wed, 10/07/2020 - 00:00
Fumonisins (FB1+FB2) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species that might be present in maize and maize products. Knowledge on their occurrence in nixtamalized maize from Mexico together with an accompanying risk assessment are scarce, while nixtamalized maize is an important food in Mexico. This study presents the occurrence of FB1 + FB2 and DON in nixtamalized maize...
Wed, 10/07/2020 - 00:00
Cellular proteomes and exoproteomes are dynamic, allowing pathogens to respond to environmental conditions to sustain growth and virulence. Bacillus cereus is an important food-borne pathogen causing intoxication via emetic toxin and/or multiple protein exotoxins. Here, we compared the dynamics of the cellular proteome and exoproteome of emetic B. cereus cells grown at low (16 °C) and...
Sat, 10/03/2020 - 00:00
A two-analyte immunochromatographic strip (immunostrip) was developed for the simultaneous detection of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and chloramphenicol (CAP) in milk. Protein conjugates (AFM1-ovalbumin (OVA) and CAP-OVA) and goat anti-rabbit IgG were respectively drawn on nitrocellulose membrane as two test lines (T1 and T2) and a control line (C). The immunostrip was dipped into a well that contained a...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 00:00
The chronic intake of naturally multi-mycotoxin contaminated feed by broilers with or without titers of Yeast Cell Wall Extract (YCWE, a.k.a Mycosorb A+®), was investigated. Day-old male Cobb chicks (1600 birds, 64 pens, 25 birds/pen) were randomly allocated to diets of control (CON); diet containing mycotoxins (MT); CON + 0.2% YCWE; MT + 0.025% YCWE; MT + 0.05% YCWE; MT + 0.1% YCWE; MT...
Thu, 10/01/2020 - 00:00
Fumonisin B1 (FB1), a Fusarium-produced mycotoxin, is found in various foods and feeds. It is a well-known liver carcinogen in experimental animals; however, its role in genotoxicity is controversial. The current study investigated FB1-triggered changes in the epigenetic regulation of PTEN and determined its effect on DNA damage checkpoint regulation in human liver hepatoma G2 (HepG2) cells....
Thu, 10/01/2020 - 00:00
Chemodenervation of cervical musculature using botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is established as the gold standard or treatment of choice for management of Cervical Dystonia (CD). The success of BoNT procedures is measured by improved symptomology while minimizing side effects and is dependent upon many factors including: clinical pattern recognition, identifying contributory muscles, BoNT dosage,...
Thu, 10/01/2020 - 00:00
This study determined the presence, levels and co-occurrence of mycotoxins in fish feeds in Kenya. Seventy-eight fish feeds and ingredients were sampled from fish farms and fish feed manufacturing plants and analysed for 40 mycotoxins using high-performance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine (73%) mycotoxins were identified with 76 (97%) samples testing positive...
Thu, 10/01/2020 - 00:00
The determination of mycotoxins content in food is not sufficient for the prediction of their potential in vivo cytotoxicity because it does not reflect their bioavailability and mutual interactions within complex matrices, which may significantly alter the toxic effects. Moreover, many mycotoxins undergo biotransformation and metabolization during the intestinal absorption process....
Tue, 09/29/2020 - 00:00
Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites that occur in human foods and animal feeds, potentially threatening human and animal health. The intestine is considered as the first barrier against these external contaminants, and it consists of interconnected physical, chemical, immunological, and microbial barriers. In this context, based on in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models, we summarize the literature...
Mon, 09/28/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E) is one of the major causes of human botulism, which is a life-threatening disease caused by flaccid paralysis of muscles. After receptor-mediated toxin internalization into motor neurons, the translocation domain (HN) of BoNT/E transforms into a protein channel upon vesicle acidification in endosomes and delivers its protease domain (LC) across membrane to...
Sat, 09/26/2020 - 00:00
Deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated feed represents a serious problem for pigs due to their high sensitivity to its toxicological effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of intrauterine DON exposure on the immune system of piglets. Pure DON was intravenously administered to sows at the end of gestation (during the last 2–3 days of gestation, one dose of 300 &...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotype E is one of three serotypes that cause the preponderance of human botulism cases and is a Tier 1 Select Agent. BoNT/E is unusual among BoNT serotypes for its rapid onset and short duration of intoxication. Here we report two large panels of unique, unrelated camelid single-domain antibodies (VHHs) that were selected for their ability to bind to BoNT/E...
Fri, 09/25/2020 - 00:00
Seafood represents a significant part of the human staple diet. In the recent years, the identification of emerging lipophilic marine toxins has increased, leading to the potential for consumers to be intoxicated by these toxins. In the present work, we investigate the presence of lipophilic marine toxins (both regulated and emerging) in commercial seafood products from non-European locations,...
Tue, 09/22/2020 - 00:00
Many cattle are persistently colonized with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and represent a major source of human infections with human-pathogenic STEC strains (syn. enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC)). Intervention strategies most effectively protecting humans best aim at the limitation of bovine STEC shedding. Mechanisms enabling STEC to persist in cattle are only partialy...
Mon, 09/21/2020 - 00:00
Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most commonly found mycotoxin in corn, which is highly toxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic for the health of humans and animals. In order to reduce the AFB1 in corn, corn kernels were processed with Water-assisted Microwaves Treatment (WMT) and the feasibility of WMT processing on AFB1 reduction and its effects on corn quality were analyzed....
Sat, 09/19/2020 - 00:00
Fumonisin contamination in corn is an emerging issue in animal feed production. Fumonisin disrupts the metabolism of sphingolipids and reduces growth performance. This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding fumonisin-contaminated corn on growth performance and sphinganine (SA) to sphingosine (SO) ratios of 9 to 28 kg pigs. A total of 350 pigs, were used with 5 pigs/pen and 14...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 00:00
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) can be used therapeutically to treat a wide range of neuromuscular and neurological conditions. A collection of natural BoNT variants exists which can be classified into serologically distinct serotypes (BoNT/B), and further divided into subtypes (BoNT/B1, B2, …). BoNT subtypes share a high degree of sequence identity within the same serotype yet can...
Thu, 09/17/2020 - 00:00
In 2015, tetrodotoxins (TTXs) were considered a potential threat in Europe since several studies had shown the presence of these toxins in European bivalve molluscs. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of TTXs in 127 bivalve samples (mussels and oysters) and in 66 gastropod samples (whelks) collected all along the French mainland coasts in 2017 and 2018. Analyses were carried out after...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 00:00
Alternaria toxins are emerging mycotoxins, candidates for regulation by European Authorities. Therefore, highly sensitive, confirmatory, and reliable analytical methodologies are required for their monitoring in food. In that context, an isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method was developed for the analysis of five Alternaria toxins (Altenuene, Alternariol, Alternariol monomethylether, Tentoxin, and...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 00:00
This study aimed to investigate the effects of dietary AFB1 on growth performance, health, intestinal microbiota communities and AFB1 tissue residues of turbot and evaluate the mitigation efficacy of yeast cell wall extract, Mycosorb® (YCWE) toward AFB1 contaminated dietary treatments. Nine experimental diets were formulated: Diet 1 (control): AFB1 free; Diets 2–5 or Diets 6...
Tue, 09/15/2020 - 00:00
The emergence of B. cereus as an opportunistic food-borne pathogen has intensified the need to distinguish strains of public health concern. The heterogeneity of the diseases associated with B. cereus infections emphasizes the versatility of these bacteria strains to colonize their host. Nevertheless, the molecular basis of these differences remains unclear. Several toxins are involved in...
Tue, 09/15/2020 - 00:00
We investigated ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in raisin samples purchased from Slovak markets and determined the diversity of black-spored aspergilli as potential OTA and fumonisin (FB1 and FB2) producers. The taxonomic identification was performed using sequences of the nuclear ITS1-5.8s-ITS2 region, the calmodulin and beta-tubulin genes. We obtained 239 isolates from eight fungal genera, of...
Tue, 09/15/2020 - 00:00
Bitis arietans is a snake of medical importance, as it is responsible for more accidents in humans and domestic animals than all other African snakes put together. The accidents are characterized by local and systemic alterations, such as inflammation, cardiovascular and hemostatic disturbances, which can lead victims to death or permanent disability. However, little is known about the...
Sun, 09/13/2020 - 00:00
There are limited data on exposure to mycotoxins in Pakistan. Here, we measured exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of wheat, and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a known contaminant of rice, using biomarkers of exposure. Wheat (n = 195) and rice (n = 62) samples were analyzed for AFB1 and DON levels, and the corresponding urinary biomarkers were analyzed in urine samples from a rural...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 00:00
Clostridium botulinum Group I and Clostridium sporogenes are closely related bacteria responsible for foodborne, infant and wound botulism. A comparative genomic study with 556 highly diverse strains of C. botulinum Group I and C. sporogenes (including 417 newly sequenced strains) has been carried out to characterise the genetic diversity and spread of these bacteria and their neurotoxin genes....
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 00:00
The aim of the study was to propose a more efficient and safer botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection method for the masseter by comparing the conventional blind injection and a novel ultrasonography (US)-guided injection technique in a clinical trial. The 40 masseters from 20 healthy young Korean volunteers (10 males and 10 females with a mean age of 25.6 years) were included in this...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 00:00
Staphylococcal enterotoxins are the most common cause of foodborne intoxications (staphylococcal food poisoning) and cause a wide range of diseases. With at least six variants staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) stands out as particularly diverse amongst the 25 known staphylococcal enterotoxins. Some variants present unique and even host-specific features. Here, we review the role of SEC in human...
Thu, 09/10/2020 - 00:00
The feed supplementation of probiotic microorganisms is a promising method for detoxification of ochratoxin A (OTA) in poultry. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of newly elaborated synbiotics on the turkey performance, the intestinal microbiota and its enzymatic activity in turkeys (0–15 weeks) fed OTA contaminated feed (198.6–462.0 µg/kg) compared...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 00:00
This explorative cross-sectional study aims at exploring emotional distress, psychological profiles, and the attitude towards receiving psychological support in eighty-seven patients with chronic migraine (CM) undergoing OnabotulinumtoxinA prophylactic treatment (OBT-A, n = 40) or withdrawal treatment (WT, n = 47). The outcomes were explored through a specific battery of questionnaires. 25% of...
Tue, 09/08/2020 - 00:00
Snakebites from Taiwan habus (Protobothrops mucrosquamatus) and green bamboo vipers (Viridovipera stejnegeri) account for two-thirds of all venomous snakebites in Taiwan. While there has been ongoing optimization of antivenin therapy, the proper management of superimposed bacterial wound infections is not well studied. In this Bacteriology of Infections in Taiwanese snake Envenomation (BITE)...
Mon, 09/07/2020 - 00:00
Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum not only results in severe yield losses, but also contaminates wheat grains with deoxynivalenol (DON) toxins. Prevention and control of FHB and DON contamination rely mainly on resistant varieties and fungicides. Selenium (Se) is an essential element for humans and animals, and also a beneficial element for plants. In this work, four Se...
Sat, 09/05/2020 - 00:00
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin found in grains that poses a potential threat to human and animal health, and the gastrointestinal tract is the primary target organ. There are few studies focused on the toxicology of DON to rabbits, especially on the relation among DON, microbiota, and the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. A total of 30 weaned rabbits (35 d) were evenly divided into the control...
Sat, 09/05/2020 - 00:00
Toxins are the major pathogenicity factors produced by numerous bacteria involved in severe diseases in humans and animals. Certain pathogenic bacteria synthesize only one toxin which is responsible for all the symptoms and outcome of the disease. For example, botulinum toxins (BoNTs) and tetanus toxin (TeNT) are the unique causal factors of botulism and tetanus, respectively. Other bacteria...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 00:00
Aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products has posed serious health hazards and brought huge economic loss in the food and feed industries. Monitoring aflatoxins in various foods and feeds has become a crucial means to protect public health. This study aimed to report an immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (iLAMP) assay by using an anti-idiotypic nanobody-phage for on-site and...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 00:00
Species of the dinophyte genus Alexandrium are widely distributed and are notorious bloom formers and producers of various potent phycotoxins. The species Alexandrium taylorii is known to form recurrent and dense blooms in the Mediterranean, but its toxin production potential is poorly studied. Here we investigated toxin production potential of a Mediterranean A. taylorii clonal strain by...
Wed, 09/02/2020 - 00:00
The efficacy of eleven essential oils (EOs) against Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3357 was investigated. The highest antifungal activity against this aflatoxigenic fungus was exhibited by cinnamon, oregano and lemongrass, which showed low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values under vapor conditions. Interactions of the three EOs were evaluated by the fractional inhibition concentration index (...

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