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Toxins

Mon, 05/21/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 211: Development of a Highly Sensitive FcMito qPCR Assay for the Quantification of the Toxigenic Fungal Plant Pathogen Fusarium culmorum Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050211 Authors: Katarzyna Bilska Tomasz Kulik Anna Ostrowska-Kołodziejczak Maciej Buśko Matias Pasquali Marco Beyer Anna Baturo-Cieśniewska Marcin Juda Dariusz Załuski Kinga Treder Joerg...
Sun, 05/20/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 209: Acid Sphingomyelinase Promotes Cellular Internalization of Clostridium perfringens Iota-Toxin Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050209 Authors: Masahiro Nagahama Masaya Takehara Kazuaki Miyamoto Kazumi Ishidoh Keiko Kobayashi Clostridium perfringens iota-toxin is a binary actin-ADP-ribosylating toxin composed of the enzymatic component Ia and receptor binding...
Tue, 05/15/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 199: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Boulardii Reduces the Deoxynivalenol-Induced Alteration of the Intestinal Transcriptome Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050199 Authors: Imourana Alassane-Kpembi Philippe Pinton Jean-François Hupé Manon Neves Yannick Lippi Sylvie Combes Mathieu Castex Isabelle Oswald Type B trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of...
Tue, 05/15/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 200: High Production of LukMF’ in Staphylococcus aureus Field Strains Is Associated with Clinical Bovine Mastitis Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050200 Authors: Jurriaan Hoekstra Victor Rutten Laura Sommeling Tine van Werven Mirlin Spaninks Birgitta Duim Lindert Benedictus Gerrit Koop Staphylococcus aureus, a major cause of bovine mastitis, produces a...
Sat, 05/12/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 198: Label-Free G-Quadruplex Aptamer Fluorescence Assay for Ochratoxin A Using a Thioflavin T Probe Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050198 Authors: Kefeng Wu Changbei Ma Han Zhao Hailun He Hanchun Chen Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most common mycotoxins contaminating feed and foodstuffs. Therefore, a great deal of concern is associated with AFB1 toxicity. In...
Fri, 05/11/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 195: Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype FA, Also Known as Serotype H Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050195 Authors: Gavin Hackett Kevin Moore David Burgin Fraser Hornby Bryony Gray Mark Elliott Imran Mir Matthew Beard We have purified and characterized recombinant botulinum neurotoxin serotype FA (BoNT/FA). This...
Fri, 05/11/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 196: Electrochemical Immunosensor for Detection of Aflatoxin B1 Based on Indirect Competitive ELISA Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050196 Authors: Farah Azri Rashidah Sukor Jinap Selamat Fatimah Abu Bakar Nor Yusof Reza Hajian Mycotoxins are the secondary toxic metabolites produced naturally by fungi. Analysis of mycotoxins is essential to minimize the...
Fri, 05/11/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 197: Designed Strategies for Fluorescence-Based Biosensors for the Detection of Mycotoxins Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050197 Authors: Atul Sharma Reem Khan Gaelle Catanante Tauqir Sherazi Sunil Bhand Akhtar Hayat Jean Marty Small molecule toxins such as mycotoxins with low molecular weight are the most widely studied biological toxins. These biological...
Thu, 05/10/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 189: Tissue Distribution and Elimination of Ciguatoxins in Tridacna maxima (Tridacnidae, Bivalvia) Fed Gambierdiscus polynesiensis Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050189 Authors: Mélanie Roué Hélène Taiana Darius André Ung Jérôme Viallon Manoella Sibat Philipp Hess Zouher Amzil Mireille Chinain Ciguatera is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of...
Thu, 05/10/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 192: Transcriptomic Analysis of Ciguatoxin-Induced Changes in Gene Expression in Primary Cultures of Mice Cortical Neurons Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050192 Authors: Juan Andrés Rubiolo Carmen Vale Andrea Boente-Juncal Masahiro Hirama Shuji Yamashita Mercedes Camiña Mercedes R. Vieytes Luis M. Botana Ciguatoxins are polyether marine toxins that act as...
Tue, 05/08/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 188: Chronic Effects of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Rations with or without Increased Concentrate Proportion on the Insulin Sensitivity in Lactating Dairy Cows Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050188 Authors: Asako Kinoshita Christina Keese Ulrich Meyer Alexander Starke Christine Wrenzycki Sven Dänicke Jürgen Rehage The objective of this study was to investigate...
Mon, 05/07/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 187: Metabolites Identified during Varied Doses of Aspergillus Species in Zea mays Grains, and Their Correlation with Aflatoxin Levels Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050187 Authors: Titilayo D. O. Falade Panagiotis K. Chrysanthopoulos Mark P. Hodson Yasmina Sultanbawa Mary Fletcher Ross Darnell Sam Korie Glen Fox Aflatoxin contamination is associated with...
Thu, 05/03/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 89: Current Status of Mycotoxin Contamination of Food Commodities in Zimbabwe Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050089 Authors: Nancy Nleya Modupeade Adetunji Mulunda Mwanza Agricultural products, especially cereal grains, serve as staple foods in sub-Saharan Africa. However, climatic conditions in this region can lead to contamination of these commodities by moulds,...
Wed, 05/02/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 184: Zearalenone Promotes Cell Proliferation or Causes Cell Death? Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050184 Authors: Wanglong Zheng Bingjie Wang Xi Li Tao Wang Hui Zou Jianhong Gu Yan Yuan Xuezhong Liu Jianfa Bai Jianchun Bian Zongping Liu Zearalenone (ZEA), one of the mycotoxins, exerts different mechanisms of toxicity in different cell types at...
Tue, 05/01/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 183: Ergot Alkaloids at Doses Close to EU Regulatory Limits Induce Alterations of the Liver and Intestine Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050183 Authors: Viviane Mayumi Maruo Ana Paula Bracarense Jean-Paul Metayer Maria Vilarino Isabelle P. Oswald Philippe Pinton An increase in the occurrence of ergot alkaloids (EAs) contamination has been observed in North...
Sun, 04/29/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 179: Comparison of Anorectic Potencies of Type A Trichothecenes T-2 Toxin, HT-2 Toxin, Diacetoxyscirpenol, and Neosolaniol Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050179 Authors: Jie Zhang Hua Zhang Shengli Liu Wenda Wu Haibin Zhang Trichothecene mycotoxins are common contaminants in cereal grains and negatively impact human and animal health. Although anorexia is a...
Sun, 04/29/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 180: Nanobody Technology for Mycotoxin Detection in the Field of Food Safety: Current Status and Prospects Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050180 Authors: Ting He Jiang Zhu Yao Nie Rui Hu Ting Wang Peiwu Li Qi Zhang Yunhuang Yang Mycotoxins, which are toxic, carcinogenic, and/or teratogenic, have posed a threat to food safety and public health. Sensitive...
Thu, 04/26/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 178: Development of an Analytical Method for Simultaneous Determination of the Modified Forms of 4,15-Diacetoxyscirpenol and their Occurrence in Japanese Retail Food Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050178 Authors: Tomoya Yoshinari Nanami Takeda Maiko Watanabe Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi 4,15-Diacetoxyscirpenol (4,15-DAS) is a type A trichothecene mycotoxin produced by...
Tue, 04/24/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 171: Variation in the Microbiome, Trichothecenes, and Aflatoxins in Stored Wheat Grains in Wuhan, China Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10050171 Authors: Qing-Song Yuan Peng Yang Ai-Bo Wu Dong-Yun Zuo Wei-Jie He Mao-Wei Guo Tao Huang He-Ping Li Yu-Cai Liao Contamination by fungal and bacterial species and their metabolites can affect grain quality and...
Thu, 04/19/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 165: Visual Non-Instrumental On-Site Detection of Fumonisin B1, B2, and B3 in Cereal Samples Using a Clean-Up Combined with Gel-Based Immunoaffinity Test Column Assay Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10040165 Authors: Wei Sheng Hesen Wu Weihong Ji Zhi Li Fangyu Chu Shuo Wang A visual immunoaffinity test column (IATC) assay was developed to detect fumonisins in...
Wed, 04/11/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 152: Bovine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Are More Sensitive to Deoxynivalenol Than Those Derived from Poultry and Swine Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10040152 Authors: Barbara Novak Eleni Vatzia Alexandra Springler Alix Pierron Wilhelm Gerner Nicole Reisinger Sabine Hessenberger Gerd Schatzmayr Elisabeth Mayer Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the...
Wed, 04/04/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 148: The Effects of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on the Pig Large Intestine. A Light and Electron Microscopy Study Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10040148 Authors: Barbara Przybylska-Gornowicz Bogdan Lewczuk Magdalena Prusik Maria Hanuszewska Marcela Petrusewicz-Kosińska Magdalena Gajęcka Łukasz Zielonka Maciej Gajęcki The contamination of feed with...
Wed, 04/04/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 149: The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10040149 Authors: Antonio F. Logrieco J. David Miller Mari Eskola Rudolf Krska Amare Ayalew Ranajit Bandyopadhyay Paola Battilani Deepak Bhatnagar Sofia Chulze Sarah De Saeger Peiwu Li Giancarlo Perrone...
Wed, 03/28/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 141: Dose-Response Modelling of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in Humans Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10040141 Authors: Nathalie Arnich Anne Thébault Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is caused by a group of marine toxins with saxitoxin (STX) as the reference compound. Symptoms in humans after consumption of contaminated shellfish vary from slight neurological...
Mon, 03/26/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 138: The Impact of T-2 Toxin on Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide-Like Immunoreactive (VIP-LI) Nerve Structures in the Wall of the Porcine Stomach and Duodenum Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10040138 Authors: Krystyna Makowska Kazimierz Obremski Slawomir Gonkowski T-2 toxin is a secondary metabolite of some Fusarium species. It is well-known that this substance can...
Sat, 03/24/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 137: OTA Prevention and Detoxification by Actinobacterial Strains and Activated Carbon Fibers: Preliminary Results Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10040137 Authors: Rhoda El Khoury Elodie Choque Anthony El Khoury Selma Snini Robbie Cairns Caroline Andriantsiferana Florence Mathieu Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Aspergillus and...
Fri, 03/23/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 133: Impact of Scyphozoan Venoms on Human Health and Current First Aid Options for Stings Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10040133 Authors: Alessia Remigante Roberta Costa Rossana Morabito Giuseppa La Spada Angela Marino Silvia Dossena Cnidaria include the most venomous animals of the world. Among Cnidaria, Scyphozoa (true jellyfish) are ubiquitous, abundant,...
Fri, 03/23/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 136: Scaling-Up the Impact of Aflatoxin Research in Africa. The Role of Social Sciences Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10040136 Authors: Francois Stepman At the interface between agriculture and nutrition, the aflatoxin contamination of food and feed touches on agriculture, health, and trade. For more than three decades now, the problem of aflatoxin has been researched...
Wed, 03/21/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 131: Histopathological Injuries, Ultrastructural Changes, and Depressed TLR Expression in the Small Intestine of Broiler Chickens with Aflatoxin B1 Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10040131 Authors: Fengyuan Wang Zhicai Zuo Kejie Chen Caixia Gao Zhuangzhi Yang Song Zhao Jianzhen Li Hetao Song Xi Peng Jing Fang Hengmin Cui Ping Ouyang Yi Zhou Gang Shu...
Tue, 03/20/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 129: A QuEChERS-Based Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Nine Zearalenone-Like Mycotoxins in Pigs Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030129 Authors: Zheng Yan Lan Wang Jun Wang Yanglan Tan Dianzhen Yu Xiaojiao Chang Yingying Fan Duoyong Zhao Cheng Wang Marthe De Boevre Sarah De Saeger Changpo Sun...
Sun, 03/18/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 128: Botulinum Toxin B Affects Neuropathic Pain but Not Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Injury in a Mouse Model Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030128 Authors: Alba Finocchiaro Sara Marinelli Federica De Angelis Valentina Vacca Siro Luvisetto Flaminia Pavone Clinical use of neurotoxins from Clostridium botulinum is well established and is...
Fri, 03/16/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 127: Long-Term Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol in Feed and Feed Raw Materials with a Special Focus on South Korea Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030127 Authors: Juhee Park Hansub Chang Dongho Kim Soohyun Chung Chan Lee The Fusarium fungi produce toxic substances called mycotoxins, which can cause disease and harmful effects in grains, livestock, and humans....
Mon, 03/12/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 120: Functional Characterization of the alb1 Orthologue Gene in the Ochratoxigenic Fungus Aspergillus carbonarius (AC49 strain) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030120 Authors: Donato Gerin Luis González-Candelas Ana-Rosa Ballester Stefania Pollastro Rita De Miccolis Angelini Francesco Faretra Aspergillus carbonarius, belonging to the group Nigri, is the main...
Sat, 03/10/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 118: EU Regulatory Risk Management of Marine Biotoxins in the Marine Bivalve Mollusc Food-Chain Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030118 Authors: Micheál O’Mahony Food safety risk assessment in the European Union (EU) recognises consumer illness that arises from marine biotoxins as a risk associated with bivalve mollusc consumption. EU food regulations contain various...
Fri, 03/09/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 116: Promising Detoxification Strategies to Mitigate Mycotoxins in Food and Feed Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030116 Authors: Yousef Hassan Ting Zhou Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites associated with adverse human health and animal productivity consequences.[...]
Wed, 03/07/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 113: Individual and Combined Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Feed Ingredients and Complete Feeds in China Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030113 Authors: Rui Ma Lei Zhang Meng Liu Yong-Teng Su Wen-Mei Xie Ni-Ya Zhang Jie-Fan Dai Yun Wang Shahid Rajput De-Sheng Qi Niel Karrow Lv-Hui Sun The objective of this study was to investigate the individual and...
Wed, 03/07/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 114: Effects of High Levels of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on Growth Performance, and Hematological and Immunological Parameters in Pigs Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030114 Authors: Kondreddy Reddy Jaeyong Song Hyun-Jeong Lee Minseok Kim Dong-Wook Kim Hyun Jung Bumseok Kim Yookyung Lee Dongjo Yu Dong-Woon Kim Young Oh Sung Lee Background:...
Thu, 03/01/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 109: MycoKey Round Table Discussions of Future Directions in Research on Chemical Detection Methods, Genetics and Biodiversity of Mycotoxins Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030109 Authors: John Leslie Veronica Lattanzio Kris Audenaert Paola Battilani Jeffrey Cary Sofia Chulze Sarah De Saeger Annamaria Gerardino Petr Karlovsky Yu-Cai Liao Chris Maragos...
Thu, 03/01/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 104: Biosynthesis and Characterization of Zearalenone-14-Sulfate, Zearalenone-14-Glucoside and Zearalenone-16-Glucoside Using Common Fungal Strains Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030104 Authors: Antje Borzekowski Tatjana Drewitz Julia Keller Dietmar Pfeifer Hans-Jörg Kunte Matthias Koch Sascha Rohn Ronald Maul Zearalenone (ZEN) and its phase II sulfate...
Thu, 03/01/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 105: A Three Monoclonal Antibody Combination Potently Neutralizes Multiple Botulinum Neurotoxin Serotype E Subtypes Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030105 Authors: Consuelo Garcia-Rodriguez Ali Razai Isin Geren Jianlong Lou Fraser Conrad Wei-Hua Wen Shauna Farr-Jones Theresa Smith Jennifer Brown Janet Skerry Leonard Smith James Marks Human botulism...
Wed, 02/28/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 98: Estrogen Receptor α Is Crucial in Zearalenone-Induced Invasion and Migration of Prostate Cancer Cells Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030098 Authors: Karolina Kowalska Dominika Habrowska-Górczyńska Kinga Urbanek Kamila Domińska Agnieszka Piastowska-Ciesielska Zearalenone (ZEA), a mycotoxin produced in the genus Fusarium, binds to estrogen receptors (ER) and...
Wed, 02/28/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 99: Proteomic Methods of Detection and Quantification of Protein Toxins Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030099 Authors: Miloslava Duracova Jana Klimentova Alena Fucikova Jiri Dresler Biological toxins are a heterogeneous group of compounds that share commonalities with biological and chemical agents. Among them, protein toxins represent a considerable, diverse set...
Wed, 02/28/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 101: A Rapid Label-Free Fluorescent Aptasensor PicoGreen-Based Strategy for Aflatoxin B1 Detection in Traditional Chinese Medicines Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030101 Authors: Cheng Zhang Xiaowen Dou Lei Zhang Meifeng Sun Ming Zhao Zhen OuYang Dandan Kong F. Antonio Meihua Yang Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a very hazardous carcinogen, readily contaminating...
Wed, 02/28/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 102: Tectus niloticus (Tegulidae, Gastropod) as a Novel Vector of Ciguatera Poisoning: Clinical Characterization and Follow-Up of a Mass Poisoning Event in Nuku Hiva Island (French Polynesia) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030102 Authors: Clémence Gatti Davide Lonati Hélène Darius Arturo Zancan Mélanie Roué Azzurra Schicchi Carlo Locatelli Mireille Chinain...
Wed, 02/28/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 103: Repeated Dietary Exposure to Low Levels of Domoic Acid and Problems with Everyday Memory: Research to Public Health Outreach Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030103 Authors: Lynn Grattan Carol Boushey Yuanyuan Liang Kathi Lefebvre Laura Castellon Kelsey Roberts Alexandra Toben J. Morris Domoic Acid (DA) is a marine-based neurotoxin. Dietary exposure to...
Mon, 02/26/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 94: Fatal Canine Intoxications Linked to the Presence of Saxitoxins in Stranded Marine Organisms Following Winter Storm Activity Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10030094 Authors: Andrew Turner Monika Dhanji-Rapkova Karl Dean Steven Milligan Mike Hamilton Julie Thomas Chris Poole Jo Haycock Jo Spelman-Marriott Alice Watson Katherine Hughes Bridget Marr...
Sat, 02/24/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 91: Tolerance and Excretion of the Mycotoxins Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, Deoxynivalenol, and Ochratoxin A by Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens from Contaminated Substrates Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020091 Authors: Louise Camenzuli Ruud Van Dam Theo de Rijk Rob Andriessen Jeroen Van Schelt H. Van der Fels-Klerx This study aimed to investigate...
Sat, 02/17/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 86: Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020086 Authors: Esther Garcia-Cela Elsa Kiaitsi Michael Sulyok Angel Medina Naresh Magan Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from...
Sat, 02/17/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 87: An On-Site Simultaneous Semi-quantification of Aflatoxin B1, Zearalenone, and T-2 Toxin in Maize- and Cereal-based Feed via Multicolor Immunochromatographic Assay Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020087 Authors: Lin Xu Zhaowei Zhang Qi Zhang Wen Zhang Li Yu Du Wang Hui Li Peiwu Li Multiple-mycotoxin contamination has been frequently found in the agro-...
Tue, 02/13/2018 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 10, Pages 81: Natural Occurrence of Nivalenol, Deoxynivalenol, and Deoxynivalenol-3-Glucoside in Polish Winter Wheat Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins10020081 Authors: Marcin Bryła Edyta Ksieniewicz-Woźniak Agnieszka Waśkiewicz Krystyna Szymczyk Renata Jędrzejczak The presence of mycotoxins in cereal grain is a very important food safety factor. The occurrence of “masked”...

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