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Toxins

Tue, 08/20/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 481: Biotransformation of the Mycotoxin Zearalenone to its Metabolites Hydrolyzed Zearalenone (HZEN) and Decarboxylated Hydrolyzed Zearalenone (DHZEN) Diminishes its Estrogenicity In Vitro and In Vivo Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080481 Authors: Fruhauf Novak Nagl Hackl Hartinger Rainer Labudová Adam Aleschko Moll Thamhesl Grenier...
Mon, 08/19/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 478: The Degradation of Deoxynivalenol by Using Electrochemical Oxidation with Graphite Electrodes and the Toxicity Assessment of Degradation Products Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080478 Authors: Suli Xiong Xiao Li Changsong Zhao Jingqi Gao Wenjuan Yuan Jie Zhang Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common mycotoxin, which is known to be extremely harmful to human and...
Sun, 08/18/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 476: Impact of Naturally Contaminated Substrates on Alphitobius diaperinus and Hermetia illucens: Uptake and Excretion of Mycotoxins Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080476 Authors: Giulia Leni Martina Cirlini Johan Jacobs Stefaan Depraetere Natasja Gianotten Stefano Sforza Chiara Dall’Asta Insects are considered a suitable alternative feed for livestock...
Thu, 08/15/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 474: Structure Elucidation and Toxicity Analysis of the Degradation Products of Deoxynivalenol by Gaseous Ozone Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080474 Authors: Mengmeng Li Erqi Guan Ke Bian Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) or scab is a fungal disease of cereal grains. Wheat scab affects the yield and quality of wheat and produces mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON),...
Tue, 08/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 472: Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens Occurrence in Kazakh Honey Samples Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080472 Authors: Balgabay Maikanov Raikhan Mustafina Laura Auteleyeva Jan Wiśniewski Krzysztof Anusz Tomasz Grenda Krzysztof Kwiatek Magdalena Goldsztejn Magdalena Grabczak The aim of this study was to assess occurrence of Clostridium...
Mon, 08/12/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 471: Determination of Ochratoxin A (OTA), Ochratoxin B (OTB), T-2, and HT-2 Toxins in Wheat Grains, Wheat Flour, and Bread in Lebanon by LC-MS/MS Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080471 Authors: Jomana Elaridi Osama Yamani Amira Al Matari Saada Dakroub Zouhair Attieh Cereals are prone to fungal infection during growth, harvesting, transportation, and/or storage....
Sat, 08/10/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 469: Aflatoxin Exposure from Milk in Rural Kenya and the Contribution to the Risk of Liver Cancer Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080469 Authors: Anima J. Sirma Kohei Makita Delia Grace Daniel Senerwa Johanna F. Lindahl Milk is an important commodity in Kenya; the country has the largest dairy herd and highest per capita milk consumption in East Africa. As such...
Sat, 08/10/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 470: Contrasting Toxin Selectivity between the Marine Pufferfish Takifugu pardalis and the Freshwater Pufferfish Pao suvattii Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080470 Authors: Wei Gao Yoko Kanahara Misako Yamada Ryohei Tatsuno Hiroyuki Yoshikawa Hiroyuki Doi Tomohiro Takatani Osamu Arakawa To clarify the differences in toxin selectivity between marine and...
Fri, 08/09/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 467: Genetic Profiling of Aspergillus Isolates with Varying Aflatoxin Production Potential from Different Maize-Growing Regions of Kenya Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080467 Authors: Richard Dooso Oloo Sheila Okoth Peter Wachira Samuel Mutiga Phillis Ochieng Leah Kago Fredrick Nganga Jean-Baka Domelevo Entfellner Sita Ghimire Highly toxigenic strains...
Fri, 08/09/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 468: Paralytic Shellfish Toxin Uptake, Assimilation, Depuration, and Transformation in the Southeast Asian Green-Lipped Mussel (Perna viridis) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080468 Authors: John Kristoffer Andres Aletta T. Yñiguez Jennifer Mary Maister Andrew D. Turner Dave Eldon B. Olano Jenelyn Mendoza Lilibeth Salvador-Reyes Rhodora V. Azanza Bivalve...
Thu, 08/08/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 466: Biomonitoring of Deoxynivalenol and Deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside in Human Volunteers: Renal Excretion Profiles Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080466 Authors: Marcel Mengelers Marco Zeilmaker Arnau Vidal Marthe De Boevre Sarah De Saeger Rudolf Hoogenveen Biomarkers for the determination of the dietary exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON) have been proposed in...
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 463: Investigation of Zearalenone Adsorption and Biotransformation by Microorganisms Cultured under Cellular Stress Conditions Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080463 Authors: Rogowska Pomastowski Walczak Railean-Plugaru Rudnicka Buszewski The zearalenone binding and metabolization ability of probiotic microorganisms, such as lactic acid bacteria,...
Wed, 08/07/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 464: Camelid VHHs Fused to Human Fc Fragments Provide Long Term Protection Against Botulinum Neurotoxin A in Mice Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080464 Authors: Godakova Noskov Vinogradova Ugriumova Solovyev Esmagambetov Tukhvatulin Logunov Naroditsky Shcheblyakov Gintsburg The bacterium Clostridium botulinum is the causative agent of...
Fri, 08/02/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 452: Analysis of Mycotoxins Contamination in Poultry Feeds Manufactured in Selected Provinces of South Africa Using UHPLC-MS/MS Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080452 Authors: Sharon Maphala Mokubedi Judith Zanele Phoku Rumbidzai Naledi Changwa Sefater Gbashi Patrick Berka Njobeh A total of 105 different types of poultry feed samples from South Africa were...
Fri, 08/02/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 455: Lack of Toxic Interaction Between Fusariotoxins in Broiler Chickens Fed throughout Their Life at the Highest Level Tolerated in the European Union Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080455 Authors: Metayer Travel Mika Bailly Cleva Boissieu Guennec Froment Albaric Labrut Lepivert Marengue Tardieu Guerre Fusarium mycotoxins (FUS)...
Thu, 08/01/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 451: Zearalenone Contamination in Corn, Corn Products, and Swine Feed in China in 2016–2018 as Assessed by Magnetic Bead Immunoassay Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080451 Authors: Li Yang Mao Hong Du In total, 405 samples of corn, corn products, and swine feed from China in 2016–2018 were surveyed for zearalenone (ZEN) contamination using a...
Sun, 07/28/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 447: Label-Free Fluorescent Aptasensor for Ochratoxin—A Detection Based on CdTe Quantum Dots and (N-Methyl-4-pyridyl) Porphyrin Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080447 Authors: Li Liu Zafar Iqbal Tanveer Keqiu Jiang Qingwen Huang Jinghui Zhang Yongjiang Wu Zheng Han With the widespread contamination of ochratoxin A (OTA), it is of significant importance for...
Thu, 07/25/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 439: Ergochromes: Heretofore Neglected Side of Ergot Toxicity Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080439 Authors: Miroslav Flieger Eva Stodůlková Stephen A. Wyka Jan Černý Valéria Grobárová Kamila Píchová Petr Novák Petr Man Marek Kuzma Ladislav Cvak Kirk D. Broders Miroslav Kolařík Ergot, fungal genus Claviceps, are worldwide distributed grass...
Thu, 07/25/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 441: Determination of Deoxynivalenol Biomarkers in Italian Urine Samples Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080441 Authors: De Santis Debegnach Miano Moretti Sonego Chiaretti Buonsenso Brera Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin mainly produced by Fusarium graminearum that can contaminate cereals and cereal-based foodstuff. Urinary DON levels can be...
Wed, 07/24/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 434: Target Analysis and Retrospective Screening of Multiple Mycotoxins in Pet Food Using UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11080434 Authors: Luigi Castaldo Giulia Graziani Anna Gaspari Luana Izzo Josefa Tolosa Yelko Rodríguez-Carrasco Alberto Ritieni A comprehensive strategy combining a quantitative method for 28 mycotoxins and a post-...
Mon, 07/22/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 429: Aflatoxin in Chili Peppers in Nigeria: Extent of Contamination and Control Using Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus Genotypes as Biocontrol Agents Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070429 Authors: Chibundu N. Ezekiel Alejandro Ortega-Beltran Eniola O. Oyedeji Joseph Atehnkeng Philip Kössler Folasade Tairu Irmgard Hoeschle-Zeledon Petr Karlovsky Peter J. Cotty...
Mon, 07/22/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 430: Mycotoxin Contamination of Edible Non-Timber Forest Products in Cameroon Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070430 Authors: Joseph Fovo Djeugap Sita Ghimire Immaculate Wanjuki Anne Muiruri Jagger Harvey The prevalence and concentrations of three major mycotoxins, total aflatoxin (AFs), fumonisin (F), and zearalenone (ZEN), were determined on seven edible non-...
Sat, 07/20/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 426: Comparative Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Plasmids and Expression Levels of Plasmid-Encoded Genes during Growth under Salt and Acid Stress Conditions Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070426 Authors: Patricia Hingston Thomas Brenner Lisbeth Truelstrup Hansen Siyun Wang Listeria monocytogenes strains are known to harbour plasmids that confer resistance to...
Fri, 07/19/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 423: Ciguatera-Causing Dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus spp. (Dinophyceae) in a Subtropical Region of North Atlantic Ocean (Canary Islands): Morphological Characterization and Biogeography Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070423 Authors: Isabel Bravo Francisco Rodriguez Isabel Ramilo Pilar Rial Santiago Fraga Dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Gambierdiscus...
Fri, 07/19/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 424: Virulence Characteristics and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Humans in South Africa: 2006–2013 Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070424 Authors: Karama Cenci-Goga Malahlela Smith Keddy El-Ashram Kabiru Kalake Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) isolates (N = 38) that were...
Wed, 07/17/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 419: Perfringolysin O-Induced Plasma Membrane Pores Trigger Actomyosin Remodeling and Endoplasmic Reticulum Redistribution Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070419 Authors: Cláudia Brito Francisco S. Mesquita Christopher K. E. Bleck James R. Sellers Didier Cabanes Sandra Sousa Clostridium perfringens produces an arsenal of toxins that act together to cause...
Tue, 07/16/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 413: Dinophysis Toxins: Distribution, Fate in Shellfish and Impacts Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070413 Authors: Beatriz Reguera Juan Blanco Several planktonic dinoflagellate species of the genus Dinophysis produce one or two groups of lipophilic toxins: (i) okadaic acid (OA) and its derivatives, the dinophysistoxins (DTXs), and (ii) pectenotoxins (PTXs) [...]
Tue, 07/16/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 415: Report of the IVth Workshop of the Spanish National Network on Mycotoxins and Toxigenic Fungi and Their Decontamination Processes (MICOFOOD), Held in Pamplona, Spain, 29–31 May 2019 Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070415 Authors: González-Peñas Vettorazzi Lizarraga Azqueta López de Cerain The present publication collects the communications presented in...
Tue, 07/16/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 416: The ADP-Ribosylating Toxins of Salmonella Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070416 Authors: Cheng Wiedmann A number of pathogenic bacteria utilize toxins to mediate disease in a susceptible host. The foodborne pathogen Salmonella is one of the most important and well-studied bacterial pathogens. Recently, whole genome sequence characterizations revealed the...
Mon, 07/15/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 411: Understanding Mycotoxin Contamination Across the Food Chain in Brazil: Challenges and Opportunities Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070411 Authors: Marta H. Taniwaki John I. Pitt Marina V. Copetti Aldir A. Teixeira Beatriz T. Iamanaka Brazil is one of the largest food producers and exporters in the world. In the late 20th century, the European Union program...
Sun, 07/14/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 409: AFM1 Detection in Milk by Fab’ Functionalized Si3N4 Asymmetric Mach–Zehnder Interferometric Biosensors Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070409 Authors: Tatevik Chalyan Cristina Potrich Erik Schreuder Floris Falke Laura Pasquardini Cecilia Pederzolli Rene Heideman Lorenzo Pavesi Aflatoxins (AF) are naturally occurring mycotoxins, produced by many...
Sun, 07/14/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 410: Aflatoxin Binders in Foods for Human Consumption—Can This be Promoted Safely and Ethically? Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070410 Authors: Sara Ahlberg Delia Randolph Sheila Okoth Johanna Lindahl Aflatoxins continue to be a food safety problem globally, especially in developing regions. A significant amount of effort and resources have been invested in an...
Sat, 07/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 407: Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Botulinum Neurotoxin Type E Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070407 Authors: Candace S. Bever Miles Scotcher Luisa W. Cheng Robert M. Hnasko Larry H. Stanker Botulism is a devastating disease caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) secreted primarily by Clostridium botulinum. Mouse bioassays...
Sat, 07/13/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 408: Paralytic Shellfish Toxins and Ocean Warming: Bioaccumulation and Ecotoxicological Responses in Juvenile Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070408 Authors: Vera Barbosa Marta Santos Patrícia Anacleto Ana Luísa Maulvault Pedro Pousão-Ferreira Pedro Reis Costa António Marques Warmer seawater temperatures are expected to...
Thu, 07/11/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 402: Toxic Flatworm Egg Plates Serve as a Possible Source of Tetrodotoxin for Pufferfish Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070402 Authors: Taiki Okabe Hikaru Oyama Maho Kashitani Yuta Ishimaru Rei Suo Haruo Sugita Shiro Itoi The pufferfish Takifugu niphobles (at present Takifugu alboplumbeus) possesses highly concentrated tetrodotoxin (TTX), an extremely...
Wed, 07/10/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 399: T cell Receptor Vβ9 in Method for Rapidly Quantifying Active Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Type-A without Live Animals Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070399 Authors: Reuven Rasooly Paula Do Xiaohua He Bradley Hernlem Staphylococcal food poisoning is a result of ingestion of Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) produced by Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcal...
Wed, 07/10/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 400: Distinct Transcriptional Changes in Response to Patulin Underlie Toxin Biosorption Differences in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070400 Authors: Christian I. Oporto Carlos A. Villarroel Sebastián M. Tapia Verónica García Francisco A. Cubillos Patulin (4-hydroxy-4H-furo[3,2c]pyran-2[6H]-one) is a mycotoxin produced by a suite of...
Sat, 07/06/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 395: Simple Diffusion as the Mechanism of Okadaic Acid Uptake by the Mussel Digestive Gland Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070395 Authors: Juan Blanco Helena Martín Carmen Mariño Araceli E. Rossignoli Okadaic acid (OA) and other toxins of the diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) group are accumulated and transformed mainly in many bivalves, inside the digestive...
Fri, 07/05/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 394: LC–MS/MS Analysis of the Emerging Toxin Pinnatoxin-G and High Levels of Esterified OA Group Toxins in Galician Commercial Mussels Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070394 Authors: Paz Otero Natalia Miguéns Inés Rodríguez Luis M. Botana The occurrence of marine harmful algae is increasing worldwide and, therefore, the accumulation of lipophilic marine toxins...
Fri, 07/05/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 393: LC-HRMS Screening and Identification of Novel Peptide Markers of Ricin Based on Multiple Protease Digestion Strategies Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070393 Authors: Long-Hui Liang Chang-Cai Liu Bo Chen Long Yan Hui-Lan Yu Yang Yang Ji-Na Wu Xiao-Sen Li Shi-Lei Liu Both ricin and R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), belonging to the type II ribosome-...
Thu, 07/04/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 392: A Short Peptide Derived from the ZorO Toxin Functions as an Effective Antimicrobial Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070392 Authors: Otsuka Ishikawa Takahashi Masuda Antimicrobial peptides are potential molecules for the development of novel antibiotic agents. The ZorO toxin of a type I toxin–antitoxin system in Escherichia coli O157:H7 is...
Tue, 07/02/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 387: Fumonisin B1 Induces Oxidative Stress and Breaks Barrier Functions in Pig Iliac Endothelium Cells Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070387 Authors: Qiaoling Yuan Yancheng Jiang Ying Fan Yingfeng Ma Hongyu Lei Jianming Su Fumonisins (Fums) are types of mycotoxin that widely contaminante feed material crops, and can trigger potential biological toxicities to...
Sun, 06/30/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 378: Pig Urinary Concentration of Mycotoxins and Metabolites Reflects Regional Differences, Mycotoxin Intake and Feed Contaminations Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070378 Authors: Lucia Gambacorta Monica Olsen Michele Solfrizzo The determination of mycotoxin and metabolite concentrations in human and animal urine is currently used for risk assessment and mycotoxin...
Sat, 06/29/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 377: Ochratoxin A-Induced Hepatotoxicity through Phase I and Phase II Reactions Regulated by AhR in Liver Cells Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070377 Authors: Hye Soo Shin Hyun Jung Lee Min Cheol Pyo Dojin Ryu Kwang-Won Lee Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a widespread mycotoxin produced by several species of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA exists in a variety...
Thu, 06/27/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 375: Global Mycotoxin Occurrence in Feed: A Ten-Year Survey Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11070375 Authors: Christiane Gruber-Dorninger Timothy Jenkins Gerd Schatzmayr Mycotoxins contaminating animal feed can exert toxic effects in animals and be transferred into animal products. Therefore, mycotoxin occurrence in feed should be monitored. To this end, we performed...
Thu, 06/20/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 360: The In Vivo and In Vitro Toxicokinetics of Citreoviridin Extracted from Penicillium citreonigrum Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060360 Authors: Yosuke Uchiyama Masahiko Takino Michiko Noguchi Nozomi Shiratori Naoki Kobayashi Yoshiko Sugita-Konishi Citreoviridin (CTVD), a mycotoxin called yellow rice toxin, is reported to be related to acute cardiac...
Wed, 06/19/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 356: An Eye on Staphylococcus aureus Toxins: Roles in Ocular Damage and Inflammation Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060356 Authors: Roger Astley Frederick C. Miller Md Huzzatul Mursalin Phillip S. Coburn Michelle C. Callegan Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a common pathogen of the eye, capable of infecting external tissues such as the tear duct,...
Wed, 06/19/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 357: Emerging Fusarium Mycotoxins Fusaproliferin, Beauvericin, Enniatins, and Moniliformin in Serbian Maize Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060357 Authors: Igor Jajić Tatjana Dudaš Saša Krstović Rudolf Krska Michael Sulyok Ferenc Bagi Zagorka Savić Darko Guljaš Aleksandra Stankov Emerging mycotoxins such as moniliformin (MON), enniatins (ENs),...
Tue, 06/18/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 352: Deoxynivalenol in the Diet Impairs Bone Mineralization in Broiler Chickens Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060352 Authors: Marsel Keçi Annegret Lucke Peter Paulsen Qendrim Zebeli Josef Böhm Barbara U. Metzler-Zebeli Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most abundant and important trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species. In chickens, DON intake...
Sat, 06/15/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 342: Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Swine Feeding from Spain Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11060342 Authors: Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares Vicente Rodríguez-Estévez Plácido Arenas-Fernández Ana M. García-Campaña Laura Gámiz-Gracia A survey including 228 pig feed samples from Spain has been developed, exploring the occurrence of 19 mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and...

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