Viruses

Fri, 11/27/2020 - 12:01
The opioid epidemic in the United States, along with a lack of adequate harm reduction services, has contributed to a sharp rise in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. Despite considerable evidence of the effectiveness of HCV treatment in people who inject drugs (PWID), and recommendations from clinical guidelines to prioritize treatment in PWID, there are multiple barriers to broad uptake of HCV...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 10:02
ABSTRACT Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected over 40 million people worldwide, with over 1 million deaths as of October 2020 and with multiple efforts in the development and testing of antiviral drugs and vaccines under way. In order to gain insights into SARS-CoV-2 evolution and drug targets, we investigated how and to what extent the SARS-CoV-2 genome...
Thu, 11/26/2020 - 06:22
Author(s): Mahmoud Ibrahim, Salah Zakaria, Abdel-Hamid I. Bazid, Walid H. Kilany, Mohamed A.Zain El-Abideen, Ahmed Ali In this study, two highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N8 viruses were isolated from chicken and geese in 2018 and 2019 (Chicken/ME-2018 and Geese/Egypt/MG4/2019). The hemagglutinin and neuraminidase gene analyses revealed their close relatedness to the clade-2.3.4.4b H5N8...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:02
Infections by A/H5 and A/H7 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can cause acute disease and are therefore notifiable in poultry and wild birds. During winter 2015-2016, several cases of infection caused by highly pathogenic (HP) AIVs belonging to the A/H5N1, A/H5N2, and A/H5N9 subtypes were detected in southwestern France. Throughout winter 2016-2017, several cases of infections caused mainly by A/...
Wed, 11/25/2020 - 10:02
Influent wastewater and effluent wastewater at the Rya treatment plant in Gothenburg, Sweden, were continuously monitored for enteric viruses by quantitative PCR (qPCR) during 1 year. Viruses in effluent wastewater were also identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in samples collected during spring, early summer, and winter. Samples of incoming wastewater were collected every second week....
Mon, 11/23/2020 - 14:06
Avian influenza (AI) is one of the most important viral diseases in poultry, wildlife and humans. Available data indicate that pigeons play a minimum role in the epidemiology of AI. However, a degree of variation exists in the susceptibility of pigeons to highly pathogenic AI viruses (HPAIVs), especially since the emergence of the goose/Guangdong H5 lineage. Here, the pathogenesis of H5N8 HPAIV...
Sun, 11/22/2020 - 06:15
Author(s): Anne Thébault, Anne-Marie Roque-Afonso, Pauline Kooh, Vasco Cadavez, Ursula Gonzales-Barron, Nicole Pavio Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is responsible for common acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Improvement in sanitation and use of efficient vaccines have reduced HAV incidence in developed countries. However, naive adult population are most susceptible to severe outcomes, and high endemic...
Sat, 11/21/2020 - 06:24
Author(s): Guadalupe Di Cola, Anabella C. Fantilli, María Belén Pisano, Viviana E. Ré Foodborne viruses have been recognized as a growing concern to the food industry and a serious public health problem. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is responsible for the majority of viral outbreaks of food origin worldwide, while hepatitis E virus (HEV) has also been gaining prominence as a foodborne viral agent in...
Sat, 11/21/2020 - 06:23
Author(s): Mohammed A. Rohaim, Rania F. El Naggar, Yehia Madbouly, Mohammed A. AbdelSabour, Kawkab A. Ahmed, Muhammad Munir Despite the recent advances in avian influenza virus surveillance and genomic data, fundamental questions concerning the ecology and evolution of these viruses remain elusive. In Egypt, the H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) are co-circulating...
Fri, 11/20/2020 - 08:02
by Nishi H. Patel, Vanessa Meier-Stephenson, Meaza Genetu, Debasu Damtie, Ebba Abate, Shitaye Alemu, Yetework Aleka, Guido Van Marle, Kevin Fonseca, Carla S. Coffin, Tekalign Deressa Background Occult hepatitis B (OHB) is a major concern in HIV infected patients as it associates with a high risk of HBV reactivation and disease progression. However, data on the prevalence of OHB among HIV positive...
Wed, 11/18/2020 - 08:02
by Akira Sakamaki, Kunihiko Yokoyama, Kyutaro Koyama, Shinichi Morita, Hiroyuki Abe, Kenya Kamimura, Masaaki Takamura, Shuji Terai In alcoholic liver cirrhosis (LC) patients, obesity has become a problem that progresses into liver dysfunction. Herein, we investigated the relationship between the prognosis of steatohepatitis and body weight, along with fat accumulation in patients with alcoholic...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 22:18
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of an acute and in most cases self‐limiting hepatitis. Of the four major HEV genotypes that infect humans, genotype 3 and 4 are zoonotic and have been identified in humans but predominantly in pigs and wild boar, which are considered the main reservoirs. However, the known host range of zoonotic HEV may be increasing to comprise additional species,...
Tue, 11/17/2020 - 16:00
Pediatric allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients often suffer from gastro-intestinal (GI) disease caused by viruses, Graft-versus-Host Disease (GVHD) or a combination of the two. Currently, the GI eukaryotic virome of HSCT recipients remains relatively understudied, which complicates the understanding of its role in GVHD pathogenicity. As decisions regarding...
Fri, 11/13/2020 - 06:19
Author(s): Nutthawan Nonthabenjawan, Patcharaporn Boonyos, Benjarat Phattanawiboon, Worakarn Towayunanta, Kobkool Chuntrakool, Karn Ngaopravet, Kriangsak Ruchusatsawat, Ballang Uppapong, Somchai Sangkitporn, Eisuke Mekada, Yoshiharu Matsuura, Masashi Tatsumi, Hiroto Mizushima Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Norovirus shedding typically lasts one week to one month...
Tue, 11/10/2020 - 16:00
Extracellular vesicles are encapsulated lipid nanoparticles secreted by a variety of cell types in living organisms. They are known to carry proteins, metabolites, nucleic acids, and lipids as their cargoes and are important mediators of intercellular communication. The role of extracellular vesicles in chronic liver disease has been reported. Chronic liver disease such as viral hepatitis...
Sat, 11/07/2020 - 22:15
This study focuses on foodborne outbreaks of microbial infection associated with fresh produce in Europe and North America from this millennium. A total of 277 outbreaks with 44,524 individual cases were identified. Foodborne pathogens associated with the most outbreak frequency include Cryptosporidium (20.5%) in Europe and Salmonella (52.2%) in North America although Norovirus (54.3%) and...
Thu, 11/05/2020 - 12:01
Norovirus enteritis can cause intractable diarrhea in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients, for which there are no established treatments. We reviewed medical records of 9 SOT recipients at our center who received orally administered human immunoglobulin for norovirus enteritis, and it appeared to be an effective treatment modality.
Wed, 11/04/2020 - 06:18
Author(s): Matías Castells, Rubén Darío Caffarena, María Laura Casaux, Carlos Schild, Felipe Castells, Daniel Castells, Matías Victoria, Franklin Riet-Correa, Federico Giannitti, Viviana Parreño, Rodney Colina Uruguay is a leading exporter of bovine meat and dairy products, and cattle production is one of the principal economic backbones in this country. A main clinical problem faced by livestock...
Wed, 11/04/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Sofia Persson, Erik Alm, Måns Karlsson, Theresa Enkirch, Heléne Norder, Ronnie Eriksson, Magnus Simonsson, Patrik Ellström Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is mainly transmitted via contaminated food or water or through person-to-person contact. Here, we describe development and evaluation of a reverse transcription droplet digital PCR (RT-ddPCR) and reverse transcription real-time PCR (RT-qPCR...
Sun, 11/01/2020 - 06:13
Author(s): Mia C. Mattioli, Katharine M. Benedict, Jennifer Murphy, Amy Kahler, Kelly E. Kline, Allison Longenberger, Patrick K. Mitchell, Sharon Watkins, Philip Berger, Orin C. Shanks, Catherine E. Barrett, Leslie Barclay, Aron J. Hall, Vincent Hill, Andre Weltman In June 2017, the Pennsylvania Department of Health (PADOH) was notified of multiple norovirus outbreaks associated with 179 ill...
Sat, 10/31/2020 - 04:02
Plant-derived proteases, bromelain, papain, and ficin are broad-acting enzymes with generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status for foods and have current application in several food industries. These proteases have also been reported to have antimicrobial properties. This study investigated the efficacy of commercially-prepared bromelain, papain, and ficin, individually and combined (2500 ppm...
Fri, 10/30/2020 - 16:00
H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in chickens is often accompanied by secondary bacterial infection, but the mechanism is unclear. The aim of the present study was to reveal that mechanism and explore non-antibiotic treatment. 16s rRNA sequencing and metabonomics were performed in the intestinal contents of chickens infected with H9N2 AIV or H9N2 AIV and fed with ageratum-liquid (AL) to...
Thu, 10/29/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a pathogen of both humans and livestock in Africa and the Middle East. Severe human disease is associated with hepatitis and/or encephalitis. Current pathogenesis studies rely on rodents and nonhuman primates, which have advantages and disadvantages. We evaluated disease progression in Mustela putorius furo (the ferret) following intradermal (i.d.) or...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 06:14
Author(s): Catherine Hennechart-Collette, Océane Dehan, Michel Laurentie, Audrey Fraisse, Sandra Martin-Latil, Sylvie Perelle Among the enteric viruses implicated in foodborne outbreaks, the human norovirus and hepatitis viruses A and E (HAV and HEV) represent a serious public health concern. International standard ISO 15216 proposes methods for detecting HAV and norovirus (genogroups I and II)...
Wed, 10/28/2020 - 04:02
Norovirus food poisoning outbreaks in Korea (South) appeared in 2000s and have been increasing since then. We aimed to investigate the epidemiological features of norovirus food poisoning outbreaks in Korea over the past years (2002 ~ 2017), based on official food poisoning statistics and available reports, and to find their association with climate factors. Norovirus was the most common cause of...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:05
ABSTRACT Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is a recently emerged respiratory coronavirus that has infected >23 million people worldwide with >800,000 deaths. Few COVID-19 therapeutics are available, and the basis for severe infections is poorly understood. Here, we investigated properties of type I (β), II...
Tue, 10/27/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT The magnitude of the morbidity and mortality inflicted upon the global population in less than 1 year has driven the inescapable conclusion that the discovery and development of effective antiviral drugs for COVID-19 are urgent and should be prioritized. The antiviral drug discovery programs that emerged for HIV and hepatitis C virus have enabled technology and expertise to accelerate...
Fri, 10/23/2020 - 12:01
Background Diarrhea is common and associated with substantial morbidity among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, but the etiology is often not identified. Multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays increase the detection of diarrheal pathogens, but the impact of this technology in this population has not been evaluated. Methods Our center replaced stool cultures and other...
Fri, 10/23/2020 - 12:01
Background Enhanced influenza vaccines may improve protection for older adults, but comparative immunogenicity data are limited. Our objective was to examine immune responses to enhanced influenza vaccines, compared to standard-dose vaccines, in community-dwelling older adults. Methods Community-dwelling older adults aged 65–82 years in Hong Kong were randomly allocated (October 2017–January 2018...
Thu, 10/22/2020 - 16:00
H5N1 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) with a deletion of 20 amino acids at residues 49–68 in the stalk region of neuraminidase (NA) became a major epidemic virus. To determine the effect of truncation or deglycosylation of the NA stalk on virulence, we used site-directed mutagenesis to insert 20 amino acids in the short-stalk virus A/mallard/Huadong/S/2005 (SY) to recover the long-stalk virus...
Thu, 10/22/2020 - 10:04
ABSTRACT Supply shortages of N95 respirators during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have motivated institutions to develop feasible and effective N95 respirator reuse strategies. In particular, heat decontamination is a treatment method that scales well and can be implemented in settings with variable or limited resources. Prior studies using multiple inactivation methods,...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 10:02
RO7049389, an inhibitor of hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid assembly, is being developed for the treatment of patients with chronic HBV infection. The objectives of this first-in-human study are to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), food effect, inhibitory effect on CYP3A, and effect on QT of RO7049389 in healthy participants. Five components, single-ascending-dose (SAD)...
Wed, 10/21/2020 - 08:03
by Hauke Thomsen, Xinjun Li, Kristina Sundquist, Jan Sundquist, Asta Försti, Kari Hemminki Autoimmune hepatitis (AH) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are autoimmune diseases (AIDs) targeting cellular components of the liver. Being rare diseases, limited data are available about familial risks among these AIDs (concordant) or between them and other AIDs (discordant). We aimed to carry out an...
Tue, 10/20/2020 - 08:03
by Lauren Korhonen, Jessica Cohen, Nicole Gregoricus, Monica M. Farley, Rebecca Perlmutter, Stacy M. Holzbauer, Ghinwa Dumyati, Zintars Beldavs, Ashley Paulick, Jan Vinjé, Brandi M. Limbago, Fernanda C. Lessa, Alice Y. Guh We assessed viral co-infections in 155 patients with community-associated Clostridioides difficile infection in five U.S. sites during December 2012–February 2013. Eighteen...
Fri, 10/16/2020 - 02:03
The global SARS-CoV-2 pandemic dictates that anti-contagion strategies should become matters of essential routine in everyday life. Fomite transference is one of the routes of transmission that has been considered for this virus. However, the risks associated with contaminated surfaces of food packaging kept in refrigerators have not yet been adequately assessed. In this study, a surrogate virus...
Thu, 10/15/2020 - 00:00
Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis and food poisoning worldwide. In this study, we investigated the anti-noroviral activity of Lindera obtusiloba leaf extract (LOLE) using murine norovirus (MNV-1), a surrogate of human norovirus. Preincubation of MNV-1 with LOLE at 4, 8, or 12 mg/mL for 1 h at 25 °C significantly reduced viral infectivity, by 51.8%, 64.1%, and 71.2...
Tue, 10/13/2020 - 08:05
by Zhenyu Zhang, Haili Zhang, Ling Xu, Xing Guo, Wenfei Wang, Yujie Ji, Chaohui Lin, Yujie Wang, Xiaojun Wang The influenza B virus (IBV) causes seasonal influenza and has accounted for an increasing proportion of influenza outbreaks. IBV mainly causes human infections and has not been found to spread in poultry. The replication mechanism and the determinants of interspecies transmission of IBV...
Mon, 10/12/2020 - 06:17
Author(s): Hua'ning Zhang, Danlei Liu, Zilei Zhang, Joanne Hewitt, Xinpeng Li, Peibin Hou, Dapeng Wang, Qingping Wu Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Oysters are known food-related vehicles for HuNoV transmission. However, there are few data available on the viral contamination of shellfish from production areas in China. A one-year...
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 16:00
Choice of direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) in the United Kingdom and similar settings usually requires knowledge of the genotype and, in some cases, antiviral resistance (AVR) profile of the infecting virus. To determine these, most laboratories currently use Sanger technology, but next-generation sequencing (NGS) offers potential advantages in throughput and...
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 08:03
S. Youk et al. An outbreak of low-pathogenicity avian influenza A(H7N3) virus of North American wild bird lineage occurred on commercial turkey farms in North Carolina and South Carolina, USA, during March–April 2020. The virus mutated to the highly pathogenic form in 1 house on 1 farm via recombination with host 28S rRNA.
Fri, 10/09/2020 - 00:00
Mycotoxigenic fungi and their toxins are a global concern, causing huge economic and health impacts in developing countries such as Ethiopia, where the mycotoxin control system is inadequate. This work aimed to review the occurrences of agriculturally essential fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Penicillium and their major mycotoxins in Ethiopian food/feedstuffs. The incidents of crucial...
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 22:15
ABSTRACT Aims The efficacy of a novel photochemical method for generating chlorine dioxide (photoClO2) was evaluated against human noroviruses (HuNoV) surrogate, bacteriophage MS2, and Clostridium difficile endospores. Methods and Results Chlorine dioxide was generated by mixing 1% sodium chlorite with 10 parts‐per‐million (ppm) Eosin Y and irradiating with a photo‐activator‐excitable light....
Thu, 10/08/2020 - 02:03
Norovirus (NoV) is an important etiological agent of diarrhea in children and adults. In Mexico, NoV screening is not routinely performed. NoV is highly infectious and is responsible for massive outbreaks due to the consumption of contaminated food. The study was a cross-sectional design. Samples of diarrheal stools were collected from (62) children and (38) adults with acute gastroenteritis...
Wed, 10/07/2020 - 06:16
Author(s): Chongzhen Sun, Jiayin Chen, Hui Li, Ling Fang, Shiwei Wu, Pallavi Jayavanth, Shuze Tang, Gloria Sanchez, Xiyang Wu The study was designed to develop a sensitive one-step duplex reverse transcription droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (RT-ddPCR) to detect norovirus genogroup I and II (NoV GI and GII) in lettuce and strawberry. The specificity, sensitivity, repeatability and...
Tue, 10/06/2020 - 06:31
Author(s): Matteo Crotta, Antonio Lavazza, Ana Mateus, Javier Guitian Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is an emerging foodborne pathogen and consumption of raw or undercooked pork products has been associated with increased risk of human infection. This work represents the first attempt to evaluate the risk of HEV being present on pig carcasses and in meat at the end of the slaughtering process...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 22:21
In the last decade in Europe, the number of autochthonous cases of hepatitis E has significantly increased. Most of the cases arise from foodborne infections caused by the zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes HEV‐3 and HEV‐4. Several human cases have been linked to consumption of raw or undercooked animal products of both pork (liver sausages) and wild boar meat. In this study, the...
Fri, 10/02/2020 - 08:02
To examine how and what information is communicated via social media during an infectious disease outbreak.
Tue, 09/29/2020 - 16:00
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic that continues to pose significant public health concerns. While research to deliver vaccines and antivirals are being pursued, various effective technologies to control its environmental spread are also being targeted. Ultraviolet light (UV-C) technologies are effective against a broad spectrum...
Tue, 09/29/2020 - 08:04
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a biological hazard that must be controlled and is a recognized etiological agent in viral hepatitis. This is a zoonotic virus and can be transmitted through the fecal–oral route. The pig is an important reservoir host of HEV, and is a source of contamination for the consumer after the consumption of raw or undercooked pork products. When detected, the most prevalent...
Mon, 09/28/2020 - 18:03
A cluster of pneumonia cases of unknown etiology associated with pyrexia and acute respiratory distress was identified in Southern China. Links between the previous severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) cases and the region’s seafood market were noted with the possibility of a new zoonosis and SARS-CoV-2 was identified as the responsible agent. Currently, there are no effective prophylactic or...

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