Viruses

Fri, 03/05/2021 - 08:03
by Barbara Holzer, Pramila Rijal, Adam McNee, Basudev Paudyal, Veronica Martini, Becky Clark, Tanuja Manjegowda, Francisco J. Salguero, Emily Bessell, John C. Schwartz, Katy Moffat, Miriam Pedrera, Simon P. Graham, Alistair Noble, Marie Bonnet-Di Placido, Roberto M. La Ragione, William Mwangi, Peter Beverley, John W. McCauley, Rodney S. Daniels, John A. Hammond, Alain R. Townsend, Elma Tchilian...
Wed, 03/03/2021 - 02:02
Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are among the main causes of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Frozen raspberries have been linked to several HuNoV food-related outbreaks. However, the extraction of HuNoV RNA from frozen raspberries remains challenging. Recovery yields are low, and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) inhibitors limit the sensitivity of the detection methodologies...
Tue, 03/02/2021 - 02:02
Norovirus contamination of oysters is the lead cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis and a significant food safety concern for the oyster industry. Here, norovirus reduction from Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas), contaminated in the marine environment, was studied in laboratory depuration trials and in two commercial settings. Norovirus concentrations were measured in oyster digestive tissue...
Sat, 02/27/2021 - 08:04
by Fisayo Temilade Osamudiamen, Olusola Aanuoluwapo Akanbi, Daniel Oladimeji Oluwayelu, C. -Thomas Bock, Patrycja Klink Avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome, big liver and spleen disease and hepatic rupture haemorrhage syndrome. However, the knowledge about aHEV in commercial layer chickens in Nigeria is scarce. In this study, 460 serum samples...
Fri, 02/26/2021 - 02:02
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E, an emerging public health infection which has an increasing incidence across Europe. Because of the apparent lack of species barriers, HEV was characterized as a zoonotic agent. Swine are recognized as the main reservoir, but HEV is also found in wild animals such as ungulates, lagomorphs, and bats. Our work aimed at detecting the HEV...
Wed, 02/24/2021 - 06:09
Author(s): René A.M. Dirks, Claudia C.C. Jansen, Geke Hägele, Ans J.T. Zwartkruis-Nahuis, Aloys S.L. Tijsma, Ingeborg L.A. Boxman Contamination of bivalve molluscs with viruses is well recognized as a food safety risk. A microbiological criterion for norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in shellfish, however, does not exist in the European Union currently. The aim of this study was to...
Tue, 02/23/2021 - 16:00
Human norovirus is the leading cause of acute nonbacterial gastroenteritis in people of all ages worldwide. Currently, no licensed norovirus vaccine, pharmaceutical drug, or therapy is available for the control of norovirus infection. Here, we used a rice transgenic system, MucoRice, to produce a variable domain of a llama heavy-chain antibody fragment (VHH) specific for human norovirus (MucoRice...
Tue, 02/23/2021 - 16:00
The detection of viruses and bacteria which can pose a threat either to shellfish health or shellfish consumers remains difficult. The current detection methods rely on point sampling of water, a method that gives a snapshot of the microorganisms present at the time of sampling. In order to obtain better representativeness of the presence of these microorganisms over time, we have developed...
Fri, 02/19/2021 - 16:00
The fecal indicator organism (FIO) Escherichia coli is frequently used as a general indicator of sewage contamination and for evaluating the success of shellfish cleaning (depuration) processes. To evaluate the robustness of this approach, the accumulation, retention, and depuration of non-pathogenic E. coli, pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 and norovirus GII (NoV GII) RNA were evaluated using a...
Fri, 02/19/2021 - 08:03
In this study, we aimed to investigate the standard method used for quantification of norovirus in oysters in Japan for the provisional adaptation of the method as an alternative to ISO 15216-1:2017, to conduct a Japan baseline survey of norovirus in oysters. For this purpose, the method provided by the Japan Committee for Standardization of Virus Detection in Food was subjected to an...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 16:00
The available cell-adapted hepatitis A virus (HAV) strains show a very slow replication phenotype hampering the affordable production of antigen. A fast-growing strain characterized by the occurrence of mutations in the internal ribosome entry site (IRES), combined with changes in the codon composition has been selected in our laboratory. A characterization of the IRES activity of this fast-...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 10:02
H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection in a human was first reported in 2017. A/duck/Japan/AQ-HE29-22/2017 (H7N9) (Dk/HE29-22), found in imported duck meat at an airport in Japan, possesses a hemagglutinin with a multibasic cleavage site, indicating high pathogenicity in chickens, as in the case of other H7 HPAIVs. In the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of Dk/...
Thu, 02/18/2021 - 08:07
by Ziad Mansour, Jinan Arab, Racha Said, Alissar Rady, Randa Hamadeh, Bernard Gerbaka, Abdul Rahman Bizri Introduction The global abrupt progression of the COVID-19 pandemic may disrupt critical life-saving services such as routine immunization (RI), thus increasing the susceptibility of countries to outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Being endemic to several infectious diseases,...
Wed, 02/17/2021 - 14:04
The outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is global health and humanitarian emergency. To respond effectively to this pandemic, it is mandatory to reaffirm science in its different fields of study, including the food safety area. Presently, we review food safety in times of COVID-19, exploring whether the virus can be transmitted by food or water; recommendations from regulatory agencies...
Tue, 02/16/2021 - 12:01
Background Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common reason for children to receive medical care. However, the viral etiology of AGE illness is not well described in the post–rotavirus vaccine era, particularly in the outpatient (OP) setting. Methods Between 2012 and 2015, children 15 days through 17 years old presenting to Vanderbilt Children’s Hospital, Nashville, Tennessee, with AGE were...
Thu, 02/11/2021 - 02:03
The objective of this study was to use high-energy electron beam (HEEB) treatments to find surrogate microorganisms for enteric viruses and to use the selected surrogates as proof of concept to investigate low-energy electron beam (LEEB) treatments for enteric virus inactivation at industrial scale on frozen blueberries. Six food matrices inoculated with HAV (hepatitis A virus), MNV S99 (murine...
Wed, 02/10/2021 - 08:02
A. Parys et al. We report a zoonotic infection of a pig farmer in the Netherlands with a Eurasian avian-like swine influenza A(H1N1) virus that was also detected in the farmed pigs. Both viruses were antigenically and genetically characterized. Continued surveillance of swine influenza A viruses is needed because of human infection risk.
Wed, 02/10/2021 - 06:12
Author(s): Jan Mei Soon, Iwan Vanany, Ikarastika Rahayu Abdul Wahab, Ruhil Hayati Hamdan, Mohd Hafiz Jamaludin The COVID-19 pandemic has altered consumers’ relationship with food, whether through shopping, increased home cooking, taking pre-cautionary measures during food shopping, food delivery and whilst dining out. This study aims to examine the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on consumers’ food...
Wed, 02/10/2021 - 06:12
Author(s): Luisa Marti, Rosa Puertas, Jose M. García-Álvarez-Coque COVID-19 has highlighted the fragility of the global economic system. In just a few months, the consequences of the pandemic have left their mark on the affected countries at all levels and without exception. This article analyses the profile of food safety notifications reported by European countries in the first five months of...
Tue, 02/09/2021 - 18:03
Hepatitis A is a vaccine preventable liver infection caused by the hepatitis A virus. The occupational health nurse should be aware of the signs and symptoms of the virus, educate workers about the infection, and recommend immunization for workers traveling or working in high-risk areas for hepatitis A.
Sun, 02/07/2021 - 02:03
Oysters contaminated with human enteric viruses from sewage are implicated in foodborne outbreaks globally. Bacteriophages have been identified as potential indicators for these viruses, but have not been used in shellfish management outside of the USA. This study aimed to determine the background levels of F-RNA phage in five Australian oyster growing areas with a history of sewage spills and...
Thu, 02/04/2021 - 16:00
The H9N2 avian influenza virus is not only an important zoonotic pathogen, it can also easily recombine with other subtypes to generate novel reassortments, such as the H7N9 virus. Although H9N2 live attenuated vaccines can provide good multiple immunities, including humoral, cellular, and mucosal immunity, the risk of reassortment between the vaccine strain and wild-type virus is still a concern...
Wed, 02/03/2021 - 06:12
Author(s): Eun Bi Jeon, Man-Seok Choi, Ji Yoon Kim, Eun Ha Choi, Jun Sup Lim, Jinsung Choi, Kwang Soo Ha, Ji Young Kwon, Sang Hyeon Jeong, Shin Young Park This study investigated the antiviral effects of floating electrode-dielectric barrier discharge (FE-DBD) plasma treatment (1.1 kV, 43 kHz, N2 1.5 m/s, 5–30 min) against human norovirus (HuNoV) GII.4 in Jogaejeotgal Infectivity was assessed...
Wed, 02/03/2021 - 06:08
LWT
Author(s): Takashi Kuda, Makoto Nishizawa, Daiki Toshima, Keiichiro Matsushima, Seiichiro Yoshida, Hajime Takahashi, Bon Kimura, Takashi Yamagishi Previous studies reported the activity of fucoidans and polyphenols (phlorotannins) extracted from brown algae against enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of brown macroalgae on the non-enveloped norovirus. Aqueous...
Tue, 02/02/2021 - 08:04
by Jeremy D. Baker, Rikki L. Uhrich, Gerald C. Kraemer, Jason E. Love, Brian C. Kraemer Effective SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drugs are desperately needed. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro) appears as an attractive target for drug development. We show that the existing pharmacopeia contains many drugs with potential for therapeutic repurposing as selective and potent inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. We...
Sat, 01/30/2021 - 08:05
by Alexandra I. Wells, Kalena A. Grimes, Kenneth Kim, Emilie Branche, Christopher J. Bakkenist, William H. DePas, Sujan Shresta, Carolyn B. Coyne Neonatal echovirus infections are characterized by severe hepatitis and neurological complications that can be fatal. Here, we show that expression of the human homologue of the neonatal Fc receptor (hFcRn), the primary receptor for echoviruses, and...
Sat, 01/30/2021 - 06:19
Author(s): Sangha Han, Ji yeon Jo, Sa Reum Park, Changsun Choi, Sang-Do Ha Clam jeotgal, called "jogaejeotgal," is a Korean fermented seafood product with, generally, a high amount of added salt to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate for...
Fri, 01/29/2021 - 16:00
Infection with H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus caused high mortality in chickens, while ducks often appear to be asymptomatic. But, some recent H5Nx subtype viruses could cause high mortality in ducks. The variation between different species and the mechanisms by which some H5Nx viruses cause death in ducks requires investigation to identify the key processes in influenza...
Thu, 01/28/2021 - 10:06
ABSTRACT Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis worldwide. We previously demonstrated human intestinal stem cell-derived enteroids (HIEs) support cultivation of several HuNoV strains. However, HIEs did not support virus replication from every HuNoV-positive stool sample, which led us to test and optimize new medium conditions, identify...
Wed, 01/27/2021 - 12:01
Norovirus is the most common etiology of diarrheal illness globally, causing both sporadic and epidemic infection. It is responsible for more than 200 000 deaths annually, primarily in children under 5 years of age in developing countries, and economic costs are estimated to be more than $64 billion annually [1, 2]. These health and economic burdens have made noroviruses an important target for...
Wed, 01/27/2021 - 12:01
Background Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide, yet there is limited information on homotypic or heterotypic protection following natural infection to guide vaccine development. Methods A total of 6020 stools collected from 299 Peruvian children between 2010 and 2014 were tested by norovirus real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by sequence...
Wed, 01/27/2021 - 08:02
by Brittany L. Kmush, Amelia M. Lu, Taylor Spillane, Bryce Hruska, Brooks B. Gump, Kestutis G. Bendinskas Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of viral hepatitis around the world, especially in developing countries. Recently, HEV has also been recognized as important cause of hepatitis in Europe and Japan, however, there is a paucity of clinical data from the United States. The overall...
Wed, 01/27/2021 - 02:02
Enteric viruses, such as human norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), are the major causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide. These viruses have low infectious dose, and may remain infectious for weeks in the environment and food. Limited information is available regarding viral survival and transmission in low-moisture foods (LMF). LMFs are generally considered as ready-to-eat products,...
Tue, 01/26/2021 - 16:00
Clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have caused outbreaks in poultry in the world. Some of these viruses acquired internal genes from other subtype avian influenza viruses (AIVs) such as H9 and H6 for the generation of novel reassortant viruses and continually circulated in poultry. Here, we applied a duck-origin virus DK87 and a chicken-origin virus CK66 to...
Mon, 01/25/2021 - 22:17
Contaminated salted shellfish were a suspected cause of the 2019 hepatitis A outbreak in Korea; however, no virus was detected in the shellfish by the virus detection tests used. In this study, we investigated the shortcomings of these detection tests for identifying hepatitis A virus in salted shellfish to serve as a guide for improvement of these tests. Salted shellfish were washed and desalted...
Fri, 01/22/2021 - 22:18
During 2012–2017, a total of 1,144 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 outbreaks were reported in Taiwan. We conjectured the current 3‐km radius of the post‐outbreak containment policy could fail to effectively alleviate the current ongoing epidemics of HPAI H5 in Taiwan. The high intensity of localized transmission of HPAI H5 at certain focal hotspots was identified to follow the spatial...
Fri, 01/22/2021 - 22:18
Among recurrent sanitary emergencies able to spread rapidly worldwide, avian influenza is one of the main constraints for animal health and food security. In West Africa, Nigeria has been experiencing repeated outbreaks of different strains of avian influenza virus (AIV) since 2006 and is also recognized as a hotspot in the region for the introduction of emerging strains by migratory wild birds....
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 22:10
ABSTRACT Hepatitis C virus is a positive‐sense, single‐stranded RNA virus that causes chronic hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Cellular microRNAs directly modulate the viral infectivity and indirectly through targeting virus‐related host factors. They play an essential role in the progression of different stages of HCV infection. The roles of miR‐196 family in HCV infection and HCC...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 08:07
C. P. Mattison et al. During 2009–2018, four adenovirus, 10 astrovirus, 123 rotavirus, and 107 sapovirus gastroenteritis outbreaks were reported to the US National Outbreak Reporting System (annual median 30 outbreaks). Most were attributable to person-to-person transmission in long-term care facilities, daycares, and schools. Investigations of norovirus-negative gastroenteritis outbreaks should...
Thu, 01/21/2021 - 04:02
In addition to providing maximal nutritional value for neonatal growth and development, human milk functions as an early defense mechanism against invading pathogens. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which are abundant in human milk, are a diverse group of heterogeneous carbohydrates with wide ranging protective effects. In addition to promoting the colonization of beneficial intestinal flora...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 10:02
Genetic recombination plays a pivotal role in the appearance of human norovirus recombinants that cause global epidemics. However, the factors responsible for the appearance of these recombinants remains largely unknown. In this study, we revealed a selective pressure that restricts parental combinations leading to the emergence of norovirus recombinants. To investigate traces of emerging novel...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 06:09
Author(s): Kattareeya Kumthip, Pattara Khamrin, Hiroshi Ushijima, Niwat Maneekarn Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of nonbacterial foodborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis. Individuals who are asymptomatically infected may act as reservoirs to facilitate transmission of NoV. This retrospective study was conducted to identify the viral agent and investigate potential transmission of NoV...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 06:08
Author(s): Yi-Ming Huang, Wei-Chih Chang, Chuan-Liang Hsu This study investigated atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) jet, an emerging novel non-thermal technology, for the inactivation of human norovirus (NoV) on salmon sashimi. The influences of the non-thermal plasma on quality attributes of sashimi were also evaluated. Air, O2, and N2 (15 L/min) were used to produce the plasma jets. N2 plasma...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 04:02
In this work, 26 methylated acylphloroglucinol meroterpenoids with diverse skeletons, including 18 new ones (bellumones A-R, 1–18), were identified from the flowers of Hypericum bellum. Their structures including absolute configurations were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic data, calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Through methylation at C-5,...
Mon, 01/18/2021 - 02:02
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been frequently detected from pork liver and liver products, which can usually cause self-limiting diseases in healthy adults, yet may result in fatality in immunosuppressed groups. Nevertheless, there is so far no standardized method for HEV detection available from pork liver and/or liver products. The present study aimed to optimize the virus extraction method of...
Thu, 01/14/2021 - 10:04
ABSTRACT Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is related to immunological and microbial factors, with the possible implication of enteric viruses. We characterized the interaction between human noroviruses (HuNoVs) and blood group antigens in refractory CD and UC using HuNoV virus-like particles (VLPs) and histological tissues....
Wed, 01/13/2021 - 16:00
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide. HuNoVs can be detected in vitro using molecular assays such as RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. However, these molec...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 06:15
Author(s): Mohamad Eshaghi Gorji, Malcolm Tan Turk Hsern, Dan Li Bivalve molluscan shellfish such as oysters are filter feeders and are able to accumulate human noroviruses (NoVs) largely due to the presence of human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs)-like carbohydrates in their intestine. Since the fucose contents play a key role in the binding of NoVs to HBGAs, this study intended to...
Tue, 01/12/2021 - 04:02
Although SARS-CoV-2 is not a proven foodborne pathogen, the COVID-19 pandemic has put the food system on alert. Food safety is identified as an important pillar in mitigating the crisis. Therefore, understanding how popular media are used as a vital disseminator of food safety and health information for public use is more important than ever. YouTube deserves particular attention as one of the...
Mon, 01/11/2021 - 22:14
Cabbage Kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented food, has occasionally been related to acute gastroenteritis caused by human norovirus (HuNoV). The present study examined the inhibitory effects of electron beam (e‐beam) irradiation (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 kGy) on HuNoV GII.4 in suspension or cabbage Kimchi using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction combined with immunomagnetic...

Pages