Viruses

Thu, 06/17/2021 - 16:00
ObjectivesTo compare the safety, immunogenicity, and immune persistence of hepatitis A (HA) vaccines between HBs-Ag-positive and -negative participants.Method9000 participants were enrolled in the phase IV study of live attenuated HA (HA-L) or inactivated HA (HA-I) vaccines. The HBs-Ag-positive subjects were detected and became an independent observation group. Adverse reactions (ARs), geometric...
Thu, 06/17/2021 - 06:20
Author(s): Zezheng Liu, Qian Ye, Anchun. Cheng, Xuming. Ou, Sai Mao, Di Sun, Shaqiu. Zhang, Xinxin. Zhao, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Juan Huang, Qun Gao, Bin Tian, Mingshu Wang
Tue, 06/15/2021 - 12:01
Following increases in reported cases of hepatitis A, we assessed the impact of hepatitis A vaccine in Alaska Native persons. During 1996–2018, only 6 cases of hepatitis A were identified, all in unvaccinated adults. Populations can be protected against hepatitis A by achieving sufficient vaccination coverage over time.
Tue, 06/15/2021 - 12:01
Background Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is an ultrasound-based point-of-care method to quantify liver fat; however, the optimal threshold for CAP to detect pathologic liver fat among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH) is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify the diagnostic accuracy and optimal threshold of CAP for the detection of liver-fat among PLWH with...
Tue, 06/15/2021 - 02:02
Water and wastewater virological quality is a significant public health issue. Viral agents include emerging and re-emerging pathogens characterized by extremely small size, and high environmental stability. Since the mainly used conventional disinfection methods are usually not able to achieve complete disinfection of viral and other microbial targets, in real water and wastewater matrices,...
Sat, 06/12/2021 - 04:02
The human noroviruses are major causes of nonbacterial gastroenteritis, and are transmitted by both food and water, as well as via a person-to-person route. Asymptomatic norovirus infection of food handlers may play a role in transmission. The outbreak of noroviruses infections has been recognized in PyeongChang Winter Olympics, starting with security staffs from February 3, 2018. The Ministry of...
Fri, 06/11/2021 - 06:10
Author(s): Soo-Jeong Kye, Min-Ji Park, Na-Young Kim, Yu-Na Lee, Gyeong-Beom Heo, Yoon-Ki Baek, Jae-In Shin, Myoung-Heon Lee, Youn-Jeong Lee Since its first appearance in 1996, H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) of the Y439 lineage persisted in Korean live bird markets (LBM) until the last documented occurrence in 2018. However, in June 2020, the avian influenza surveillance program detected a novel...
Fri, 06/11/2021 - 00:00
Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in gallinaceous poultry are associated with viral infection of the endothelium, the induction of a ‘cytokine storm, and severe disease. In contrast, in Pekin ducks, HPAIVs are rarely endothelial tropic, and a cytokine storm is not observed. To date, understanding these species-dependent differences in pathogenesis has been hampered by the absence...
Thu, 06/10/2021 - 02:02
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) was detected in frozen strawberries which had been implicated in a large outbreak of hepatitis A in 1997. The sample was analysed after over 20 years of storage, following a standard method not available at the time of the outbreak. This is the first study in which the HAV associated with the 1997 outbreak of foodborne hepatitis has finally been detected.
Wed, 06/09/2021 - 06:11
Author(s): Wentao Song, Jin Guo, Xiansheng Ni, Jingwen Wu, Wen Xia, Fenglan He, Xi Wang, Guoyin Fan, Kun Zhou, Yuhang Wu, Shengen Chen, Haiying Chen We investigated fluctuations in the detection rates of avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5, H7, and H9 in live bird markets (LBMs) in Nanchang city, Chinese province Jiangxi, before and after the Chinese nationwide AIV vaccination campaign...
Tue, 06/08/2021 - 06:19
Author(s): Merlyn S. Thomas, Yaohua Feng Risk perceptions and trusted sources of information may have influenced consumer food handling practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study used a mixed-method qualitative-quantitative approach to assess consumer risk perception and trusted sources of food safety information during the pandemic. From April to August of 2020, five waves of online...
Sat, 06/05/2021 - 04:03
Toxoplasma gondii , hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Salmonella are zoonotic foodborne pathogens that may be transmitted to humans through the consumption of raw or undercooked pork.  The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of anti- Toxoplasma gondii , anti-HEV and anti- Salmonella antibodies from healthy pigs at slaughter in Switzerland. In the period of August to September 2020...
Wed, 06/02/2021 - 03:01
Avian H9N2 influenza viruses in East Asia are genetically diversified and multiple genotypes (A-W) have been established in poultry. Genotype S strains are currently the most prevalent strains, have caused many human infections and pose a public health threat. In this study, human adaptation mutations in the PB2 polymerase in genotype S strains were identified by database screening. Several PB2...
Sun, 05/30/2021 - 02:03
A novel F-specific RNA bacteriophage (FRNAPH) YM1, affiliating to genogroup I (GI) of Levivirus, is isolated for the first time from human stool samples using double-layer agar plates with the Escherichia coli ATCC700891 as the host. The complete genomic sequence of YM1 is 3551 nt in length, obtained through next-generation sequencing, and contains four genes encoding for maturation protein, coat...
Fri, 05/28/2021 - 00:00
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure have been recognized as independent risk factors for the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but their combined impacts and the potential metabolic mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Here, a comprehensive non-targeted metabolomic study was performed following AFB1 exposed to Hep3B cells at two...
Thu, 05/27/2021 - 22:12
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Accepted Article. Noroviruses belong to a genetically diverse group of viruses infecting a wide range of mammalian host species., and those detected in cattle and sheep are classified within genogroup III (GIII). The current classification of norovirus in genogroups and genotypes is based on phylogenetic clustering and average distances within and between...
Thu, 05/27/2021 - 16:00
Objectives Norovirus genotype GII.3[P12] strains have been an important pathogen for sporadic gastroenteritis infection. In previous studies of GII.3[P12], the number of specimens and time span are relatively small, which is difficult to truly reflect the infection and evolution of this type of norovirus. Here we report a molecular epidemiological study of the NoVs prevalent in Jiangsu between...
Wed, 05/26/2021 - 06:13
Author(s): Péter Pankovics, Ákos Boros, Zoltán László, Sándor Szekeres, Gábor Földvári, Eda Altan, Eric Delwart, Gábor Reuter Rodents including rats are reservoir of several pathogens capable of affecting human health. In this study, faecal and different organ specimens from free-living Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) (N = 18) and faecal samples from laboratory rodents (rats N = 21 and mice N = ...
Tue, 05/25/2021 - 18:03
The first wave of COVID-19 (corona virus disease 2019) hits Sri Lanka in mid-March, which led to the lockdown of the country.1 This was thought to link to changes in food availability, modes of acquisition, and food safety which could lead to worsening malnutrition and related comorbidities in Sri Lanka.2 Restriction of movements may affect either positively or negatively on public health and...
Thu, 05/20/2021 - 14:06
Mounting evidence suggests that lncRNA regulates many important diseases. However, the biological role of most lncRNAs in gastric cancer (GC) remain unclear. In this paper, we determined differential expression of lncRNAs and predicted ceRNA networks in the GC database by bioinformatics analysis and validated in GC cells. The effect of lncRNA AL139002.1 on GC cells biological function was...
Thu, 05/20/2021 - 08:06
by Louisa F. Ludwig-Begall, Constance Wielick, Olivier Jolois, Lorène Dams, Ravo M. Razafimahefa, Hans Nauwynck, Pierre-Francois Demeuldre, Aurore Napp, Jan Laperre, Etienne Thiry, Eric Haubruge Background As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic accelerates, the supply of personal protective equipment remains under strain. To combat shortages, re-use of surgical masks and filtering facepiece respirators has...
Thu, 05/20/2021 - 06:21
Author(s): Jessica M. van Loben Sels, Luke W. Meredith, Stanislav V. Sosnovtsev, Miranda de Graaf, Marion P.G. Koopmans, Lisa C. Lindesmith, Ralph S. Baric, Kim Y. Green, Ian G. Goodfellow Background Noroviruses are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide, yet there is a deficit in the understanding of protective immunity. Surrogate neutralization assays have been widely used...
Wed, 05/19/2021 - 22:12
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Accepted Article. Avian influenza (AI) is an important zoonotic disease, which can be transmitted across species barriers to other hosts, especially humans, posing a serious threat to the poultry industry and public health. In recent years, human cases infected with the H10N8, H9N2, and H7N9 of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been identified frequently...
Wed, 05/19/2021 - 14:06
Human noroviruses are the dominant causative agent of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. During the winter of 2014–2015, genotype GII.17 cluster IIIb strains emerged as the leading cause of norovirus infection in Asia and later spread to other parts of the world. It is speculated that mutation at blockade epitopes may have resulted in virus escape from herd immunity, leading to the emergence...
Tue, 05/18/2021 - 10:02
H9N2 avian influenza virus has been continuously circulating among poultry and can infect mammals, indicating that this virus is a potential pandemic strain. During influenza pandemics, secondary bacterial (particularly pneumococcal) pneumonia usually contributes to excessive mortality. In the present study, we observed the dynamic effect of H9N2 virus infection on host defense against secondary...
Wed, 05/12/2021 - 06:11
Author(s): Philippe Raymond, Sylvianne Paul, André Perron, Louise Deschênes, Kenji Hara Consumption of leafy greens and to a lesser extent fresh herbs has been associated with several foodborne outbreaks including human norovirus (HuNoV). However, the extraction and detection of viruses from these matrices present multiple challenges such as low recovery yields and relatively high PCR inhibition...
Wed, 05/12/2021 - 02:02
Concentration of viruses in water is necessary for detection and quantification of the viruses present, in order to evaluate microbiological barriers in water treatment plants and detect pathogenic viruses during waterborne outbreaks, but there is currently no standardised procedure. In this study, we implemented a previously described fast and simple lanthanum-based protocol for concentration of...
Mon, 05/10/2021 - 06:09
Author(s): Jun Li, Rumeng Li, Qi Zhang, Peipei Peng, Xiaoquan Wang, Min Gu, Zenglei Hu, Xinan Jiao, Daxin Peng, Jiao Hu, Xiufan Liu H7N9 avian influenza virus poses a dual threat to both poultry industry and public health. Therefore, it is highly urgent to develop an effective vaccine to reduce its pandemic potential. Virus-like particles (VLP) represent an effective approach for pandemic vaccine...
Fri, 05/07/2021 - 18:02
Introduction:Very little artificial intelligence (AI) work has been performed to investigate acetaminophen-associated hepatotoxicity. The objective of this study was to develop an AI algorithm for analyzing weighted features for toxic hepatitis after acetaminophen poisoning.Methods:The medical records of 187 patients with acetaminophen poisoning treated at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital were...
Fri, 05/07/2021 - 08:04
S. Ramachandran et al. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) genotype IA was most common among strains tested in US outbreak investigations and surveillance during 1996–2015. However, HAV genotype IB gained prominence during 2016–2019 person-to-person multistate outbreaks. Detection of previously uncommon strains highlights the changing molecular epidemiology of HAV infection in the United States.
Mon, 05/03/2021 - 22:12
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Accepted Article. Since 2014, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N6 viruses have been responsible for outbreaks in poultry. In this study, four H5N6 virus strains were isolated from fecal samples of sick white ducks and dead chickens in Shandong in 2019. These H5N6 viruses were triple‐reassortant viruses that have not been previously characterized. Their HA...
Mon, 05/03/2021 - 22:11
Zoonoses and Public Health, EarlyView. In humans, hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for an acute enterically transmitted hepatitis, which can become chronic in immune‐compromised patients. Genotypes 3 and 4 (HEV‐3 and HEV‐4) are zoonotic, and domestic pigs and wild boar are the main reservoirs. The occurrence of autochthonous cases in Europe, which have been increasing over the last 10 years...
Mon, 05/03/2021 - 16:00
The detection of fecal viral pathogens in water is hampered by their great variety and complex analysis. As traditional bacterial indicators are poor viral indicators, there is a need for alternative methods, such as the use of somatic coliphages, which have been included in water safety regulations in recent years. Some researchers have also recommended the use of reference viral pathogens such...
Mon, 05/03/2021 - 02:03
Abstract N-linked glycosylation plays critical roles in folding, receptor binding, and immunomodulating of hemagglutinin (HA), the main antigen in influenza vaccines. Chicken embryos are the predominant production host for influenza vaccines, but Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells have emerged as an important alternative host. In this study, we compared glycosylation patterns, including the...
Thu, 04/29/2021 - 13:02
Journal of Applied Microbiology, Accepted Article. Aim To evaluate generally recognized as safe (GRAS) liquid wash formulations against hepatitis A virus‐contaminated strawberries and blackberries in order to identify a formulation suitable for reducing virus contamination. Methods and Results Formulations included the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS; 0.5% w/v) by itself, and in...
Wed, 04/28/2021 - 10:02
Rotavirus is one of the major causes of infectious gastroenteritis among infants and children, and live attenuated vaccines for rotavirus A (RVA), namely, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have recently become available in Japan. Rotavirus is known to be excreted from patients and accumulated in oysters similar to norovirus; however, the vaccine strains in aquatic environments or oysters have not yet been...
Wed, 04/28/2021 - 08:03
by Xin Yin, Guohua Deng, Xianying Zeng, Pengfei Cui, Yujie Hou, Yanjing Liu, Jingzhen Fang, Shuxin Pan, Dongxue Wang, Xiaohan Chen, Yaping Zhang, Xiurong Wang, Guobin Tian, Yanbing Li, Yan Chen, Liling Liu, Yasuo Suzuki, Yuntao Guan, Chengjun Li, Jianzhong Shi, Hualan Chen The H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) that emerged in China have caused five waves of human infection. Further human cases...
Tue, 04/27/2021 - 02:02
In the last decade, the number of reported hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in Germany, including Bavaria, has continued to rise. In order to identify risk factors associated with HEV infection, we investigated notified hepatitis E cases from Bavaria during 2017. The project “Intensified Hepatitis E Surveillance in Bavaria” included interviews with questionnaires, collection and genotyping of...
Sun, 04/25/2021 - 06:11
Author(s): Huiqiang Ma, Hua Yue, Yingying Luo, Siyi Li, Cheng Tang Canine norovirus (CNV) is a diarrhea-causing pathogen in canines. In this study, 268 canine diarrheic fecal samples were collected from 13 pet hospitals across three provinces in China between March 2017 and May 2019, and 7.8% (21/268) samples were detected as CNV-positive by RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of twenty-one CNV RdRp...
Sat, 04/24/2021 - 08:04
by Jacob Schön, Angele Breithaupt, Dirk Höper, Jacqueline King, Anne Pohlmann, Rokshana Parvin, Klaus-Peter Behr, Bernd-Andreas Schwarz, Martin Beer, Jürgen Stech, Timm Harder, Christian Grund Repeated outbreaks due to H3N1 low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) in Belgium were associated with unusually high mortality in chicken in 2019. Those events caused considerable economic losses...
Sat, 04/24/2021 - 02:02
Pig’s blood and liver are valuable edible slaughter by-products which are also the major ingredients of offal-derived foodstuffs. The aim of the study was an evaluation of the occurrence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and porcine adenovirus (pAdV) as an index virus of faecal contamination in pig’s blood and liver for human consumption. In total, 246 samples of retail liver (n = 100) and pooled pig’s...
Wed, 04/21/2021 - 16:00
Pathogens that cause respiratory diseases in poultry are highly diversified, and co-infections with multiple pathogens are prevalent. The H9N2 strain of avian influenza virus (AIV) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) are common poultry pathogens that limit the development of the poultry industry. This study aimed to clarify the interaction between these two pathogens and their pathogenic mechanism...
Wed, 04/21/2021 - 02:02
Retail foodservice establishments (FSE) frequently utilize washes with sanitizing agents during fresh produce preparation. This study evaluated the efficacy of ozonated water on the inactivation of viruses, bacteria, and viruses in association with bacteria on produce surfaces. Boston bibb lettuce (BB) and cherry tomatoes were spot inoculated with viruses (murine norovirus (MNV) and MS2...
Mon, 04/19/2021 - 16:00
Avian influenza virus (AIV) outbreaks occur frequently worldwide, causing a potential public health risk and great economic losses to poultry industries. Considering the high mutation rate and frequent genetic reassortment between segments in the genome of AIVs, emerging new strains are a real threat that may infect and spread through the human population, causing a pandemic. Therefore, rapid AIV...
Thu, 04/15/2021 - 16:00
Pigs have long been recognized as “mixing vessels” in which new viruses are formed by reassortment involving various influenza virus lineages (avian, animal, human). However, surveillance of swine influenza viruses only gained real significance after the 2009 pandemic. A fundamentally important point is the fact that there is still no regular surveillance of swine flu in Russia, and the role of...
Thu, 04/15/2021 - 08:06
J. L. Cannon et al. Noroviruses are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) among adults and children worldwide. NoroSurv is a global network for norovirus strain surveillance among children <5 years of age with AGE. Participants in 16 countries across 6 continents used standardized protocols for dual typing (genotype and polymerase type) and uploaded 1,325 dual-typed sequences to the...
Tue, 04/13/2021 - 16:00
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are one of the leading causes of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. HuNoVs are frequently detected in water and foodstuffs. Free chlorine and peroxynitrite (ONOO−) are two oxidants commonly encountered by HuNoVs in humans or in the environment during their natural life cycle. In this study, we defined the effects of these two oxidants on GII.4 HuNoVs and GII.4 virus-like...
Mon, 04/12/2021 - 16:00
Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) is one of the most deadly pathogens that endanger the duck industry. Most viruses usually turn off host translation after infection to facilitate viral replication and translation. For the first time report to our knowledge, DHAV-1 can induce eIF2α phosphorylation and inhibit cellular translation in duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). Moreover, the activity of...
Thu, 04/08/2021 - 08:03
by Hidekatsu Kuroda, Yudai Fujiwara, Tamami Abe, Tomoaki Nagasawa, Takuma Oguri, Sachiyo Noguchi, Naohisa Kamiyama, Yasuhiro Takikawa Background and aims We investigated the usefulness of combining two-dimensional shear wave elastography and the ultrasound-guided attenuation parameter for assessing the risk of progressive non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, defined as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis...
Wed, 04/07/2021 - 08:28
Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the dominant cause of viral gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide. In this study, we investigated the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) on the reduction of HuNoV in different food models, on surfaces of fresh produce (green onion and cherry tomato), in low-fat milk, and simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The antiviral efficacy of PPE against HuNoV was...

Pages