Viruses

Fri, 10/11/2019 - 03:32
As a result of the obesity epidemic, the prevalence of non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is increasing. No drug is approved for the treatment of NASH. We have investigated the effect of a nutritional supplement, Mastiha or Chios mastic gum, on metabolic and histological parameters and on the gut microbiome in mice with NASH and fibrosis. Methods and results Advanced NASH was induced by feeding...
Fri, 10/11/2019 - 03:31
ABSTRACT We conducted a serological survey to detect antibodies against influenza A virus (IAV) in Japanese wild boars in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan, between 2014 and 2017. Sero‐prevalence against a pandemic‐like swine H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus was identified in 27.1% of specimens, and 1.7% were positive for both swine H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, indicating that wild boars could play an important role in...
Wed, 10/09/2019 - 03:40
by Mizuki Tanaka, Shiori Hasegawa, Satoshi Nakao, Kazuyo Shimada, Ririka Mukai, Kiyoka Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro Nakamura Many drugs can cause hearing loss, leading to sensorineural deafness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of drug-induced hearing loss (DIHL) by using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database and to obtain profiles of DIHL onset in clinical settings. We...
Wed, 10/09/2019 - 03:33
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) strains belonging to the Orthohepevirus genus are divided into four species (A–D). HEV strains included in the Orthohepevirus A species infect humans and several other mammals. Among them, the HEV‐3 and HEV‐4 genotypes are zoonotic and infect both humans and animals, of which, pigs and wild boar are the main reservoirs. Viruses belonging to the Orthohepevirus C species (...
Mon, 10/07/2019 - 03:33
Free‐range poultry farms have a high risk of introduction of avian influenza viruses (AIV), and it is presumed that wild (water)birds are the source of introduction. There is very scarce quantitative data on wild fauna visiting free‐range poultry farms. We quantified visits of wild fauna to a free‐range area of a layer farm, situated in an AIV hot‐spot area, assessed by video‐camera monitoring. A...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 16:54
ABSTRACT Enteric viruses in the Caliciviridae family cause acute gastroenteritis in humans and animals, but the cellular processes needed for virus replication and disease remain unknown. A common strategy among enteric viruses, including rotaviruses and enteroviruses, is to encode a viral ion channel (i.e., viroporin) that is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and disrupts host calcium (...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:30
by Jana Van Dycke, Annelii Ny, Nádia Conceição-Neto, Jan Maes, Myra Hosmillo, Arno Cuvry, Ian Goodfellow, Tatiane C. Nogueira, Erik Verbeken, Jelle Matthijnssens, Peter de Witte, Johan Neyts, Joana Rocha-Pereira Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most common cause of foodborne illness, with a societal cost of $60 billion and 219,000 deaths/year. The lack of robust small animal models has...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:21
Foodborne viral diseases are a major public health threat and pose a huge burden on the economies of both developed and developing countries. Enteric viruses are the causative agents of most foodborne illnesses and outbreaks. Egypt is classified by WHO among the regions with intermediate to high endemicity for various enteric viruses. This is manifested by the high prevalence rates of different...
Sat, 09/28/2019 - 03:21
Human norovirus (HuNoV) GII.P17-GII.17 (Kawasaki2014 variant) reportedly emerged in 2014 and caused gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. To clarify the evolution of both VP1 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) regions of GII.P17-GII.17, we analyzed both global and novel Japanese strains detected during 2013–2017. Time-scaled phylogenetic trees revealed that the ancestral GII.17 VP1 region...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:37
Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile infection (CDI) is the most common causative pathogen of health care-associated gastrointestinal infections; however, due to the overlap of clinical symptoms with those of other causes of acute gastroenteritis, the selection of the most appropriate laboratory test is difficult. From April to October 2018, 640 stool samples requested for CDI testing were...
Wed, 09/25/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): Cassandra Suther, Matthew D. MooreAbstractHuman norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne illness globally. Detection and quantification of norovirus commonly involves the use of reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR); however, the presence of inhibitory compounds in foods limit detection and accurate quantification. Although some studies have been...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): Mercedeh Tajdar, Marijke Reynders, Mario BerthAbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) causes worldwide more than 20 million new hepatitis cases yearly. These infections can take on fulminant forms or cause severe extrahepatic manifestations, and integration into hepatitis differential diagnosis is recommended. In developed countries, genotypes 3 and 4 are most common, mainly through zoonotic...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): I. Sciandra, L. Piccioni, L. Coltella, S. Ranno, G. Giannelli, F. Falasca, G. Antonelli, C. Concato, O. TurrizianiAbstractObjectiveOur purpose was to compare the performance of two recently introduced molecular tests for the identification of gastrointestinal viral infections.Methods100 fecal samples from pediatric patients were analyzed using two workflows, each including nucleic...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:37
Author(s): Linlin Li, Yun Zhang, Jiawen Dong, Junqing Zhang, Chunhong Zhang, Jianru Qin, Minhua Sun, Zhihong XuAbstractDuck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) has caused enormous economic losses to the poultry industry in China. In the current study, we generated chimeric virus-like particles (VLPs) containing E protein of the DTMUV and HA2 protein of the H3N2 avian influenza virus (AIV). The chimeric VLPs...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:36
Author(s): Florian Binder, Matthias Lenk, Saskia Weber, Franziska Stoek, Veronika Dill, Sven Reiche, Roland Riebe, Kerstin Wernike, Donata Hoffmann, Ute Ziegler, Heiko Adler, Sandra Essbauer, Rainer G. UlrichAbstractPathogenesis and reservoir host adaptation of animal and zoonotic viruses are poorly understood due to missing adequate cell culture and animal models. The bank vole (Myodes glareolus...
Tue, 09/24/2019 - 03:28
ABSTRACT Fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) is the causative agent of hydropericardium syndrome. To clarify the effects of FAdV-4 on immune organs in birds, we conducted a detailed examination of dynamic morphology and damage mechanisms in chickens randomly divided into 4 groups (FAdV-4, vaccination, FAdV-4 plus vaccination, and control). FAdV-4 caused the depletion of lymphocytes and...
Mon, 09/23/2019 - 03:22
A 36-year-old man from Russia was admitted with disseminated extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis. He had clinical, radiological, and microbiological evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis and tuberculosis meningitis. Culture of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis from his cerebrospinal fluid revealed it to be XDR. He was also found to be human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected (CD4 T-cell...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:31
Laboratory surveillance plays an important role in the detection and control of hepatitis A outbreaks and requires the application of rapid and accurate molecular diagnostic tools for hepatitis A virus (HAV) RNA detection, subgenotype identification, and sequence-based genotyping. We describe the development and validation of a triplex real-time, reverse transcription-PCR (triplex rRT-PCR) assay...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:31
The conventional methodology for gastrointestinal pathogen detection remains time-consuming, expensive, and of limited sensitivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the BD Max enteric viral panel (Max EVP) assay for identification of viral pathogens in stool specimens from individuals with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis, enteritis, or colitis. Prospective and...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:29
Author(s): Thuy Nguyen, Constance Delaugerre, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Corinne Amiel, Emmanuelle Netzer, Thomas L'Yavanc, Michel Ohayon, Gérard Israel, Nadia Valin, Nesrine Day, Georges Kreplak, Gilles Pialoux, Vincent Calvez, Jean-Michel Molina, Anne-Geneviève Marcelin, Eve TodescoABSTRACTIntroductionMixed hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) infections are clinically important as different...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:23
Hepatitis E is an emerging threat in industrialized countries. The foodborne transmission linked to consumption of pork and game meat is considered the main source of autochthonous infection. In Europe, small outbreaks have been reported linked to the consumption of pork liver sausages and wild boar meat. Based on previous findings and on increasing evidence of pork and game meat as a vehicle for...
Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:22
ABSTRACT H9N2 avian influenza has been prevalent in chicken flocks of China for years. In the first half year of 2018, clinical cases of suspected H9N2 infection were collected from chicken flocks in Shandong province. Nine strains of H9N2 influenza virus were isolated. The pathological changes of the dead chickens were mainly respiratory inflammation, renal swelling, and secondary infection....
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:36
by Theresa Schwaiger, Julia Sehl, Claudia Karte, Alexander Schäfer, Jane Hühr, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Charlotte Schröder, Bernd Köllner, Reiner Ulrich, Ulrike Blohm Pigs are anatomically, genetically and physiologically comparable to humans and represent a natural host for influenza A virus (IAV) infections. Thus, pigs may represent a relevant biomedical model for human IAV infections. We set...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Erfaneh Amoueyan, Sajjad Ahmad, Joseph N.S. Eisenberg, Daniel GerrityAbstractDue to rapid growth in the potable reuse industry, there is a need to better characterize the associated pathogen risks and degree of attenuation achieved by various treatment trains. It is also important to understand how emerging treatment frameworks compare to the historical practice of de facto reuse. As...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Edyta Świętoń, Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk, Aleksandra Giza, Krzysztof ŚmietankaAbstractThe process of avian influenza virus (AIV) evolution in a new host was investigated in the experiment in which ten serial passages of a turkey-derived H9N2 AIV were carried out in specific pathogen free chickens (3 birds/group) inoculated by oculonasal route. Oropharyngeal swabs collected 3 days post...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Georgia Diakoudi, Gianvito Lanave, Cristiana Catella, Maria Cristina Medici, Flora De Conto, Adriana Calderaro, Daniela Loconsole, Maria Chironna, Floriana Bonura, Giovanni Maurizio Giammanco, Kristián Bányai, Kentaro Tohma, Gabriel Ignacio Parra, Vito Martella, Simona De GraziaAbstractNoroviruses are important human enteric pathogens and monitoring their genetic diversity is important...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Jie Sun, Yuanyuan Zhang, Shuo Gao, Jing Yang, Yi Tang, Youxiang DiaoAbstractHepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) is an acute infectious disease caused by fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4), which mainly infects broilers aged 3–5 weeks. In March 2018, a pathogenic disease, which was characterized by symptoms similar to HHS, broke out in 10-day-old broiler flocks in Shandong...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:35
Author(s): Lize Cuypers, Marijn Thijssen, Arash Shakibzadeh, Ward Deboutte, Jamal Sarvari, Farzaneh Sabahi, Mehrdad Ravanshad, Mahmoud Reza PourkarimAbstractA tremendous upscale of screening and treatment strategies is required to achieve elimination of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Iran by 2030. Among treated patients, at least 5–10% is expected to experience treatment failure. To efficiently...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:33
Author(s): Vanessa Resende Nogueira Cruvinel, Tara Rava Zolnikov, Morteza Bashash, Carla Pintas Marques, James A. ScottAbstractBrazil was home to the second largest open-air dump in the world, Estrutural, which officially closed in January of 2018; however, many dumpsites throughout the country continue to operate informally. Prior to government-recognized closure, there were about 1200 waste...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:32
Author(s): Hamada A. Aboubakr, Fernando Sampedro Parra, James Collins, Peter Bruggeman, Sagar M. GoyalAbstractCold atmospheric-gaseous plasma (CAP) is an emerging non-thermal technology for decontamination of foodborne bacterial and viral pathogens. We obtained a >5 log10 reduction in the titer (TCID50) of feline calicivirus (FCV) on stainless steel discs and Romaine lettuce leaves after 3 min...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:30
Since 2013, H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been responsible for outbreaks in poultry and wild birds around Asia. H5N6 HPAIV is also a public concern due to sporadic human infections being reported in China. In the current study, we isolated an H5N6 HPAIV strain (A/Muscovy duck/Long An/AI470/2018; AI470) from an outbreak at a Muscovy duck farm in Long An Province in...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:30
For several years, poultry production in Egypt has been suffering from co‐circulation of multiple respiratory viruses including highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 (clade 2.2.1.2) and low pathogenic H9N2 (clade G1‐B). Incursion of HPAIV H5N8 (clade 2.3.4.4b) to Egypt in November 2016 via wild birds followed by spread into commercial poultry flocks further complicated the...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:30
The first human case of zoonotic H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was reported in March 2013 in China. This virus continues to circulate in poultry in China while mutating to highly pathogenic AIVs (HPAIVs). Through monitoring at airports in Japan, a novel H7N3 reassortant of the zoonotic H7N9 HPAIVs, A/duck/Japan/AQ‐HE30‐1/2018 (HE30‐1), was detected in a poultry meat product illegally...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:30
Since 2014, H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) from clade 2.3.4.4 have been persistently circulating in Southern China. This has caused huge losses in the poultry industry. In this study, we analysed the genetic characteristics of seven H5N6 HPAIVs of clade 2.3.4.4 that infected birds in Southern China in 2016. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the HA, PB2, PA, M and NS genes as...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:30
Suidae is an important reservoir of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and a source of transmission to humans (direct contact or via consumption of meat products). Our goal was to characterize the epidemiology of HEV infecting domestic pigs in Corsica Island, a French region hyperendemic for HEV. In Corsica, traditional extensive (or semi‐extensive) outdoor pig farming system is common. Sixteen farms were...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:30
Vietnamese poultry are host to co‐circulating subtypes of avian influenza viruses, including H5N1 and H9N2, which pose a great risk to poultry productivity and to human health. AIVs circulate throughout the poultry trade network in Vietnam, with live bird markets being an integral component to this network. Traders at LBMs exhibit a variety of trading practices, which may influence the...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:30
Influenza A viruses are one of the most significant viral groups globally with substantial impacts on human, domestic animal and wildlife health. Wild birds are the natural reservoirs for these viruses, and active surveillance within wild bird populations provides critical information about viral evolution forming the basis of risk assessments and countermeasure development. Unfortunately, active...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:30
Wild and domestic aquatic birds are the natural reservoirs of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). All subtypes of AIVs, including 16 hemagglutinin (HA) and nine neuraminidase (NA), have been isolated from the waterfowls. The H5 viruses in wild birds display distinct biological differences from their highly pathogenic H5 counterparts. Here, we isolated seven H5N3 AIVs including three from wild birds...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:30
As one of the important control strategies for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in China, vaccination has been implemented compulsively in poultry flocks since 2004. However, the emergence and dominance of the circulating antigenic variants require the update of vaccines periodically. In order to investigate the key molecular sites responsible for the antigenic drift, a total of 13 amino...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:30
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen, in particular genotype 3 HEV is mainly transmitted to humans through the consumption of contaminated pork products. This study aimed at describing HEV infection patterns in pig farms and at assessing the impact of immunomodulating co‐infections namely Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2),...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:30
A total of 15 dead or sick birds from 13 clinical outbreaks of avian influenza in ducks, geese, chickens and turkeys in 2017 in Bangladesh were examined. The presence of H5N1 influenza A virus in the affected birds was detected by RT‐PCR. Phylogenetic analysis based on full‐length gene sequences of all eight gene segments revealed that these recent outbreaks were caused by a new reassortant of...
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:30
During the past decade, livestock diseases have (re‐)emerged in areas where they had been previously eradicated or never been recorded before. Drivers (i.e. factors of (re‐)emergence) have been identified. Livestock diseases spread irrespective of borders, and therefore, reliable methods are required to help decisions makers to identify potential threats and try stopping their (re‐)emergence....
Sat, 09/21/2019 - 03:30
Influenza A (H1N1) viruses are distributed worldwide and pose a threat to public health. Swine, as a natural host and mixing vessel of influenza A (H1N1) virus, play a critical role in the transmission of this virus to humans. Furthermore, swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses have provided all eight genes or some genes to the genomes of influenza strains that historically have caused human pandemics...

Pages