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Viruses

Sat, 07/13/2019 - 01:03
Available online 11 July 2019 Author(s): Jiayun Yang, Zhengxiang Wang, Yingying Du, Yane Jia, Liang Wang, Shuai Xu, Qiyun ZhuAbstractDuring 2012―2015, six H5N1 avian influenza viruses were isolated from domestic birds and the environment around Qinghai Lake. Phylogenetic analysis of HA genes revealed that A/chicken/Gansu/XG2/2012 (CK/GS/XG2/12) belonged to clade 2.3.2.1a, while A/environment/...
Thu, 07/11/2019 - 15:23
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes 20 million infections worldwide yearly, of which only about 3.3 million are symptomatic. In developed Asian countries, HEV strains detected in human sera and in food sources were genetically similar, suggesting that indigenous HEV infections may be largely food‐borne. To assess the burden of hepatitis E in Singapore, we performed a seroepidemiologic study...
Wed, 07/03/2019 - 01:06
Available online 1 July 2019 Author(s): Danielle Leblanc, Marie-Josée Gagné, Élyse Poitras, Julie BrassardAbstractThe viability of murine norovirus (MNV-1), bovine rotavirus (boRV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV) was evaluated at 21 °C, 4 °C, and −20 °C on stainless steel surfaces, in bottled water, and on blueberries for up to 21 days. After 14 days of incubation at 21 °C on stainless steel, a...
Tue, 07/02/2019 - 17:00
Yasuha Arai, Norihito Kawashita, Madiha Salah Ibrahim, Emad Mohamed Elgendy, Tomo Daidoji, Takao Ono, Tatsuya Takagi, Takaaki Nakaya, Kazuhiko Matsumoto, Yohei Watanabe Avian influenza virus H9N2 has been endemic in birds in the Middle East, in particular in Egypt with multiple cases of human infections since 1998. Despite concerns about the pandemic threat posed H9N2, little is known about the...
Mon, 07/01/2019 - 15:04
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is currently considered as a global health concern due to the recognition of its zoonotic transmission to humans, mainly from swine, and its association with the development of severe cases of hepatitis in human risk populations. The lack of updated data on HEV state of infection in swineherds of Argentina, and the necessity of robust technologies for its...
Sun, 06/30/2019 - 01:12
Available online 28 June 2019 Author(s): Menka Suresh, Jennifer Harlow, Neda NasheriAbstractLeafy vegetables and fresh herbs are important parts of a healthy diet, however, they can be common vehicles of norovirus (NoV) infection and lead to serious health and economic concerns globally. NoV is highly infectious and persistent in the food and the environment, while being resistant to conventional...
Wed, 06/26/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic virus that can cause acute hepatitis in humans. Besides the fecal–oral route, transmission can occur by consumption of undercooked pig liver. Genotype 3 is the most frequent genotype found in Europe. Studies on HEV in slaughter-age pigs have not been conducted in Serbia so far. Pork meat production and consumption in Serbia is on...
Tue, 06/25/2019 - 13:52
Noroviruses are a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide. Although GII.4 strains have been responsible for most norovirus outbreaks, the assembled virus shell structures have been available in detail for only a single strain (GI.1). We present high-resolution (2.6- to 4.1-Å) cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) structures of GII.4, GII.2, GI.7, and...
Thu, 06/20/2019 - 17:00
Lauren W. Stranahan, Omar H. Khalaf, Daniel G. Garcia-Gonzalez, Angela M. Arenas-Gamboa Canine brucellosis, caused Brucella canis, is a disease of dogs and represents a public health concern as it can be transmitted to humans. Canine brucellosis is on the rise in the United States and there is currently no vaccine for use in dogs. Mice have been extensively utilized to investigate host-pathogen...
Thu, 06/20/2019 - 14:39
Abstract Although norovirus (NoV) is the major cause of gastroenteritis, with the largest number of NoV food poisoning cases in Japan, limited information is available regarding NoV detection in food. This study aimed to detect NoV in food samples during the 2015–2016 suspected foodborne outbreaks in Tokyo; 352 food samples from 64 NoV food poisoning outbreaks were collected. Bacterial culturing...
Tue, 06/18/2019 - 17:00
Diana Chaves Pereira Mejido, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Ana Maria Coimbra Gaspar, Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Fernanda de Oliveira Bottino, Lilian Gonçalves de Carvalho, Debora Regina Lopes dos Santos, Yohan Brito Kevorkian, Leandro Layter Xavier, Julio Moran, Marcelo Pelajo-Machado, Renato Sergio Marchevsky, Marcelo Alves Pinto Hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) is an emerging zoonotic...
Tue, 06/18/2019 - 13:03
Abstract Poultry farmers faced dual risk when mutant avian influenza (AI) virus showed the zoonotic characteristics. A/H5N1 and A/H7N9 were two dominant AI virus strains that have captured the attention of the public over the years for they have been reported to bring about greater loss to poultry and human, respectively. Previous studies mainly used quantitative methods investigating either the...
Sat, 06/15/2019 - 01:07
Available online 13 June 2019 Author(s): Yong Ma, Sujuan Ding, Yanquan Fei, Gang Liu, Hongmei Jang, Jun FangAbstractThe main foodborne pathogens are Norovirus, Enteric parasites, bacteria and fungi. Foodborne diseases can lead to high morbidity and mortality and result in huge economic losses. Some foodborne diseases are associated with antibiotic resistance, which is a significant problem...
Thu, 06/06/2019 - 01:11
Available online 4 June 2019 Author(s): Andreia I. Pimenta, Fernanda M.A. Margaça, Sandra Cabo VerdeAbstractThe environmental stability of enteric viruses and resistance to conventional treatments and common disinfectants, leads to their persistence in waters and food, causing serious implications on public health. Among non-thermal treatment methods, ionizing radiation is recognized as a useful...
Wed, 06/05/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Human noroviruses are the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis. In the absence of a practical culture technique for routine analysis of infectious noroviruses, several methods have been developed to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious viruses by removing non-viable viruses prior to analysis by RT-qPCR. In this study, two such methods (RNase and porcine...
Sat, 06/01/2019 - 01:14
Available online 30 May 2019 Author(s): Ruiqin Wu, Xiaohui Xing, Milena Corredig, Baozhong Meng, Mansel W. GriffithsAbstractHepatitis A virus (HAV) continues to be the leading cause of viral hepatitis. HAV outbreaks have been linked to the consumption of milk, but methods for HAV detection in milk are very limited. We developed a method to concentrate HAV in milk using protamine-coated iron oxide...
Fri, 05/24/2019 - 01:13
Available online 21 May 2019 Author(s): Lin Gan, Yu Tian, Yu Zhao, Xue-qin Shan, Wei Zhou, Bing-Bing Xia, Jason Chen, Ming-Li Wang, Jun ZhaoAbstractControl of currently circulating re-assorted low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 is a major concern for both animal and human health. Thus, an improved LPAI H9N2 vaccination strategy is needed to induce complete immunity in chickens against...
Thu, 05/23/2019 - 20:00
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the major cause of viral acute gastroenteritis for all age groups in various countries. HuNoV GII in particular accounted for the majority of norovirus outbreaks, among which GII.4 c...
Wed, 05/22/2019 - 17:00
Katharina Loreck, Sylvia Mitrenga, Diana Meemken, Regina Heinze, Annett Reissig, Elke Mueller, Ralf Ehricht, Claudia Engemann, Matthias Greiner In order to monitor the occurrence of zoonotic agents in pig herds as well as to improve herd health management, the development of new cost-effective diagnostic methods for pigs is necessary. In this study, a protein microarray-based assay for the...
Tue, 05/21/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Contamination of bivalve shellfish, particularly oysters, with norovirus is recognised as a significant food safety risk. Methods for quantification of norovirus in oysters using the quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) are well established, and various studies using RT-qPCR have detected norovirus in a considerable proportion...
Thu, 05/16/2019 - 01:08
Available online 14 May 2019 Author(s): Yupeng Ren, Hua Yue, Lin Zhu, Ruici Kan, Cheng Tang, Bin ZhangAbstractDuck hepatitis A virus type 3 (DHAV-3) infection is characterized by severe hepatitis. In recent years, DHAV-3 has become widespread in Asia and has led to economic losses. Conventional methods for DHAV-3 detection usually depend on the use of larger equipment that is not portable and is...
Sun, 05/12/2019 - 01:13
Available online 10 May 2019 Author(s): Morgane Salines, Mathieu Andraud, Marie Pellerin, Cécilia Bernard, Béatrice Grasland, Nicole Pavio, Nicolas RoseAbstractHepatitis E virus is a zoonotic pathogen for which pigs have been identified as the main reservoir in industrialised countries. HEV infection dynamics in pig herds and pigs are influenced by several factors, including herd practices and...
Wed, 05/08/2019 - 17:00
Jianjian Wei, Jie Zhou, Yakun Liu, Jie Wu, Tao Jin, Yuguo Li, Hui-Ling Yen Infectious virus-laden aerosols generated during poultry processing may mediate airborne transmissions of avian influenza at live poultry markets. To develop effective control measures to reduce aerosol dispersion, we characterised the aerosol flow pattern of the mechanical defeatherers, a major source of aerosol...
Mon, 04/29/2019 - 06:24
Abstract In the United Kingdom, there has been an increase in the number of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in people annually since 2010. Most of these are thought to be indigenously acquired Orthohepevirus A genotype 3 (HEV G3), which has been linked to pork production and consumption. However, the dominant subgroup circulating in British pigs differs from that which is found in people;...
Wed, 04/24/2019 - 17:00
Hanne Dubois, Frederic Sorgeloos, Soroush T. Sarvestani, Liesbet Martens, Yvan Saeys, Jason M. Mackenzie, Mohamed Lamkanfi, Geert van Loo, Ian Goodfellow, Andy Wullaert Norovirus infection is the leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, being responsible for over 200,000 deaths annually. Studies with murine norovirus (MNV) showed that protective STAT1 signaling controls viral...
Wed, 04/24/2019 - 03:00
Journal of Food Protection, Volume 82, Issue 5, Page 869-877, May 2019.
Wed, 04/24/2019 - 03:00
Journal of Food Protection, Volume 82, Issue 5, Page 869-877, May 2019.
Sat, 04/20/2019 - 01:12
Available online 17 April 2019 Author(s): Takashi Nishiyama, Tominari Kobayashi, Suljid Jirintai, Isao Kii, Shigeo Nagashima, Putu Prathiwi Primadharsini, Tsutomu Nishizawa, Hiroaki OkamotoAbstractHepatitis E, which is caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV), is generally a self-limiting, acute, and rarely fatal disease. It is sometimes fulminant and lethal, especially during pregnancy. Indeed, it...
Fri, 04/19/2019 - 17:00
Xuzheng Shan, Shengjie Lai, Hongxiu Liao, Zhongjie Li, Yajia Lan, Weizhong Yang Background From 2013 to 2017, more than one thousand avian influenza A (H7N9) confirmed cases with hundreds of deaths were reported in mainland China. To identify priorities for epidemic prevention and control, a risk assessing framework for subnational variations is needed to define the epidemic potential of A (H7N9...
Fri, 04/19/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Mismatches between template sequences and reverse transcription (RT) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers can lead to underestimation or false negative results during detection and quantification of sequence-diverse viruses. We performed an in silico inclusivity analysis of a widely used RT-PCR assay for detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in food, described in...
Wed, 04/17/2019 - 20:00
Antimicrobial Resistance, Virulence Determinants, and Biofilm Formation of Enterococcus Species From Ready-to-Eat Seafood Etinosa O. Igbinosa1,2* and Abeni Beshiru1 1Applied Microbial Processes and Environmental Health Research Group, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria 2Sustainable Development Office, University of Benin, Benin City,...
Sun, 04/14/2019 - 01:12
Available online 12 April 2019 Author(s): Chenxi Wang, Zejiang Wang, Xiaolei Ren, Lan Wang, Chong Li, Yipeng Sun, Mingyang Wang, Qi Tong, Honglei Sun, Juan PuAbstractDomestic ducks are considered as an interface between wild aquatic birds and terrestrial poultry and play an important role in transmission and evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). However, the infectivity of H9N2 AIVs in...
Sat, 04/13/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in the world. These outbreaks are frequently associated with bivalve shellfish consumption, particularly because these products are often eaten raw or only slightly cooked. In Morocco, regulations concerning the acceptable levels of enteric bacteria indicator organisms in these products have...
Sun, 04/07/2019 - 01:13
Available online 5 April 2019 Author(s): Vanessa Haach, Danielle Gava, Mauricio Egídio Cantão, Ana Cláudia Franco, Rejane SchaeferAbstractPandemic H1N1, human-like H1N2 and H3N2 influenza A (IAV) viruses are co-circulating in swine herds in Brazil. The genetic analysis of the Brazilian IAVs has shown that they are genetically distinct from viruses found in swine in other countries; therefore, an...
Fri, 04/05/2019 - 01:13
Available online 3 April 2019 Author(s): Baojian Sun, Albert Bosch, Mette MyrmelAbstractDetection of viruses on berries is a challenging task, often hampered by the presence of RT-qPCR inhibiting substances from berry juice. A direct extraction method for virus detection (murine norovirus and GA phage) on frozen raspberries was previously published. We expanded (different types of berries and...
Fri, 04/05/2019 - 00:00
Toxins, Vol. 11, Pages 205: Exposure Assessment and Risk Characterization of Aflatoxin M1 Intake through Consumption of Milk and Yoghurt by Student Population in Serbia and Greece Toxins doi: 10.3390/toxins11040205 Authors: Bozidar Udovicki Ilija Djekic Eleni P. Kalogianni Andreja Rajkovic The objective of this research was to perform an exposure assessment of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1)...
Sat, 03/30/2019 - 01:15
Available online 28 March 2019 Author(s): Hyunkyung Park, Soontag Jung, Hansaem Shin, Sang-Do Ha, Tae Jung Park, Jong Pil Park, Dong Joo Seo, Changsun ChoiAbstractBivalve molluscan shellfish, such as oysters, clams, and cockles, are well-recognized as vectors that concentrate foodborne pathogens by filter feeding. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution and persistence of...
Thu, 03/28/2019 - 11:00
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrhea in children from developing countries and presents high genetic variability. We aimed to characterize the EPEC virulence-related gene (VRG) distribution and copathogens associated with diarrhea and nutrition-related outcomes in children from the low-income Brazilian semiarid region. A cross-sectional case-control study of...
Sat, 03/23/2019 - 01:15
Available online 21 March 2019 Author(s): Shan Zhou, Shengyong Zhang, Mingshu Wang, Anchun Cheng, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Renyong Jia, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Shaqiu Zhang, Yunya Liu, Yanling Yu, Ling Zhang, Xiaoyue ChenAbstractTo develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(I-ELISA) method based on 3A protein of duck hepatitis A virus type 1(DHAV-1) for detection of...
Fri, 03/22/2019 - 00:00
Abstract This study investigated the synergistic effects of combined chlorine (200, 500, 700, and 1000 ppm) and vitamin B1 (1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm) on the murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), a human norovirus (NoV) surrogate, on oyster surface. Vitamin B1 slightly reduced MNV-1 (0.04–0.3 log-reduction), whereas chlorine significantly reduced MNV-1 (0.4–1.0 log-reduction). The combined...
Thu, 03/21/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Two outbreaks of norovirus and acute gastroenteritis took place in Canada between November 2016 and April 2017. Both outbreaks were linked to oysters from British Columbia (BC) coastal waters. This paper describes the multi-agency investigations to identify the source and control the outbreak. Public health officials conducted interviews to determine case exposures....
Mon, 03/18/2019 - 15:54
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection remains an important public health problem, and it is endemic primarily in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HEV among the general population, occupational population and swine in mainland China and its risk factors based on a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Systematic search from EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science...
Thu, 03/14/2019 - 01:13
Available online 12 March 2019 Author(s): Svenja Mamerow, Robert Scheffter, Susanne Röhrs, Olga Stech, Ulrike Blohm, Theresa Schwaiger, Charlotte Schröder, Reiner Ulrich, Jan Schinköthe, Martin Beer, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Jürgen StechAbstractInfluenza A viruses (IAV) have caused seasonal epidemics and severe pandemics in humans. Novel pandemic strains as in 2009 may emerge from pigs, serving as...
Thu, 03/14/2019 - 01:13
Available online 12 March 2019 Author(s): S. Carnaccini, J.J.S. Santos, A.O. Obadan, M.J. Pantin-Jackwood, D.L. Suarez, D.S. Rajão, D.R. PerezAbstractHighly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a viral disease with devastating consequences to the poultry industry as it results in high morbidity, mortality and international trade restrictions. In the present study, we characterized age-related...
Wed, 03/13/2019 - 01:12
Available online 12 March 2019 Author(s): Shaofeng Rong, Yue Zhou, Ming Wang, Shimin Guan, Shuo Zhang, Baoguo Cai, Dapeng Wang, Peng Tian, Qianqian LiAbstractNorovirus is a very contagious virus that causes acute gastroenteritis. Contaminated produce is a main vehicle for dissemination of human noroviruses (HuNoVs). As HuNoVs could bind to bacteria effectively, it is highly possible that produce...
Wed, 03/13/2019 - 00:00
Abstract Hepatitis A (HAV) is a viral infection causing a range of symptoms, sudden onset of fever, malaise, diarrhea, and jaundice. It is mostly transmitted fecal-oral through contaminated food, with immediate household and sexual contacts having a higher risk of infection. Since 2016 an increased number of HAV infections, mostly affecting men who have sex with men (MSM) have...
Fri, 03/01/2019 - 11:48
Abstract Human noroviruses (HNoVs) cause significant gastrointestinal disease outbreaks worldwide. Tulane virus (TV) is a cultivable HNoV surrogate widely used to determine control measures against HNoVs. The objective of this study was to determine the heat inactivation kinetics (D‐ and z‐values) of TV in cell‐culture media and on spiked homogenized spinach using the first‐order and Weibull...

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