Viruses

Sat, 02/15/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Sankar Renu, Ninoshkaly Feliciano-Ruiz, Shristi Ghimire, Yi Han, Jennifer Schrock, Santosh Dhakal, Veerupaxagouda Patil, Steven Krakowka, Gourapura J. RenukaradhyaAbstractTo improve the innate and adaptive immune responses elicited by an inactivated swine influenza virus antigen (KAg)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs-KAg), we used the adjuvant, poly(I:C). The formulated CS NPs-KAg...
Fri, 02/14/2020 - 03:27
ABSTRACT Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) has begun to spread globally among men who have sex with men (MSM). Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) also may be transmitted through sexual contact among MSM. To assess the current status of these viruses among MSM in Japan, the seroprevalence of both viruses using 503 plasma samples collected between 2009 and 2018 from HIV‐positive male donors who were presumed to be...
Thu, 02/13/2020 - 04:00
Author(s): Mayuri Patwardhan, Mark T. Morgan, Vermont Dia, Doris H. D’SouzaAbstractHuman noroviruses (HNoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are predominantly linked to foodborne outbreaks worldwide. As cell-culture systems to propagate HNoV in laboratories are not easily available, Tulane virus (TV) is used as a cultivable HNoV surrogate to determine inactivation. Heat-sensitization of HAV and TV by...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Graham A.J. Redweik, Zachary R. Stromberg, Angelica Van Goor, Melha MellataAbstractCommercial poultry farms are increasingly threatened by bacterial infections from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) and broad-host Salmonella serovars. Recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines (RASV) elicit cross-reactive immune responses against APEC in chickens; however, assessment of broad...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Nguyen Thi Bich Van, Nguyen Thi Phuong Yen, Nguyen Thi Nhung, Nguyen Van Cuong, Bach Tuan Kiet, Nguyen Van Hoang, Vo Be Hien, Niwat Chansiripornchai, Marc Choisy, Alexis Ribas, James Campbell, Guy Thwaites, Juan Carrique-MasAbstractIn the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam, small-scale chicken farming is common. However, high levels of disease or mortality in such flocks impair economic...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Ke Ming, Miao He, Linglin Su, Hongxu Du, Deyun Wang, Yi Wu, Jiaguo LiuAbstractDuck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV) infection causes duck viral hepatitis and results in enormous loss to poultry farming industry. We reported that phosphorylated Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (pCPPS) inhibited DHAV genome replication. Here we further explored its underlying antiviral mechanisms....
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:39
by Abdou Fatawou Modiyinji, Georges Marc Arthur Mveng Sanding, Marie Amougou Atsama, Chavely Gwladys Monamele, Moise Nola, Richard Njouom Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen of which pigs have been established as reservoirs. In the present study, we investigated the presence of HEV among pigs in the Center and Littoral regions of Cameroon and performed the molecular...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:31
Norovirus constitutes the most frequently identified infectious cause of disease outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water. When investigating outbreaks related to surface water, a One Health approach is insightful. Historically, there has been a focus on potential contamination of recreational water by bird droppings and a recent publication demonstrating human noroviruses in bird...
Mon, 02/10/2020 - 03:45
ABSTRACT Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) continue to impose a negative impact on animal and human health worldwide. In particular, the emergence of highly pathogenic AIV H5 and, more recently, the emergence of low pathogenic AIV H7N9 have led to enormous socioeconomical losses in the poultry industry and resulted in fatal human infections. While H5N1 remains infamous, the number of zoonotic...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:47
M. Jin et al. CaliciNet China, a network of provincial, county, and city laboratories coordinated by the Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was launched in October 2016 to monitor the epidemiology and genotype distribution of norovirus outbreaks in China. During October 2016–September 2018, a total of 556 norovirus outbreaks were reported, and positive fecal samples from 470 (84....
Thu, 02/06/2020 - 03:39
ABSTRACT While working overnight at a swine exhibition, we identified an influenza A virus (IAV) outbreak in swine, Nanopore sequenced 13 IAV genomes from samples we collected, and predicted in real time that these viruses posed a novel risk to humans due to genetic mismatches between the viruses and current prepandemic candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs). We developed and used a portable IAV...
Wed, 02/05/2020 - 03:26
The relative roles that movement and proximity networks play in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses are often unknown during an epidemic, preventing effective control. We used network analysis to explore the devastating epidemic of HPAI A(H5N8) among poultry, in particular ducks, in France during 2016–2017 and to estimate the likely contribution of live-duck movements....
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 04:10
Enteric viruses are shed in fecal material by humans and other animals and are common contaminants in wastewater and surface water. Wastewater treatment plants often disinfect this effluent with low-pressure and medium-pressure UV lamps, which emit 254-nm and 220- to 280-nm irradiation, respectively. It is not known whether this treatment is efficacious against enteric viruses or how such...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:56
Foodborne enteric viruses, in particular HuNoV and HAV, are the most common cause of the berry-linked viral diseases, and outbreaks around the world, and have become an important concern for health authorities. Despite the increased importance of berry fruits as a vehicle for foodborne viruses, there is limited information concerning the fate of foodborne viruses in the berry supply chain from...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:44
Background This review aimed to provide constructive suggestions for the control and management of avian influenza through quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the impact of different live poultry market (LPM) interventions. Methods Both English and Chinese language databases were searched for articles that were published on or before 9 November 2018. After extraction and assessment of the...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:44
Background Chronic norovirus infection in immunocompromised patients can be severe, and presently there is no effective treatment. Adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells has proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of many viral infections, and this could represent a novel treatment approach for chronic norovirus infection. Hence, we sought to generate human norovirus-specific T...
Sat, 02/01/2020 - 03:42
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main course for acute hepatitis in humans throughout the world. Human associated genotypes 1 and 2 as well as zoonotic genotypes 3 and 4 are grouped in the species Orthohepevirus A. In addition, a large variety of HEV-related viruses has been found in vertebrates including carnivores, rats, bats, and chickens, which were classified in species Orthohepevirus B-D. In...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:37
A human norovirus (HuNoV) strain was obtained from a patient with acute gastroenteritis, and its complete coding sequence was determined. The coding-complete viral genome, with three open reading frames, was 7,565 bp long, with a GC content of 49.9%. The genotype of the HuNoV strain obtained in this study was identified as GII.p12_GII.3.
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:28
Seaweed is a source of protein that can help overcome the anticipated challenges of a growing world population and the current challenges for finding alternatives for animal proteins in the Western diet. Thus far, data on the safety of seaweed for feed and food purposes in the Western world are scattered. This study aimed to review the available knowledge on the presence of food safety hazards in...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:26
Zoonotic hepatitis E, mainly caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt) 3, is a foodborne disease that has emerged in Europe in recent decades. The main animal reservoir for genotype 3 is domestic pigs. Pig liver and liver derivates are considered the major risk products, and studies focused on the presence of HEV in pig muscles are scarce. The objective of the present study was to evaluate...
Thu, 01/23/2020 - 03:24
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has emerged as a global health concern during the last decade. In spite of a high mortality rate in pregnant women with fulminant hepatitis, no antiviral drugs or licensed vaccine is available in India. HEV-protease is a pivotal enzyme responsible for ORF1 polyprotein processing leading to cleavage of the non-structural enzymes involved in virus replication. HEV-protease...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:36
by Joseph T. Hicks, Dong-Hun Lee, Venkata R. Duvuuri, Mia Kim Torchetti, David E. Swayne, Justin Bahl The 2014–2015 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5NX outbreak represents the largest and most expensive HPAI outbreak in the United States to date. Despite extensive traditional and molecular epidemiological studies, factors associated with the spread of HPAI among midwestern poultry...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:29
Biosecurity is crucial for infectious disease prevention, more importantly in the absence of vaccination. The need for improving the implementation of biosecurity practices was highlighted in French duck farms following the 2016–2017 H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) epidemic. Farmers have multiple reasons for not implementing biosecurity practices: external (time, money) and internal...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:24
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) cause sporadic and epidemic outbreaks of gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide. We previously reported that stem cell-derived human intestinal enteroid (HIE) cultures support replication of multiple HuNoV strains and that some strains (e.g., GII.3) replicate only in the presence of bile. Heat- and trypsin-treatment of bile...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:28
The cover image is based on the Short Communication A novel reassortant influenza A (H1N1) virus infection in swine in Shandong Province, eastern China, by Zhijun Yu et al., https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13360.
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:28
Several investigations have recently assessed the ability of some aquatic invertebrates to act as tools for avian influenza A virus (IAV) surveillance as well as their potential role(s) in IAV ecology. Because of this, as well as the high IAV seroprevalence rates noted in select mesocarnivores that commonly inhabit aquatic and semi‐aquatic habitats, we evaluated the effects that freshwater...
Sat, 01/18/2020 - 03:33
by Bingqian Qu, Xue Li, Carol J. Cardona, Zheng Xing Human infections with avian influenza viruses including H5, H7 and H9 hemagglutinin subtypes occur at a low rate. Among human infections with H7 viruses, regional outbreaks with H7N2, H7N3, H7N7 and H7N9 have been documented. Early in 2018, a human infection with a novel H7N4 avian influenza virus was reported in Jiangsu, China. This study is...
Sat, 01/18/2020 - 03:33
by Louise H. Moncla, Trevor Bedford, Philippe Dussart, Srey Viseth Horm, Sareth Rith, Philippe Buchy, Erik A. Karlsson, Lifeng Li, Yongmei Liu, Huachen Zhu, Yi Guan, Thomas C. Friedrich, Paul F. Horwood Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) periodically cross species barriers and infect humans. The likelihood that an AIV will evolve mammalian transmissibility depends on acquiring and selecting mutations...
Sat, 01/18/2020 - 03:28
In 2017–2018, outbreaks of a novel reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N6 virus belonging to clade 2.3.4.4 group B, occurred in Asia and Europe, infecting various poultry and wild bird species. In The Netherlands, two commercial duck farms and one commercial chicken farm were affected. To investigate variation in the virus infection dynamics between these poultry types, we...
Fri, 01/17/2020 - 03:33
We report the nearly complete genome of a norovirus GII.4 Hong Kong[P31] variant (GII strain Hu/HK/2019/GII.4 Hong Kong[P31]/CUHK-NS-2200) that was detected in a patient with gastroenteritis in August 2019. The genome was sequenced by metagenomic next-generation sequencing and was found to have 92.8% nucleotide similarity to the closest GII.4 norovirus sequence in GenBank.
Thu, 01/16/2020 - 03:29
Author(s): Xi Bai, Matteo Campagnoli, Sophie Butot, Thierry Putallaz, Lise Michot, Sophie ZuberAbstractOsmotically dehydrated and air dried berry fruits are used as ingredients for the production of yoghurts, chocolates, cereal bars and mixes, ice creams and cakes and are often subjected to mild thermal treatments only, posing questions around their microbiological safety. As osmotic dehydration...
Thu, 01/16/2020 - 03:27
Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), an ongoing emergence enveloped virus with a single‐stranded positive‐sense RNA genome, belongs to the Gammacoronavirus genus in the Coronaviridae family. IBV‐associated tracheitis, nephritis, salpingitis, proventriculitis and egg drop have caused devastating economic losses to poultry industry worldwide. Since the end of 2018, a remarkably increasing number of...
Thu, 01/16/2020 - 03:23
Background Large norovirus (NoV) outbreaks are explosive in nature and vary widely in final size and duration, suggesting that superspreading combined with heterogeneous contact may explain these dynamics. Modeling tools that can capture heterogeneity in infectiousness and contact are important for NoV outbreak prevention and control, yet they remain limited. Methods Data from a large NoV...
Thu, 01/16/2020 - 03:23
In July 2018, recombinant norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney was detected in dogs who had diarrhea in a kennel and in children living on the same premises in Thailand. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 4 noroviruses from Thailand showed that the canine norovirus was closely related to human norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney, suggesting human-to-canine transmission.
Wed, 01/15/2020 - 03:34
by Cristina V. Cardemil, Sean T. O’Leary, Brenda L. Beaty, Katy Ivey, Megan C. Lindley, Allison Kempe, Lori A. Crane, Laura P. Hurley, Michaela Brtnikova, Aron J. Hall Background Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) across the age spectrum; candidate vaccines are in clinical trials. While norovirus diagnostic testing is increasingly available, stool testing may not be...
Wed, 01/15/2020 - 03:25
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) recognize sialic acid linked α2,3 to galactose (SAα2,3Gal) glycans as receptors. In this study, the interactions between hemagglutinins (HAs) of AIVs and sulfated SAα2,3Gal glycans were analyzed in order to clarify the molecular basis of interspecies transmission of AIVs from ducks to chickens. It was revealed that E190V and N192D substitutions of the HA increased...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:30
Author(s): E. Lewis, J.A. Hudson, N. Cook, J.D. Barnes, E. HaynesAbstractNext generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are increasingly applied to tracing microbial contaminants entering the food chain due to NGS’ untargeted nature and ability to investigate non-culturable (and/or difficult to culture) organisms while yielding genomic information about the microbiota. So far, a plethora of microbes...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:28
In recent decades, cases of autochthonous hepatitis E (HE) have sharply increased in European countries where foodborne transmission is considered the main route of HE virus (HEV) transmission. Although rabbits are considered the main reservoir of the zoonotic HEV‐3ra subtype, information on the role of wild lagomorphs in the epidemiology of HEV remains scarce. The aim of this study therefore was...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:28
Malaysia is a non‐endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. However, seroprevalence as high as 50% among samples of aboriginal people were reported over two decades ago. A total of 207 samples collected from seven aboriginal villages in rural settlements across two states in Malaysia were analysed for anti‐HEV IgG and IgM by an enzyme‐linked immunoassay. Following the detection of...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:23
Noroviruses are a major cause of viral epidemic gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. The protease (Pro) encoded in open reading frame 1 (ORF1) is an essential enzyme for proteolysis of the viral polyprotein. Although there are some reports regarding the evolutionary analysis of norovirus GII-encoding genes, there are few reports focused on the Pro region. We analyzed the molecular evolution of...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:23
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), particularly zoonotic genotype 3, is present in environmental waters worldwide, especially in industrialized countries. Thus, monitoring the presence of HEV in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is an emerging topic due to the importance of reusing water on a global level. Given the limited data, this study aimed to monitor the occurrence of HEV in influent and effluent...
Sat, 01/11/2020 - 03:30
Author(s): Nânci Santos-Ferreira, João Rodrigo Mesquita, Enrique Rivadulla, Ângela S. Inácio, Paulo Martins da Costa, Jesus L. Romalde, Maria São José NascimentoAbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) deriving from manure application runoffs and faecal waste spill over of swine and human origin bypass wastewater treatment plants and contaminate coastal waters. Shellfish bioaccumulate enteric viruses such...
Fri, 01/10/2020 - 03:23
We report the use of environmental samples to assess avian influenza virus activity in chickens at live poultry markets in China. Results of environmental and chicken samples correlate moderately well. However, collection of multiple environmental samples from holding, processing, and selling areas is recommended to detect viruses expected to have low prevalence.
Thu, 01/09/2020 - 03:42
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA was detected in 6.3% and HEV IgG in 40% of 5,033 serum samples from market-weight pigs at 25 slaughterhouses in 10 US states. The prevalent HEV genotype was zoonotic genotype 3, group 2. Blood of HEV-viremic pigs from slaughterhouses may contaminate pork supply chains.
Thu, 01/09/2020 - 03:42
In July 2018, recombinant norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney was detected in dogs who had diarrhea in a kennel and in children living on the same premises in Thailand. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 4 noroviruses from Thailand showed that the canine norovirus was closely related to human norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney, suggesting human-to-canine transmission.
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:39
Author(s): Wen Luo, Lin Tian, Yingde Gan, Enlong Chen, Xuejuan Shen, Junbin Pan, David M. Irwin, Rui-Ai Chen, Yongyi ShenAbstractAvian influenza A viruses (AIVs) classify into 18 hemagglutinin (HA) and 11 neuraminidase (NA) subtypes. Even though H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes usually circulate among humans leading to infection, occasionally, H5, H6, H7, H9, and H10 that circulate in poultry also infect...
Wed, 01/08/2020 - 03:27
H. E. Everett et al. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) virus has become established in swine in the United Kingdom and currently co-circulates with previously enzootic swine influenza A virus (IAV) strains, including avian-like H1N1 and human-like H1N2 viruses. During 2010, a swine influenza A reassortant virus, H1N2r, which caused mild clinical disease in pigs in the United Kingdom, was isolated....
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:39
by Michèle Brocard, Valentina Iadevaia, Philipp Klein, Belinda Hall, Glenys Lewis, Jia Lu, James Burke, Margaret M. Willcocks, Roy Parker, Ian G. Goodfellow, Alessia Ruggieri, Nicolas Locker Viral infections impose major stress on the host cell. In response, stress pathways can rapidly deploy defence mechanisms by shutting off the protein synthesis machinery and triggering the accumulation of...
Sun, 01/05/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Ewelina Bigoraj, Iwona Kozyra, Ewa Kwit, Artur RzeżutkaAbstractHepatitis E virus (HEV) infects humans and many animal species. The rabbit HEV has been found in farmed, wild and pet rabbits as well as in human patients suggesting zoonotic transmission. Although the routes of human infection with rabbit strains are unclear a foodborne transmission is suggested especially when...
Sat, 01/04/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Qi Su, Zhihui Zhang, Yawen Zhang, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang, Peng ZhaoAbstractSince 2016, severe outbreaks of hepatic rupture hemorrhage syndrome (HRHS) associated with infections of tentative novel avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) have emerged in chickens in China, causing increased mortality and decreased laying rate in adult hens and disturbing the hatching and breeding of chicks. To...

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