Viruses

Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:43
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute hepatitis with approximately 20 million cases per year globally. Based on genetic diversity, HEV is classified into different genotypes, with genotype 3 (HEV-3) being most prevalent in Europe and North America. The transmission of HEV-3 has been shown to be zoonotic and mainly associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked pork products. Herein, we...
Tue, 03/24/2020 - 03:43
Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus of subtype H9N2 is the most frequently detected subtype among domestic poultry and is a public health concern because of its zoonotic potential. Due to the multiple and complex routes of LPAIV H9N2 between geographic regions, little is known about the spatial diffusion of H9N2 virus to, within, and from Egypt, where it is endemic among poultry since...
Sun, 03/22/2020 - 03:29
The reported incidence of clinical hepatitis E cases is rising in some non‐endemic countries, with concurrent concerns regarding potential hepatitis E virus (HEV) contamination of the blood supply. Therefore, the characterization of major potential sources of human HEV exposure is important to inform risk assessment and public health policy. A systematic review was conducted, including a...
Sat, 03/21/2020 - 03:35
by Claire Hautefeuille, Gwenaëlle Dauphin, Marisa Peyre Poultry production has significantly increased worldwide, along with the number of avian influenza (AI) outbreaks and the potential threat for human pandemic emergence. The role of wild bird movements in this global spread has been extensively studied while the role of animal, human and fomite movement within commercial poultry production...
Sat, 03/21/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Min-Che Tung, Hsin-Yu Lu, Yu-Kang Chang, Wei-Ru Huang, Tsai-Ling Liao, Hung-Yi Wu, Ching-Dong Chang, Hueng-Chuen Fan, Brent L. Nielsen, Hung-Jen Liu In the present study, we have generated several H5N2 HA recombinant baculoviruses for production of a HA subunit vaccine against the lethal H5N2 avian influenza virus (AIV). The effective display of functional HA on the cell membrane and...
Sat, 03/21/2020 - 03:27
Highly sensitive detection of pathogens is effective for screening meat during quarantine inspection and export. The “micro-amount of virion enrichment technique” (MiVET) was recently developed, which is a new method combining virus concentration with immunomagnetic beads and simple RNA extraction with sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) for the specific and sensitive detection of avian...
Sat, 03/21/2020 - 03:26
Unstable haemoglobinopathies are rare autosomal dominant disorders that lead to haemolytic anaemia with varied severity. Structural defects in globin chains result in instability of the haemoglobin (Hb) tetramer with decreased solubility and intraerythrocytic precipitation (Heinz bodies). Clinically, unstable Hbs may remain undiagnosed either due to asymptomatic/milder phenotypes or may be...
Thu, 03/19/2020 - 03:25
Cathelicidins (CATHs) are host defense peptides (HDPs) that play an important role in the innate immune response against infections. Although multiple functions of cathelicidins have been described, including direct antimicrobial activity and several immunomodulatory effects on the host, relatively little is known about their antiviral activity. Therefore, in vitro antiviral activity of chicken...
Wed, 03/18/2020 - 03:25
The live poultry trade is thought to play an important role in the spread and maintenance of highly pathogenic avian influenza A viruses (HP AIVs) in Asia. Despite an abundance of small-scale observational studies, the role of the poultry trade in disseminating AIV over large geographic areas is still unclear,...
Sun, 03/15/2020 - 04:01
Author(s): Seung Hoon Baek, Chan Yeong Park, Thang Phan Nguyen, Min Woo Kim, Jong Pil Park, Changsun Choi, Soo Young Kim, Suresh Kumar Kailasa, Tae Jung Park Human norovirus is one of the potential foodborne pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and food poisoning. For norovirus detection, we developed the norovirus specifically capturable peptides functionalized gold nanoparticles (...
Sat, 03/14/2020 - 03:25
RIG-I and MDA5 are two key pattern recognition receptors that sense RNA virus invasion, but RIG-I is absent in chickens. Although chickens have intact MDA5, the genes downstream of chicken MDA5 (chMDA5) that may mediate antiviral response are not well studied. We compared the transcriptional profile of chicken embryonic fibroblasts (DF1) transfected with chMDA5, and poly(I:C), using RNA-seq....
Fri, 03/13/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Sofia Strubbia, Julien Schaeffer, Alban Besnard, Candice Wacrenier, Cécile Le Mennec, Pascal Garry, Marion Desdouits, Françoise S. Le Guyader Human virus transmission through food consumption has been identified since many years and the international trade increases the risk of dissemination of viral pathogens. The development of metagenomic approach holds many promises for the...
Thu, 03/12/2020 - 03:26
Avian influenza virus (AIV) can cause severe diseases in poultry worldwide. H6N1 AIV was the dominant enzootic subtype in 1985 in the chicken farms of Taiwan until the initial outbreak of a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N2 virus in 2003; thereafter, this and other LPAIs have been sporadically detected. In 2015, the outbreak of three novel H5Nx viruses of highly pathogenic avian...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Carina Pacheco Cantelli, Tulio Machado Fumian, Fábio Correia Malta, Denise Cotrim da Cunha, Patricia Brasil, Johan Nordgren, Lennart Svensson, Marize Pereira Miagostovich, Marcia Terezinha Baroni de Moraes, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:26
The availability of drinking water is one of the main determinants of quality of life, disease prevention and the promotion of health. Viruses are important agents of waterborne diseases and have been described as important markers of human faecal contamination. This study aimed to investigate viruses’ presence as an indicator of drinking water quality in low-income communities in the Manguinhos...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:25
Human noroviruses (NVs) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The majority of outbreaks are caused by genogroup II.4 (GII.4), with new variants emerging every 2 to 4 years. Immunocompromised patients are hypothesized to be important reservoirs where new NV variants emerge. Here, we examined intra-host NV variants and assessed immune-driven NV evolution in chronically...
Sun, 03/08/2020 - 04:30
The interplay of simultaneous COVID‐19, African swine fever, and avian influenza emergencies on global health and industries is constantly evolving and difficult to predict, and therefore warrants further scrutiny. The need for a health network of global scope for the rapid and open exchange of information needs to be strengthened in order to address ongoing and future epidemics under competing...
Sat, 03/07/2020 - 03:24
W. Wang et al. Various interventions for live poultry markets (LPMs) have emerged to control outbreaks of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in mainland China since March 2013. We assessed the effectiveness of various LPM interventions in reducing transmission of H7N9 virus across 5 annual waves during 2013–2018, especially in the final wave. With the exception of waves 1 and 4, various LPM...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 03:26
Human noroviruses are the major cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Since no therapeutic agent has been proven to prevent human norovirus infection yet, preventive healthcare interventions to block the infection routes play an important role in infection control. One of the possible infection routes of human noroviruses are through contaminated hands, but no hand antiseptics...
Thu, 02/27/2020 - 04:01
Author(s): Yani Sun, Qizhong Lu, Jingfei Zhang, Xiaoxuan Li, Jiakai Zhao, Wenqi Fan, Pinpin Ji, Kun Wang, En-Min Zhou, Qin ZhaoHens of a commercial Hy-line brown layer flock in China exhibited increased mortality and decreased egg production at 47 wk of age. From 47 to 57 wk, average weekly mortality increased from 0.11 to 3.0%, and egg production decreased from 10 to 30%, with a peak mortality...
Wed, 02/26/2020 - 03:36
ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a single-strand positive-sense RNA virus, is an understudied but important human pathogen. The virus can establish infection at a number of host tissues, including the small intestine and liver, causing acute and chronic hepatitis E as well as certain neurological disorders. The retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) pathway is essential to induce the interferon...
Mon, 02/24/2020 - 04:00
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an enteric RNA virus from the family Hepeviridae with five genotypes (genotypes 1‐4 and 7) known to infect humans. HEV infection is known to have a zoonotic swine origin in industrialized countries. The role of pigs and wild boars as major reservoirs for human infection is today well‐established, however the list of new animal reservoirs is ever‐expanding as new HEV...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:40
by Haili Zhang, Hongxin Li, Wenqiang Wang, Yujie Wang, Guan-Zhu Han, Hualan Chen, Xiaojun Wang Both the replication and transcription of the influenza virus are catalyzed by the viral polymerase complex. The polymerases of most avian influenza A viruses have poor performance in mammalian cells, which is considered to be one of the important species barriers. Pigs have been long considered as...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:39
The introduction of highly efficient therapies with direct-acting antivirals (DAA) for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection offers exceptional opportunities to globally control this deadly disease. For achieving this ambitious goal, it is essential to prevent antiviral resistance against the most optimal first-line and retreatment DAA choices. We performed independent...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:39
Author(s): Yingyin Liao, Liang Xue, Junshan Gao, Aiwu Wu, Xiaoxia KouAbstractBackgroundNorovirus is responsible for the viral gastroenteritis burden worldwide. Histo-blood type antigens (HBGAs) are the only well-known factor regarding their effect on the pathogenesis of norovirus. Here, we performed the study to further investigate the association of the ABO blood group with norovirus...
Fri, 02/21/2020 - 03:54
The U.S. FDA Food Safety Modernization Act Preventive Controls for Human Food Rule emphasizes the importance of an effective environmental monitoring (EM) program. This study aims to characterize polyurethane foam (PUF) EM tools—currently used in the food industry for the recovery of bacteria from food contact surfaces—for their efficacy in the release and recovery of human enteric viruses. Two...
Thu, 02/20/2020 - 03:38
Author(s): Juan E. Ortúzar, Onay B. Dogan, Gustavo Sotomayor, Constanza Jiménez, Jennifer Clarke, Rolando A. Flores, George M. Gray, John H. Rupnow, Bing WangAbstractNational governments are moving to integrate risk analysis frameworks into food safety management systems at the country level. However, this process is less advanced in developing countries. In this context, the Chilean Livestock...
Tue, 02/18/2020 - 03:29
In recent decades multiple subtypes (i.e., H9N2, H5N1, and H7N9) of avian influenza virus (AIV) have become widespread in China, which has caused enormous economic losses and posed considerable threats to public health. In this review, with the aim to provide insights into and guidelines for the control of AIV spread in China and globally in the future, we analyzed the reasons why AIV has...
Sat, 02/15/2020 - 03:33
Author(s): Sankar Renu, Ninoshkaly Feliciano-Ruiz, Shristi Ghimire, Yi Han, Jennifer Schrock, Santosh Dhakal, Veerupaxagouda Patil, Steven Krakowka, Gourapura J. RenukaradhyaAbstractTo improve the innate and adaptive immune responses elicited by an inactivated swine influenza virus antigen (KAg)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs-KAg), we used the adjuvant, poly(I:C). The formulated CS NPs-KAg...
Fri, 02/14/2020 - 03:27
ABSTRACT Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) has begun to spread globally among men who have sex with men (MSM). Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) also may be transmitted through sexual contact among MSM. To assess the current status of these viruses among MSM in Japan, the seroprevalence of both viruses using 503 plasma samples collected between 2009 and 2018 from HIV‐positive male donors who were presumed to be...
Thu, 02/13/2020 - 04:00
Author(s): Mayuri Patwardhan, Mark T. Morgan, Vermont Dia, Doris H. D’SouzaAbstractHuman noroviruses (HNoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are predominantly linked to foodborne outbreaks worldwide. As cell-culture systems to propagate HNoV in laboratories are not easily available, Tulane virus (TV) is used as a cultivable HNoV surrogate to determine inactivation. Heat-sensitization of HAV and TV by...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Graham A.J. Redweik, Zachary R. Stromberg, Angelica Van Goor, Melha MellataAbstractCommercial poultry farms are increasingly threatened by bacterial infections from avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) and broad-host Salmonella serovars. Recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines (RASV) elicit cross-reactive immune responses against APEC in chickens; however, assessment of broad...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Nguyen Thi Bich Van, Nguyen Thi Phuong Yen, Nguyen Thi Nhung, Nguyen Van Cuong, Bach Tuan Kiet, Nguyen Van Hoang, Vo Be Hien, Niwat Chansiripornchai, Marc Choisy, Alexis Ribas, James Campbell, Guy Thwaites, Juan Carrique-MasAbstractIn the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam, small-scale chicken farming is common. However, high levels of disease or mortality in such flocks impair economic...
Wed, 02/12/2020 - 10:49
Author(s): Ke Ming, Miao He, Linglin Su, Hongxu Du, Deyun Wang, Yi Wu, Jiaguo LiuAbstractDuck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV) infection causes duck viral hepatitis and results in enormous loss to poultry farming industry. We reported that phosphorylated Codonopsis pilosula polysaccharide (pCPPS) inhibited DHAV genome replication. Here we further explored its underlying antiviral mechanisms....
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:39
by Abdou Fatawou Modiyinji, Georges Marc Arthur Mveng Sanding, Marie Amougou Atsama, Chavely Gwladys Monamele, Moise Nola, Richard Njouom Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic pathogen of which pigs have been established as reservoirs. In the present study, we investigated the presence of HEV among pigs in the Center and Littoral regions of Cameroon and performed the molecular...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:31
Norovirus constitutes the most frequently identified infectious cause of disease outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water. When investigating outbreaks related to surface water, a One Health approach is insightful. Historically, there has been a focus on potential contamination of recreational water by bird droppings and a recent publication demonstrating human noroviruses in bird...
Mon, 02/10/2020 - 03:45
ABSTRACT Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) continue to impose a negative impact on animal and human health worldwide. In particular, the emergence of highly pathogenic AIV H5 and, more recently, the emergence of low pathogenic AIV H7N9 have led to enormous socioeconomical losses in the poultry industry and resulted in fatal human infections. While H5N1 remains infamous, the number of zoonotic...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:47
M. Jin et al. CaliciNet China, a network of provincial, county, and city laboratories coordinated by the Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was launched in October 2016 to monitor the epidemiology and genotype distribution of norovirus outbreaks in China. During October 2016–September 2018, a total of 556 norovirus outbreaks were reported, and positive fecal samples from 470 (84....
Thu, 02/06/2020 - 03:39
ABSTRACT While working overnight at a swine exhibition, we identified an influenza A virus (IAV) outbreak in swine, Nanopore sequenced 13 IAV genomes from samples we collected, and predicted in real time that these viruses posed a novel risk to humans due to genetic mismatches between the viruses and current prepandemic candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs). We developed and used a portable IAV...
Wed, 02/05/2020 - 03:26
The relative roles that movement and proximity networks play in the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses are often unknown during an epidemic, preventing effective control. We used network analysis to explore the devastating epidemic of HPAI A(H5N8) among poultry, in particular ducks, in France during 2016–2017 and to estimate the likely contribution of live-duck movements....
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 04:10
Enteric viruses are shed in fecal material by humans and other animals and are common contaminants in wastewater and surface water. Wastewater treatment plants often disinfect this effluent with low-pressure and medium-pressure UV lamps, which emit 254-nm and 220- to 280-nm irradiation, respectively. It is not known whether this treatment is efficacious against enteric viruses or how such...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:56
Foodborne enteric viruses, in particular HuNoV and HAV, are the most common cause of the berry-linked viral diseases, and outbreaks around the world, and have become an important concern for health authorities. Despite the increased importance of berry fruits as a vehicle for foodborne viruses, there is limited information concerning the fate of foodborne viruses in the berry supply chain from...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:44
Background This review aimed to provide constructive suggestions for the control and management of avian influenza through quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the impact of different live poultry market (LPM) interventions. Methods Both English and Chinese language databases were searched for articles that were published on or before 9 November 2018. After extraction and assessment of the...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:44
Background Chronic norovirus infection in immunocompromised patients can be severe, and presently there is no effective treatment. Adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells has proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of many viral infections, and this could represent a novel treatment approach for chronic norovirus infection. Hence, we sought to generate human norovirus-specific T...
Sat, 02/01/2020 - 03:42
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main course for acute hepatitis in humans throughout the world. Human associated genotypes 1 and 2 as well as zoonotic genotypes 3 and 4 are grouped in the species Orthohepevirus A. In addition, a large variety of HEV-related viruses has been found in vertebrates including carnivores, rats, bats, and chickens, which were classified in species Orthohepevirus B-D. In...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:37
A human norovirus (HuNoV) strain was obtained from a patient with acute gastroenteritis, and its complete coding sequence was determined. The coding-complete viral genome, with three open reading frames, was 7,565 bp long, with a GC content of 49.9%. The genotype of the HuNoV strain obtained in this study was identified as GII.p12_GII.3.
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:28
Seaweed is a source of protein that can help overcome the anticipated challenges of a growing world population and the current challenges for finding alternatives for animal proteins in the Western diet. Thus far, data on the safety of seaweed for feed and food purposes in the Western world are scattered. This study aimed to review the available knowledge on the presence of food safety hazards in...
Tue, 01/28/2020 - 03:26
Zoonotic hepatitis E, mainly caused by hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt) 3, is a foodborne disease that has emerged in Europe in recent decades. The main animal reservoir for genotype 3 is domestic pigs. Pig liver and liver derivates are considered the major risk products, and studies focused on the presence of HEV in pig muscles are scarce. The objective of the present study was to evaluate...

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