Viruses

Fri, 09/18/2020 - 10:02
We determined the disinfection efficacy and inactivation mechanisms of peracetic acid (PAA)-based sanitizer using pH values relevant for vegetable sanitation against rotavirus (RV) and Tulane virus (TV; a human norovirus surrogate). TV was significantly more resistant to PAA disinfection than RV: for a 2-log10 reduction of virus titer, RV required 1 mg/liter PAA for 3.5 min of exposure, while TV...
Fri, 09/18/2020 - 06:17
Author(s): Lijun Zheng, Hanming Zhang, Jie Ma, Jinjin Liu, Shuhuan Ma, Mingchen Wang, Yuqi Huo Noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. In this study, we report the isolation, near-complete genome sequencing, and expression and biological characterization of the major capsid protein (VP1) of a GI.3 NoV isolated from a child presenting acute...
Wed, 09/16/2020 - 02:03
Consumption of raw or unpasteurized milk is a risk for the consumers because indirect contaminations such as fecal-cross-contamination could occur and determine the presence of enteric viruses. In this study, milk was treated with several temperature and time combinations chosen by performing a preliminary experiment to evaluate the intervals needed to inactivate Hepatitis A virus (HAV) HM175...
Tue, 09/15/2020 - 16:01
Consumption of dates has not been considered a common risk of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. In January 2018, an outbreak of hepatitis was identified with cases resident in all regions of Denmark. All the detected strains belonged to HAV genotype 3A. Epidemiological investigations through patients’ interviews, case-control and trace-back studies pointed toward different batches of dates from...
Sat, 09/12/2020 - 12:00
Background The H3N2 component of egg-based 2017–2018 influenza vaccines possessed an adaptive substitution that alters antigenicity. Several influenza vaccines include antigens that are produced through alternative systems, but a systematic comparison of different vaccines used during the 2017–2018 season has not been completed. Methods We compared antibody responses in humans vaccinated with...
Fri, 09/11/2020 - 08:03
by Roderick Salvador, Neil Tanquilut, Rosemarie Macmac, Kannika Na Lampang, Warangkhana Chaisowwong, Dirk Pfeiffer, Veerasak Punyapornwithaya The Philippines confirmed its first epidemic of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) on August 11, 2017. It ended in November of 2017. Despite the successful management of the epidemic, reemergence is a continuous threat. The aim of this study was to...
Thu, 09/10/2020 - 22:15
Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The treatment of HCV infection has become more complicated due to various genotypes and subtypes of HCV. Treatment of HCV has made significant advances with direct‐acting antivirals. However, for the choice of medicine or the combination of drugs for hepatitis C, it is imperative to detect and discriminate the crucial HCV...
Thu, 09/10/2020 - 06:24
Author(s): Yinjie Niu, Baihan Liu, Chang Sun, Lili Zhao, Hongyan Chen Duck hepatitis A virus type 1 (DHAV-1) disease causes significant economic losses to the duck industry. Duck enteritis virus (DEV) is frequently used as a viral vector for aquatic poultry vaccination, but no recombinan DEV expressing DHAV-1 VP0 has been developed. In this study, we established a system for rescuing the DEV C-...
Wed, 09/09/2020 - 16:00
Genomic reassortment of segmented RNA virus strains is an important evolutionary mechanism that can generate novel viruses with profound effects on human and animal health, such as the H1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009 arising from reassortment of two swine influenza viruses. Reassortment is not restricted to influenza virus and has been shown to occur in members of the order Bunyavirales. The...
Tue, 09/08/2020 - 02:03
The main animal reservoirs of zoonotic hepatitis E virus (HEV) are domestic pigs and wild boars, but HEV also infects cervids. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of HEV in Finnish cervid species that are commonly hunted for human consumption. We investigated sera from 342 European moose (Alces alces), 70 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and 12 European roe deer (Capreolus...
Fri, 09/04/2020 - 02:03
The leading causes of foodborne viral disease outbreaks are human norovirus and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Their environmental persistence enables contamination of kitchen surfaces and crops often consumed raw, such as berries. Many decontamination procedures are inefficient and unsuitable for surfaces of industrial kitchen environments and soft fruits. In this study, we investigated the efficiency...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 12:01
In 2015, a large human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) outbreak occurred among persons who inject drugs (PWID) in Indiana. During 2016–2019, additional outbreaks among PWID occurred across the United States. Based on information disseminated by responding health departments and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) involvement, we offer perspectives about characteristics of and public...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 12:01
Background In 2018, Philadelphia identified an outbreak of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections among persons who inject drugs (PWID). Although conventional HIV surveillance systems capture individual-level behavioral risk, they are not able to capture the social and environmental factors contributing to rapid transmission. Methods HIV surveillance data were used to assess...
Thu, 09/03/2020 - 12:01
Background In the United States, many opioid treatment programs (OTPs) do not offer viral hepatitis (VH) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing despite high prevalence among OTP clients. We initiated an opt-out VH and HIV testing and linkage-to-care program within our OTP. Methods All OTP intakes are screened for VH and HIV and evaluated for rescreening annually. A patient navigator...
Fri, 08/28/2020 - 02:03
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can cause acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. The zoonotic HEV genotype 3, which is highly prevalent in Europe, is mainly transmitted by consumption of raw meat and raw meat products produced from infected pigs or wild boars. High salt concentrations represent an important measure to preserve meat products and to inactivate foodborne pathogens. Here, an HEV...
Thu, 08/27/2020 - 06:33
Author(s): Anne Thébault, Julie David, Pauline Kooh, Vasco Cadavez, Ursula Gonzales-Barron, Nicole Pavio Norovirus is responsible for 20% of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. The fecal-oral route of transmission is known, but we proposed a first attempt to identify the relative importance of different sources and vehicles for sporadic cases using meta-analysis models. Case-control and cohort/cross...
Wed, 08/26/2020 - 22:16
Tilapia lake virus (TiLV) is an emerging pathogen in aquaculture, reportedly affecting farmed tilapia in 16 countries across multiple continents. Following an early warning in 2017 that TiLV might be widespread, we executed a surveillance programme on tilapia grow‐out farms and hatcheries from 10 districts of Bangladesh in 2017 and 2019. Among farms experiencing unusual mortality, eight out of 11...
Wed, 08/26/2020 - 08:03
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5 A/goose/Guangdong/1/96 lineage can cause severe disease in poultry and wild birds, and occasionally in humans. In recent years, H5 HPAI viruses of this lineage infecting poultry in Asia have spilled over into wild birds and spread via bird migration to countries...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 14:10
Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine coronavirus that causes severe diarrhea, resulting in high mortality in neonatal piglets. Despite widespread outbreaks in many countries, no effective PDCoV vaccines are currently available. Here, we generated, for the first time, a full-length infectious cDNA clone of PDCoV. We further manipulated the infectious clone by replacing the NS6...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 14:07
Salmonella and avian influenza virus are important pathogens affecting the poultry industry and human health worldwide. In this experimental study, we evaluated the consequences of co-infection of Salmonella enteritidis (SE) with H9N2 avian influenza virus (H9N2-AIV) in chickens. Four groups were included: control group, H9N2-AIV group, H9N2-AIV + SE group, and SE group. Infected chickens were...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:07
ABSTRACT The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic currently in process differs from other infectious disease calamities that have previously plagued humanity in the vast amount of information that is produced each day, which includes daily estimates of the disease incidence and mortality data. Apart from providing actionable information to public health authorities on the trend of the...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:07
ABSTRACT Wastewater surveillance represents a complementary approach to clinical surveillance to measure the presence and prevalence of emerging infectious diseases like the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. This innovative data source can improve the precision of epidemiological modeling to understand the penetrance of SARS-CoV-2 in specific vulnerable communities. Here, we tested wastewater...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:07
ABSTRACT Due to its fundamental role in the induction, training, and function of the immune system, it is critical to include characterizations of the gut microbiome in clinical trials and studies that aim to broaden our understanding of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Understanding the "gut-lung axes," where gut microbiome composition influences the lung’s susceptibility to viral...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:07
ABSTRACT The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that started in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 has spread worldwide, emerging as a global pandemic. The severe respiratory pneumonia caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has so far claimed more than 0.38 million lives and has impacted human lives worldwide. However, as the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:07
ABSTRACT The analysis of systematically collected data for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infectivity and death rates has revealed, in many countries around the world, a typical oscillatory pattern with a 7-day (circaseptan) period. Additionally, in some countries, 3.5-day (hemicircaseptan) and 14-day periodicities have also been observed. Interestingly, the 7-day infectivity and death rate...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:07
ABSTRACT Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in China in late 2019 and is caused by newly identified severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Previous studies had reported the stability of SARS-CoV-2 in cell culture media and deposited onto surfaces under a limited set of environmental conditions. Here, we broadly investigated the effects of relative...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:07
ABSTRACT Nipah disease is listed as one of the WHO priority diseases that pose the greatest public health risk due to their epidemic potential. More than 200 experts from around the world convened in Singapore last year to mark the 20th anniversary of the first Nipah virus outbreaks in Malaysia and Singapore. Most of these experts are now involved in responding to the coronavirus disease 2019 (...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:07
ABSTRACT The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a threat to global health. The mortality rate of severely ill patients in the early stage is 32.5%. The exacerbation of the condition and death of patients are closely associated with inflammatory cytokine storms, which are caused...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:06
ABSTRACT Human infection challenge studies involving the intentional infection of research participants with a disease-causing agent have recently been suggested as a means to speed up the search for a vaccine for the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Calls for challenge studies, however, rely on the expected social value of these studies. This value represents more than the...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:06
ABSTRACT Staphylococcus aureus is a highly significant infection problem in health care centers, particularly after surgery. It has been shown that nearly 80% of S. aureus infections following surgery are the same as those in the anterior nares of patients, suggesting that the anterior nares is the source of the infection strain. This has led to the use of mupirocin ointment being applied nasally...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:06
ABSTRACT Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has wreaked havoc across the globe; although the number of cases in Africa remains lower than in other regions, it is on a gradual upward trajectory. To date, COVID-19 cases have been reported in 54 out of 55 African countries. However, due to limited severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) real-time reverse transcription-PCR (rRT-...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:06
ABSTRACT Many coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients demonstrate lethal respiratory complications caused by cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Multiple cytokines have been implicated in CRS, but levels of tumor necrosis factor superfamily 14 (TNFSF14) (LIGHT) have not been previously measured in this setting. In this study, we observed significantly elevated serum LIGHT levels in hospitalized...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:06
Bats host diverse coronaviruses, including taxa capable of pandemic spread in humans. We report the genome of an alphacoronavirus from a neotropical bat species (Desmodus rotundus) in Peru, which contributes to our understanding of bat coronaviruses in nature.
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:06
ABSTRACT The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presents the medical community with a significant challenge. COVID-19 is an entirely new disease with disparate clinical manifestations that are difficult to reconcile with a single pathogenic principle. Here, we explain how the flexible paradigm of the "damage-...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:05
ABSTRACT To date, limited genetic changes in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome have been described. Here, we report a 382-nucleotide (nt) deletion in SARS-CoV-2 that truncates open reading frame 7b (ORF7b) and ORF8, removing the ORF8 transcription regulatory sequence (TRS) and eliminating ORF8 transcription. The earliest 382-nt deletion variant was detected...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:05
ABSTRACT There is high mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-infected individuals with chronic inflammatory diseases, like obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. A cytokine storm in some patients after infection contributes to this mortality. In addition to lungs, the intestine is targeted during COVID-19 infection. The intestinal membrane serves as a barrier to prevent leakage of...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:05
ABSTRACT Indirect transmission via a contaminated environment can occur for a number of pathogens, even those typically thought of as being directly transmitted, such as influenza virus, norovirus, bovine tuberculosis, or foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Indirect transmission facilitates spread from multiple sources beyond the infectious host, complicating the epidemiology and control of...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:05
ABSTRACT Proponents of the use of gain-of-function (GOF) experiments with pathogens with pandemic potential (PPP) have argued that such experiments are necessary because they reveal important facets of pathogenesis and can be performed safely. Opponents of GOF experiments with PPP have argued that the risks outweigh the knowledge gained. The COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates the vulnerability of...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:05
ABSTRACT Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the greatest pandemic of our generation, with 16 million people affected and 650,000 deaths worldwide so far. One of the risk factors associated with COVID-19 is secondary bacterial pneumonia. In recent studies on COVID-19 patients, secondary bacterial infections were significantly associated with worse outcomes and death despite antimicrobial...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:05
ABSTRACT We assessed various newly generated compounds that target the main protease (Mpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and various previously known compounds reportedly active against SARS-CoV-2, employing RNA quantitative PCR (RNA-qPCR), cytopathicity assays, and immunocytochemistry. Here, we show that two indole-chloropyridinyl-ester derivatives, GRL-0820...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:04
Analytical sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 detection is a key performance metric for the evaluation of viral detection assays. We determined analytical limits of detection for seven SARS-CoV-2 assays using serial dilutions of pooled patient material quantified with droplet digital PCR. Limits of detection ranged from ≤10 to 74 copies/ml for commercial high-throughput laboratory analyzers (Roche...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:04
The clinical performances of six molecular diagnostic tests and a rapid antigen test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were clinically evaluated for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in self-collected saliva. Saliva samples from 103 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 (15 asymptomatic and 88 symptomatic) were collected on the day of...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:04
The ability to detect SARS-CoV-2 in the upper respiratory tract ceases after 2 to 3 weeks post-symptom-onset in most patients. In contrast, SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in the stool of some patients for greater than 4 weeks, suggesting that stool may hold utility as an additional source for diagnosis. We validated the Cepheid Xpert Xpress SARS-CoV-2 and Hologic Panther Fusion real-time RT-PCR...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:04
In the coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, highly selective serological testing is essential to define exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Many tests have been developed, yet with variable speeds to first results, and are of unknown quality, particularly when considering the prediction of neutralizing capacity. The LIAISON SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:04
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led many clinics to move from clinician-collected to self-collected oropharyngeal swabs for the detection of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Before this change, however, self-collection was used primarily for genital and anorectal infections, with only limited studies on the performance of self-collection of oropharyngeal swabs for...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:04
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first identified in December 2019 and has quickly become a worldwide pandemic. In response, many diagnostic manufacturers have developed molecular assays for SARS-CoV-2 under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) pathway. This study compared three of these assays, the Hologic Panther Fusion SARS-...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:03
In recent decades, several new diseases have emerged in different geographical areas, with pathogens including Ebola virus, Zika virus, Nipah virus, and coronaviruses (CoVs). Recently, a new type of viral infection emerged in Wuhan City, China, and initial genomic sequencing data of this virus do not match with previously sequenced CoVs, suggesting a novel CoV strain (2019-nCoV), which has now...
Tue, 08/25/2020 - 10:03
Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy has been used since the early 1900s to treat emerging infectious diseases; its efficacy was later associated with the evidence that polyclonal neutralizing antibodies can reduce the duration of viremia. Recent large outbreaks of viral diseases for which effective antivirals or vaccines are still lacking has renewed the interest in CP as a life-saving treatment....

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