Viruses

Sun, 07/05/2020 - 08:02
Edible films can be designed to serve as carriers of antimicrobial agents and be used to control pathogenic foodborne viruses and bacteria. This research tested this concept by dissolving green tea extract (GTE) in chitosan film-forming solutions (FFS) and using it to prepare dried chitosan edible films. As a control, the GTE was also dissolved in deionized water (DW). The FFS and the dried...
Sun, 07/05/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Andrew D. Younger, Anna Neish, David I. Walker, Kaitlyn L. Jenkins, James A. Lowther, Tina A. Stapleton, Mickael Teixeira Alves Depuration of oysters can effectively reduce levels of E. coli, however, may not be effective in safeguarding against viral contamination (EFSA, 2012). These trials assess the removal of Norovirus Genogroups I and II (NoV GI and GII) and F + RNA bacteriophage...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 08:02
by Chihong Song, Reiko Takai-Todaka, Motohiro Miki, Kei Haga, Akira Fujimoto, Ryoka Ishiyama, Kazuki Oikawa, Masaru Yokoyama, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Kenji Iwasaki, Kosuke Murakami, Kazuhiko Katayama, Kazuyoshi Murata Norovirus is the major cause of epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Lack of structural information on infection and replication mechanisms hampers the development of...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 22:17
Comprehensive understanding of the patterns and drivers of avian influenza outbreaks is pivotal to inform surveillance systems and heighten nations’ ability to quickly detect and respond to the emergence of novel viruses. Starting in early 2017, the Italian poultry sector has been involved in the massive H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic that spread in the majority of the European...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 02:03
This study assessed wastewater quality through the quantification of four human enteric viruses and the applicability of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as indicators of viral reduction during wastewater treatment. Thirty-three samples were collected from three steps of a wastewater treatment plant in Southern Louisiana, USA for a year between March 2017 and...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 02:03
The molecular detection of Norovirus GI and Norovirus GII in the Tunisian industrial wastewater treatment plant of Charguia I was conducted to test the effectiveness of secondary biological treatment using the activated sludge procedure and the UV-C254 tertiary treatment radiation using a UV disinfection prototype to upgrade the quality of the purified wastewater. A total of 140 sewage samples...
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 22:16
Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) causes a highly contagious and acute disease in ducklings younger than 3 weeks of age and spreads rapidly by horizontal transmission to all susceptible ducklings in the flock. To date, there is no evidence of vertical transmission of DHAV‐1. In a previous study, we identified a novel DHAV type 1 (DHAV‐1) isolate that could infect adult ducks and induce laying drop....
Tue, 06/30/2020 - 22:16
Pre‐existing immunity against the conserved hemagglutinin (HA) stalk underlies the elicitation of cross‐group antibody induced by natural H7N9 virus infection and immunization in humans. However, whether broadly reactive antibodies can be induced by H7N9 infection and immunization in the absence of pre‐existing stalk‐specific immunity is unclear. In this study, antibody response induced by H7N9...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 22:17
Migratory waterfowl, including geese and ducks, are indicated as the primary reservoir of avian influenza viruses (AIv) which can be subsequently spread to commercial poultry. The US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) surveillance efforts of waterfowl for AIv have been largely discontinued in the contiguous United States. Consequently, the use of technologies to identify areas of high waterfowl...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 02:03
Shellfish constitute an important protein source but may be contaminated by viruses from various origins. A study performed on clams collected in Cameroon showed a high prevalence of norovirus and hepatitis A virus. After sequencing, the hepatitis A virus showed similarities with the genotype V simian strains.
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 16:00
All RNA viruses encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which replicates and transcribes viral RNA. This essential viral enzyme does not exist in mammalian cells, thus presents a main target for the development of antiviral drugs with potential pan-antiviral activity. In this study, we take advantage of the structurally equivalent site in the dengue virus (DENV) RdRp, the N-pocket, and in...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:02
Attention has been paid to H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) because of its heavy burden on the poultry industry and human mortality. Since an influenza A virus carrying N6 neuraminidase (NA) has never spread in humans, the potential for H5N6 HPAIV to cause disease in humans and the efficacy of antiviral drugs against the virus need to be urgently assessed. We used nonhuman...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:02
Each year, 5% to 20% of the population of the United States becomes infected with influenza A virus. Combination therapy with two or more antiviral agents has been considered a potential treatment option for influenza virus infection. However, the clinical results derived from combination treatment with two or more antiviral drugs have been variable. We examined the effectiveness of cotreatment...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Kaituo Liu, Ruyi Gao, Xiaoquan Wang, Wenwen Han, Zhuxing Ji, Huafen Zheng, Min Gu, Jiao Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Shunlin Hu, Sujuan Chen, Song Gao, Daxin Peng, Xin-an Jiao, Xiufan Liu Pigeons were previously thought to be resistant to H5 viruses and to play a minimal role in spreading these viruses. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of two clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 viruses in pigeons and...
Tue, 06/23/2020 - 08:02
by Elspeth Ready, Patrick Habecker, Roberto Abadie, Bilal Khan, Kirk Dombrowski We analyze a network of needle-sharing ties among 117 people who inject drugs (PWID) in rural Puerto Rico, using exponential random graph modeling to examine whether network members engage in partner restriction to lower their risk of contracting HIV or hepatitis C (HCV), or in informed altruism to prevent others from...
Sat, 06/20/2020 - 22:16
Analysis of environmental samples obtained from the Live Poultry Markets (LPMs) of Dhaka City, Bangladesh, has revealed that the highest degree of prevalence of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI, H5N1), besides other subtypes of the LPAI virus, poses the plausible risk of transmission of these viruses between human and poultry species. The present study was conducted using the OIE risk...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 04:03
The Florida Complaint and Outbreak Reporting System (FL-CORS) database is used by the Florida Department of Health’s Food and Waterborne Disease Program (FWDP) as one of the tools to detect foodborne disease outbreaks. We present a descriptive and spatial network analysis of the FL-CORS data collected during 2015-2018. We also quantified foodborne disease outbreaks (FBO) which were investigated...
Tue, 06/16/2020 - 16:00
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main pathogen of hepatitis worldwide. However, its infection biology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Suitable small-animal models are required to advance the study of HEV infection. Although an efficient model of genotype 1 (gt1) and gt3 HEV infection has been established in human liver chimeric mice, the infectivity of gt4 HEV infection in mice has not...
Tue, 06/16/2020 - 08:02
by Cesar Cabezas, Omar Trujillo, Ángel Gonzales-Vivanco, Carlos Manuel Benites Villafane, Johanna Balbuena, Alfredo Oswaldo Borda-Olivas, Magna Aurora Suarez-Jara, Flor de María Peceros, Max Carlos Ramírez-Soto Background Viral hepatitis (hepatitis A, B, C, D and E) remains a public health problem in Peru, with a high disease burden. There are limited data on the prevalence of viral hepatitis at...
Tue, 06/16/2020 - 08:02
M. Kang et al. During 2016–2018, San Diego County, California, USA, experienced one of the largest hepatitis A outbreaks in the United States in 2 decades. In close partnership with local healthcare systems, San Diego County Public Health led a public health response to the outbreak that focused on a 3-pronged strategy to vaccinate, sanitize, and educate. Healthcare systems administered nearly...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 22:17
Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N8 outbreaks occurred in poultry farms in France in 2016‐17, resulting in significant economic losses and disruption to the poultry industry. Current evidence on associations between actual on‐farm biosecurity risk factors and H5N8 occurrence is limited. Therefore, a retrospective matched case‐control study was undertaken to investigate the inter...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 08:02
Viruses, as obligate intracellular parasites, exploit cellular pathways and resources in a variety of fascinating ways. A striking example of this is the remodelling of intracellular membranes into specialized structures that support the replication of positive-sense ssRNA (+RNA) viruses infecting eukaryotes. These distinct forms of virus-induced structures include double-membrane vesicles (DMVs...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 04:02
Hospital-acquired infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are a global problem. Healthy people can carry ESBL-producing E. coli in their intestines; thus, E. coli from healthy people can potentially cause hospital-acquired infections. Therefore, the transmission routes of ESBL-producing E. coli from healthy persons should be determined.A foodborne...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 16:00
The protein inhibitor of the activated STAT2 (PIAS2) has been implicated in many cellular processes and can also regulate viral replication in mammals. However, the role of PIAS2 in the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 replication in ducks is still unclear. Through liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay, we identified that duck PIAS2 (duPIAS2) was one...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 08:02
by Ruth Cabrera Orrego, Leonardo Alberto Ríos-Osorio, Yoav Keynan, Zulma Vanessa Rueda, Lina Andrea Gutiérrez Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever in humans and coxiellosis in animals. In humans, it causes acute febrile illnesses like influenza, pneumonia, hepatitis, and chronic illnesses such as endocarditis, vascular infection, and post-infectious fatigue syndrome. It is widely distributed...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 02:02
Globally, norovirus is the most common gastroenteritis causing pathogen. Annually, norovirus causes 685 million cases of acute gastroenteritis and 200,000 deaths, worldwide. Recent evidence has suggested that norovirus can also be spread via aerosolization; however, an indoor generation source has yet to be determined. We optimized a sampling method for the collection of aerosolized norovirus...
Wed, 06/10/2020 - 12:00
Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can transmit through needle sharing. The national HBV infection prevalence in persons who inject drugs remains ill-defined. We estimated the prevalence of total HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) positivity, indicating a previous or ongoing HBV infection, among adults aged 20–59 years with an injection drug use (IDU) history. We compared select characteristics by anti...
Tue, 06/09/2020 - 06:11
Author(s): Abdelfattah H. Eladl, Samah M. Mosad, Reham A. El-Shafei, Rasha M. Saleh, Hanaa S. Ali, Basma M. Badawy, Mohamed F. Elshal This study was conducted to assess the comparative effects of a mixed herbal extract (MHE) containing Ocimum sanctum, Withania somnifera, Emblica officinalis, Tinospora cordifolia, Mangifera indica, and Asphaltum (shilajit) on infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV...
Sun, 06/07/2020 - 22:17
Poultry can become infected with avian influenza viruses (AIV) via (in) direct contact with infected wild birds. Free‐range chicken farms in the Netherlands were shown to have a higher risk for introduction of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus than indoor chicken farms. Therefore, during outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), free‐range layers are confined indoors as a...
Fri, 06/05/2020 - 16:00
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) subtype H5N1 causes a devastating disease in poultry. Vaccination is an effective method of controlling avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in poultry. The hemagglutinin (HA) protein is the major determinant recognized by the immune system of the host. Cleavage of the HA precursor HA0 into HA1 and HA2 subunits is required for infectivity of the...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:49
Author(s): Rui-hua Zhang, Pei-yao Li, Ming-Ju Xu, Cun-Lian Wang, Chun-Hong Li, Jing-ping Gao, Xue-jing Wang, Tong Xu, Hong-liang Zhang, Rui-hong Zhang, Shu-Fei Tian H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) can cross species barriers and expand from birds tomammals and humans. It usually leads to economic loss for breeding farms and poses a serious threat to human health.This study investigated the...
Thu, 06/04/2020 - 03:49
Author(s): Zuxian Chen, Zhenyu Wang, Xiya Zhao, Yun Guan, Qian Xue, Jinrong Li, Zhiting Liu, Bingbing Zhao, Zhuoliang He, Jianni Huang, Ming Liao, Yafen Song, Peirong Jiao The H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) has been circulating in China since 2013. In this report, we describe our recent chicken experimental studies investigating the pathogenicity and transmission of four...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:52
Noroviruses (NoV) are responsible for many shellfish outbreaks. Purification processes may be applied to oysters before marketing to decrease potential fecal pollution. This step is rapidly highly effective in reducing Escherichia coli; nevertheless, the elimination of virus genomes has been described to be much slower. It is therefore important to identify (i) the purification conditions that...
Mon, 06/01/2020 - 03:47
Author(s): Yalan Lai, Ling He, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Xumin Ou, XingJian Wen, Sai Mao, Di Sun, Renyong Jia, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Shaqiu Zhang, Xin-Xin Zhao, Juan Huang, Qun Gao, Yunya Liu, Yanling Yu An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (I-ELISA) based on the VP2 protein of duck hepatitis A virus type 3 (DHAV-3) was established in this study. The...
Sat, 05/30/2020 - 03:50
Author(s): Alejandro Molina-Chavarria, Leticia Félix-Valenzuela, Erika Silva-Campa, Verónica Mata-Haro Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide; a high number of those cases are attributed to the consumption of contaminated food. Crop producers have used several strategies to inactivate the virus present in these products and thus stop the NoV...
Sat, 05/30/2020 - 03:44
Food contaminated by hepatitis A virus (HAV) is responsible of the 2‐7% of all HAV outbreaks worldwide. This review provides a description of the HAV characteristics, its infectivity and epidemiological features. In addition, this review compiles existing original papers reporting HAV prevalence, viral titers in foodstuffs and the risk associated with food contamination. The purpose of this...
Mon, 05/25/2020 - 03:36
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most common causes of acute viral hepatitis in humans. Although HAV has a relatively small genome, there are several factors limiting whole genome sequencing such as PCR amplification artefacts and ambiguities in de novo assembly. The recently developed Oxford Nanopore technologies (ONT) allows single-molecule sequencing of long-size fragments of DNA or RNA...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:48
The presence of free-grazing ducks (FGD) has consistently been shown to be associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 outbreaks in South-East Asia. However, the lack of knowledge about the transmission pathways limits the effectiveness of control efforts. To address this gap, we developed a probabilistic transmission model of HPAIV H5N1 in the nomadic FGD production...
Fri, 05/22/2020 - 03:43
Avian coronaviruses, including infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and turkey coronavirus (TCoV), are economically important viruses affecting poultry worldwide. IBV is responsible for causing severe losses to the commercial poultry sector globally. The objectives of this study were to identify the viruses that were causing outbreaks of severe respiratory disease in chickens in Trinidad and Tobago...
Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:50
Author(s): Bao-Yang Ruan, Yun Yao, Shuai-Yong Wang, Xiao-Qian Gong, Xiao-Min Liu, Qi Wang, Ling-Xue Yu, Shi-Qiang Zhu, Juan Wang, Tong-Ling Shan, Yan-Jun Zhou, Wu Tong, Hao Zheng, Guo-Xin Li, Fei Gao, Ning Kong, Hai Yu, Guang-Zhi Tong The classical swine (CS) H1N1 swine influenza virus (SIVs) emerged in humans as a reassortant virus that caused the H1N1 influenza virus pandemic in 2009, and the...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:49
Norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States, and restaurants are the most common setting of foodborne norovirus outbreaks. Therefore, prevention and control of restaurant-related foodborne norovirus outbreaks is critical to lowering the burden of foodborne illness in the United States. Data for 124 norovirus outbreaks and outbreak restaurants were obtained...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:44
Domestic waterfowl play an important role in the perpetuation and transmission of avian pathogens including avian influenza viruses (AIV) of low and high pathogenicity, which pose severe economic and public health concerns in Bangladesh. This study focused on active surveillance of several avian viral pathogens with a special reference to AIV in selected backyard duck populations in Bangladesh. A...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:43
In recent years, different subtypes of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses caused outbreaks in several poultry types worldwide. Early detection of HPAI virus infection is crucial to reduce virus spread. Previously, the use of a mortality ratio threshold to expedite notification of suspicion in layer farms was proposed. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical signs...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:43
Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) can spread globally through migratory birds and cause massive outbreaks in commercial poultry. AIV outbreaks have been associated with proximity to waterbodies, presence of waterfowl or wild bird cases near poultry farms. In this study, we compared densities of selected HPAI high‐risk wild bird species around 7 locations (H farms) infected with...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:36
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) cause major economic losses to the global poultry industry. Many host factors have been identified that act as regulators of the inflammatory response and virus replication in influenza A virus (IAV) infected cells including nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) like receptor (NLR) family proteins. Evidence is emerging that NLRC5, the largest NLR member,...
Sat, 05/16/2020 - 03:36
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) as a zoonotic agent can be responsible for an acute hepatitis in humans, which is usually self-limiting. Progression toward a chronic stage is possible, especially in immunocompromised patients. In the past decade, the number of hepatitis E cases in humans in Germany has increased enormously to 3491 cases in 2018. Domestic pigs have been identified as a main animal...
Wed, 05/13/2020 - 03:46
Author(s): Reza Amanollahi, Keramat Asasi, Bahman Abdi-Hachesoo H9N2 Avian influenza (AI) is an infectious disease which considered to have low pathogenic virulence, but in the case of coinfection with other pathogens it has the potential to become a major threat to the poultry industry. Infectious bronchitis (IB) and Newcastle diseases (ND) are other common problems to the poultry industry,...
Wed, 05/13/2020 - 03:37
Mallard ducks are a natural host and reservoir of avian Influenza A viruses. While most influenza strains can replicate in mallards, the virus typically does not cause substantial disease in this host. Mallards are often resistant to disease caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, while the same strains can cause severe infection in humans, chickens, and even other species of ducks,...
Tue, 05/12/2020 - 03:42
Author(s): Adeline Huneau-Salaün, Axelle Scoizec, Rodolphe Thomas, Sophie Le Bouquin Transport of infected birds is thought to play a key role in the spread of avian influenza (AI) on poultry farms during epizootic outbreaks. Ensuring efficient cleaning and disinfection (C&D) of equipment used for transport is needed to prevent the spread of AI. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy...
Mon, 05/11/2020 - 03:45
A survey of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in the Mingalar‐Taung‐Nyunt live bird market (MTN‐LBM), Yangon, Myanmar, was conducted from December 2017 to December 2018. During the survey, 455 swab samples were collected from broilers, layers, backyard chickens and ducks from the MTN‐LBM. Ninety‐one pooled samples were screened for IAVs by real‐time RT‐PCR specific to the M gene. Positive pooled samples...

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