Norovirus

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Sun, 07/05/2020 - 08:02
Edible films can be designed to serve as carriers of antimicrobial agents and be used to control pathogenic foodborne viruses and bacteria. This research tested this concept by dissolving green tea extract (GTE) in chitosan film-forming solutions (FFS) and using it to prepare dried chitosan edible films. As a control, the GTE was also dissolved in deionized water (DW). The FFS and the dried...
Sun, 07/05/2020 - 06:10
Author(s): Andrew D. Younger, Anna Neish, David I. Walker, Kaitlyn L. Jenkins, James A. Lowther, Tina A. Stapleton, Mickael Teixeira Alves Depuration of oysters can effectively reduce levels of E. coli, however, may not be effective in safeguarding against viral contamination (EFSA, 2012). These trials assess the removal of Norovirus Genogroups I and II (NoV GI and GII) and F + RNA bacteriophage...
Fri, 07/03/2020 - 08:02
by Chihong Song, Reiko Takai-Todaka, Motohiro Miki, Kei Haga, Akira Fujimoto, Ryoka Ishiyama, Kazuki Oikawa, Masaru Yokoyama, Naoyuki Miyazaki, Kenji Iwasaki, Kosuke Murakami, Kazuhiko Katayama, Kazuyoshi Murata Norovirus is the major cause of epidemic nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Lack of structural information on infection and replication mechanisms hampers the development of...
Thu, 07/02/2020 - 02:03
This study assessed wastewater quality through the quantification of four human enteric viruses and the applicability of pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) as indicators of viral reduction during wastewater treatment. Thirty-three samples were collected from three steps of a wastewater treatment plant in Southern Louisiana, USA for a year between March 2017 and...
Wed, 07/01/2020 - 02:03
The molecular detection of Norovirus GI and Norovirus GII in the Tunisian industrial wastewater treatment plant of Charguia I was conducted to test the effectiveness of secondary biological treatment using the activated sludge procedure and the UV-C254 tertiary treatment radiation using a UV disinfection prototype to upgrade the quality of the purified wastewater. A total of 140 sewage samples...
Sun, 06/28/2020 - 02:03
Shellfish constitute an important protein source but may be contaminated by viruses from various origins. A study performed on clams collected in Cameroon showed a high prevalence of norovirus and hepatitis A virus. After sequencing, the hepatitis A virus showed similarities with the genotype V simian strains.
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 16:00
All RNA viruses encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which replicates and transcribes viral RNA. This essential viral enzyme does not exist in mammalian cells, thus presents a main target for the development of antiviral drugs with potential pan-antiviral activity. In this study, we take advantage of the structurally equivalent site in the dengue virus (DENV) RdRp, the N-pocket, and in...
Fri, 06/19/2020 - 04:03
The Florida Complaint and Outbreak Reporting System (FL-CORS) database is used by the Florida Department of Health’s Food and Waterborne Disease Program (FWDP) as one of the tools to detect foodborne disease outbreaks. We present a descriptive and spatial network analysis of the FL-CORS data collected during 2015-2018. We also quantified foodborne disease outbreaks (FBO) which were investigated...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 08:02
Viruses, as obligate intracellular parasites, exploit cellular pathways and resources in a variety of fascinating ways. A striking example of this is the remodelling of intracellular membranes into specialized structures that support the replication of positive-sense ssRNA (+RNA) viruses infecting eukaryotes. These distinct forms of virus-induced structures include double-membrane vesicles (DMVs...
Fri, 06/12/2020 - 04:02
Hospital-acquired infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli are a global problem. Healthy people can carry ESBL-producing E. coli in their intestines; thus, E. coli from healthy people can potentially cause hospital-acquired infections. Therefore, the transmission routes of ESBL-producing E. coli from healthy persons should be determined.A foodborne...
Thu, 06/11/2020 - 02:02
Globally, norovirus is the most common gastroenteritis causing pathogen. Annually, norovirus causes 685 million cases of acute gastroenteritis and 200,000 deaths, worldwide. Recent evidence has suggested that norovirus can also be spread via aerosolization; however, an indoor generation source has yet to be determined. We optimized a sampling method for the collection of aerosolized norovirus...
Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:52
Noroviruses (NoV) are responsible for many shellfish outbreaks. Purification processes may be applied to oysters before marketing to decrease potential fecal pollution. This step is rapidly highly effective in reducing Escherichia coli; nevertheless, the elimination of virus genomes has been described to be much slower. It is therefore important to identify (i) the purification conditions that...
Sat, 05/30/2020 - 03:50
Author(s): Alejandro Molina-Chavarria, Leticia Félix-Valenzuela, Erika Silva-Campa, Verónica Mata-Haro Norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic gastroenteritis worldwide; a high number of those cases are attributed to the consumption of contaminated food. Crop producers have used several strategies to inactivate the virus present in these products and thus stop the NoV...
Tue, 05/19/2020 - 03:49
Norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States, and restaurants are the most common setting of foodborne norovirus outbreaks. Therefore, prevention and control of restaurant-related foodborne norovirus outbreaks is critical to lowering the burden of foodborne illness in the United States. Data for 124 norovirus outbreaks and outbreak restaurants were obtained...
Fri, 05/08/2020 - 03:52
Foodborne viral contamination of fresh produce has been associated with numerous outbreaks. Detection of such contaminated foods is important for protecting public health. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the capability of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Enteric Viruses tiling microarray (FDA-EVIR) for rapid molecular identification of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human norovirus (NoV...
Thu, 05/07/2020 - 03:36
Background Noroviruses are the major cause of viral gastroenteritis. Disease transmission is difficult to prevent and outbreaks in health-care facilities commonly occur. Contact with infected persons and contaminated environments are believed to be the main routes of transmission. However, noroviruses have recently been found in aerosols and airborne transmission has been suggested. The aim of...
Thu, 04/30/2020 - 03:37
In households with young family members in a setting without rotavirus vaccination, norovirus is the dominant acute gastroenteritis pathogen, but rotavirus is associated with more severe disease. There was substantial within-household transmission, both symptomatic and asymptomatic. The study provides key quantities on transmission, which can inform vaccine policy decisions and act as a baseline...
Wed, 04/29/2020 - 03:46
ABSTRACT Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expression is an important susceptibility factor for HuNoV infection based on controlled human infection models and epidemiologic studies that show an association of secretor status with infection caused by several genotypes. The fucosyltransferase 2 gene (FUT2)...
Wed, 04/29/2020 - 03:46
ABSTRACT Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis worldwide and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups. The recent finding that HuNoV can be propagated in B cells and mucosa-derived intestinal epithelial organoids (IEOs) has transformed our ability to dissect the life cycle of noroviruses. Using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) of HuNoV-...
Fri, 04/24/2020 - 03:45
Here, we report the near-complete genome sequence of swine norovirus strain SwNoV/Sw1/2018/JP. The genome was genetically similar (90.2%) to that of the only other swine norovirus strain previously detected in Japan (SW/NV/swine43/JP). In conclusion, genome sequences of swine noroviruses in Japan have not been changed significantly in the past 15 years.
Tue, 04/07/2020 - 04:02
by Vincent R. Graziano, Forrest C. Walker, Elizabeth A. Kennedy, Jin Wei, Khalil Ettayebi, Madison S. Strine, Renata B. Filler, Ebrahim Hassan, Leon L. Hsieh, Arthur S. Kim, Abimbola O. Kolawole, Christiane E. Wobus, Lisa C. Lindesmith, Ralph S. Baric, Mary K. Estes, Robert C. Orchard, Megan T. Baldridge, Craig B. Wilen Murine norovirus (MNoV) is an important model of human norovirus (HNoV) and...
Sun, 04/05/2020 - 03:32
Author(s): Mohan Amarasiri, Etsuko Utagawa, Daisuke Sano, Kazuhiko Katayama We analyzed 46 pediatric fecal samples collected between the years 1997 and 2000 to retrospectively evaluate the norovirus strains circulating during that era and to identify possible re-emergence patterns. From the tested fecal samples, we detected GII.1, GII.3, GII.4 (95/96-US) and GII.6 strains. Most importantly, two...
Sun, 03/15/2020 - 04:01
Author(s): Seung Hoon Baek, Chan Yeong Park, Thang Phan Nguyen, Min Woo Kim, Jong Pil Park, Changsun Choi, Soo Young Kim, Suresh Kumar Kailasa, Tae Jung Park Human norovirus is one of the potential foodborne pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis, diarrhea, and food poisoning. For norovirus detection, we developed the norovirus specifically capturable peptides functionalized gold nanoparticles (...
Fri, 03/13/2020 - 03:31
Author(s): Sofia Strubbia, Julien Schaeffer, Alban Besnard, Candice Wacrenier, Cécile Le Mennec, Pascal Garry, Marion Desdouits, Françoise S. Le Guyader Human virus transmission through food consumption has been identified since many years and the international trade increases the risk of dissemination of viral pathogens. The development of metagenomic approach holds many promises for the...
Wed, 03/11/2020 - 03:34
Author(s): Carina Pacheco Cantelli, Tulio Machado Fumian, Fábio Correia Malta, Denise Cotrim da Cunha, Patricia Brasil, Johan Nordgren, Lennart Svensson, Marize Pereira Miagostovich, Marcia Terezinha Baroni de Moraes, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite Norovirus has emerged as an important viral agent of acute pediatric gastroenteritis, with a growing genetic diversity reported in the last decades. Histo...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:26
The availability of drinking water is one of the main determinants of quality of life, disease prevention and the promotion of health. Viruses are important agents of waterborne diseases and have been described as important markers of human faecal contamination. This study aimed to investigate viruses’ presence as an indicator of drinking water quality in low-income communities in the Manguinhos...
Tue, 03/10/2020 - 03:25
Human noroviruses (NVs) are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. The majority of outbreaks are caused by genogroup II.4 (GII.4), with new variants emerging every 2 to 4 years. Immunocompromised patients are hypothesized to be important reservoirs where new NV variants emerge. Here, we examined intra-host NV variants and assessed immune-driven NV evolution in chronically...
Tue, 03/03/2020 - 03:26
Human noroviruses are the major cause of non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Since no therapeutic agent has been proven to prevent human norovirus infection yet, preventive healthcare interventions to block the infection routes play an important role in infection control. One of the possible infection routes of human noroviruses are through contaminated hands, but no hand antiseptics...
Sat, 02/22/2020 - 03:39
Author(s): Yingyin Liao, Liang Xue, Junshan Gao, Aiwu Wu, Xiaoxia KouAbstractBackgroundNorovirus is responsible for the viral gastroenteritis burden worldwide. Histo-blood type antigens (HBGAs) are the only well-known factor regarding their effect on the pathogenesis of norovirus. Here, we performed the study to further investigate the association of the ABO blood group with norovirus...
Fri, 02/21/2020 - 03:54
The U.S. FDA Food Safety Modernization Act Preventive Controls for Human Food Rule emphasizes the importance of an effective environmental monitoring (EM) program. This study aims to characterize polyurethane foam (PUF) EM tools—currently used in the food industry for the recovery of bacteria from food contact surfaces—for their efficacy in the release and recovery of human enteric viruses. Two...
Thu, 02/13/2020 - 04:00
Author(s): Mayuri Patwardhan, Mark T. Morgan, Vermont Dia, Doris H. D’SouzaAbstractHuman noroviruses (HNoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) are predominantly linked to foodborne outbreaks worldwide. As cell-culture systems to propagate HNoV in laboratories are not easily available, Tulane virus (TV) is used as a cultivable HNoV surrogate to determine inactivation. Heat-sensitization of HAV and TV by...
Tue, 02/11/2020 - 03:31
Norovirus constitutes the most frequently identified infectious cause of disease outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water. When investigating outbreaks related to surface water, a One Health approach is insightful. Historically, there has been a focus on potential contamination of recreational water by bird droppings and a recent publication demonstrating human noroviruses in bird...
Fri, 02/07/2020 - 03:47
M. Jin et al. CaliciNet China, a network of provincial, county, and city laboratories coordinated by the Chinese Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, was launched in October 2016 to monitor the epidemiology and genotype distribution of norovirus outbreaks in China. During October 2016–September 2018, a total of 556 norovirus outbreaks were reported, and positive fecal samples from 470 (84....
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 04:10
Enteric viruses are shed in fecal material by humans and other animals and are common contaminants in wastewater and surface water. Wastewater treatment plants often disinfect this effluent with low-pressure and medium-pressure UV lamps, which emit 254-nm and 220- to 280-nm irradiation, respectively. It is not known whether this treatment is efficacious against enteric viruses or how such...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:56
Foodborne enteric viruses, in particular HuNoV and HAV, are the most common cause of the berry-linked viral diseases, and outbreaks around the world, and have become an important concern for health authorities. Despite the increased importance of berry fruits as a vehicle for foodborne viruses, there is limited information concerning the fate of foodborne viruses in the berry supply chain from...
Tue, 02/04/2020 - 03:44
Background Chronic norovirus infection in immunocompromised patients can be severe, and presently there is no effective treatment. Adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells has proven to be safe and effective for the treatment of many viral infections, and this could represent a novel treatment approach for chronic norovirus infection. Hence, we sought to generate human norovirus-specific T...
Fri, 01/31/2020 - 03:37
A human norovirus (HuNoV) strain was obtained from a patient with acute gastroenteritis, and its complete coding sequence was determined. The coding-complete viral genome, with three open reading frames, was 7,565 bp long, with a GC content of 49.9%. The genotype of the HuNoV strain obtained in this study was identified as GII.p12_GII.3.
Thu, 01/30/2020 - 03:28
Seaweed is a source of protein that can help overcome the anticipated challenges of a growing world population and the current challenges for finding alternatives for animal proteins in the Western diet. Thus far, data on the safety of seaweed for feed and food purposes in the Western world are scattered. This study aimed to review the available knowledge on the presence of food safety hazards in...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:24
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) cause sporadic and epidemic outbreaks of gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide. We previously reported that stem cell-derived human intestinal enteroid (HIE) cultures support replication of multiple HuNoV strains and that some strains (e.g., GII.3) replicate only in the presence of bile. Heat- and trypsin-treatment of bile...
Fri, 01/17/2020 - 03:33
We report the nearly complete genome of a norovirus GII.4 Hong Kong[P31] variant (GII strain Hu/HK/2019/GII.4 Hong Kong[P31]/CUHK-NS-2200) that was detected in a patient with gastroenteritis in August 2019. The genome was sequenced by metagenomic next-generation sequencing and was found to have 92.8% nucleotide similarity to the closest GII.4 norovirus sequence in GenBank.
Thu, 01/16/2020 - 03:29
Author(s): Xi Bai, Matteo Campagnoli, Sophie Butot, Thierry Putallaz, Lise Michot, Sophie ZuberAbstractOsmotically dehydrated and air dried berry fruits are used as ingredients for the production of yoghurts, chocolates, cereal bars and mixes, ice creams and cakes and are often subjected to mild thermal treatments only, posing questions around their microbiological safety. As osmotic dehydration...
Thu, 01/16/2020 - 03:23
Background Large norovirus (NoV) outbreaks are explosive in nature and vary widely in final size and duration, suggesting that superspreading combined with heterogeneous contact may explain these dynamics. Modeling tools that can capture heterogeneity in infectiousness and contact are important for NoV outbreak prevention and control, yet they remain limited. Methods Data from a large NoV...
Thu, 01/16/2020 - 03:23
K. Charoenkul et al. In July 2018, recombinant norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney was detected in dogs who had diarrhea in a kennel and in children living on the same premises in Thailand. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 4 noroviruses from Thailand showed that the canine norovirus was closely related to human norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney, suggesting human-to-canine transmission.
Wed, 01/15/2020 - 03:34
by Cristina V. Cardemil, Sean T. O’Leary, Brenda L. Beaty, Katy Ivey, Megan C. Lindley, Allison Kempe, Lori A. Crane, Laura P. Hurley, Michaela Brtnikova, Aron J. Hall Background Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) across the age spectrum; candidate vaccines are in clinical trials. While norovirus diagnostic testing is increasingly available, stool testing may not be...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:30
Author(s): E. Lewis, J.A. Hudson, N. Cook, J.D. Barnes, E. HaynesAbstractNext generation sequencing (NGS) approaches are increasingly applied to tracing microbial contaminants entering the food chain due to NGS’ untargeted nature and ability to investigate non-culturable (and/or difficult to culture) organisms while yielding genomic information about the microbiota. So far, a plethora of microbes...
Tue, 01/14/2020 - 03:23
Noroviruses are a major cause of viral epidemic gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. The protease (Pro) encoded in open reading frame 1 (ORF1) is an essential enzyme for proteolysis of the viral polyprotein. Although there are some reports regarding the evolutionary analysis of norovirus GII-encoding genes, there are few reports focused on the Pro region. We analyzed the molecular evolution of...
Thu, 01/09/2020 - 03:42
K. Charoenkul et al. In July 2018, recombinant norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney was detected in dogs who had diarrhea in a kennel and in children living on the same premises in Thailand. Whole-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 4 noroviruses from Thailand showed that the canine norovirus was closely related to human norovirus GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney, suggesting human-to-canine transmission.
Tue, 01/07/2020 - 03:39
by Michèle Brocard, Valentina Iadevaia, Philipp Klein, Belinda Hall, Glenys Lewis, Jia Lu, James Burke, Margaret M. Willcocks, Roy Parker, Ian G. Goodfellow, Alessia Ruggieri, Nicolas Locker Viral infections impose major stress on the host cell. In response, stress pathways can rapidly deploy defence mechanisms by shutting off the protein synthesis machinery and triggering the accumulation of...
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 04:13
Noroviruses are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Here, we sequenced the open reading frame 1 (ORF1)-ORF2 junction region of norovirus strains isolated from 20 human stool samples. Samples were collected between 2014 and 2017 in Pernambuco State, Brazil. Phylogenetic analyses identified four norovirus GII genotypes circulating in this area of the country.
Fri, 01/03/2020 - 03:52
Outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis are often connected to contaminated drinking water. The assessment of the water quality relies on cultivation of indicator bacteria, and little is known of the fate of viruses in groundwater, especially in arctic regions. In Iceland, the groundwater temperature is between 3°C and 6°C. The aim of this study was to determine virus inactivation at low temperature...

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