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Zoonoses and Public Health

Mon, 04/15/2019 - 15:00
Abstract The role of free‐ranging wildlife in the epidemiology of enteropathogens causing clinical illness in humans and domestic animals is unclear. Salmonella enterica and anti‐microbial resistant bacteria have been detected in the faeces of raccoons (Procyon lotor), but little is known about the carriage of these bacteria in other sympatric meso‐mammals. Our objectives were to: (a) report the...
Wed, 04/03/2019 - 06:50
Abstract An epidemiological investigation was conducted in an unvaccinated dairy farming enterprise in which three workers on one of the milking herds (Herd 1) were diagnosed with leptospirosis due to serovars Hardjo (H) (n = 2) and Pomona (P) (n = 1) between January and March 2015. Blood and urine samples were collected from milking cows in Herd 1 (N = 230) and Herd 2 (N = 400), rising one‐ (R1...
Tue, 03/19/2019 - 15:00
Abstract Salmonella Kentucky is among the most frequently isolated S. enterica serovars from food animals in the United States. Recent research on isolates recovered from these animals suggests there may be geographic and host specificity signatures associated with S. Kentucky strains. However, the sources and genomic features of human clinical S. Kentucky isolated in the United States remain...
Mon, 03/18/2019 - 15:54
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection remains an important public health problem, and it is endemic primarily in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HEV among the general population, occupational population and swine in mainland China and its risk factors based on a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Systematic search from EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science...
Mon, 03/11/2019 - 12:10
Abstract Endemic zoonoses, such as Q fever and spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis, are prevalent in South Africa, yet often undiagnosed. In this study, we reviewed the demographics and animal exposure history of patients presenting with acute febrile illness to community health clinics in Mpumalanga Province to identify trends and risk factors associated with exposure to Coxiella burnetii,...
Wed, 03/06/2019 - 08:39
Abstract CTX‐M‐type extended‐spectrum β‐lactamase (ESBL)‐producing Enterobacteriaceae have become identified in marine ecosystem constituting a serious ecological issue. In this respect, although contamination of coastal waters and seafood, and even colonization of seabirds and fishes have been increasingly reported, molecular data are lacking to elucidate the clinical impact of ESBL producers in...
Thu, 02/28/2019 - 08:30
Abstract In the United States, multistate Salmonella outbreaks are most commonly linked to a food source; however, contact with live animals can also result in outbreaks of human illness. To characterize Salmonella outbreaks linked to animal contact and examine differences compared to foodborne outbreaks, we analysed data reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the...
Wed, 02/20/2019 - 08:49
Abstract Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Query fever (Q fever), is among the most highly infectious zoonotic pathogens transmitted among livestock, with chronic effects challenging to veterinary and medical detection and care systems. Transmission among domestic livestock species can vary regionally due to herd management practices that determine which livestock species are raised,...
Sun, 02/10/2019 - 13:35
Abstract Influenza viruses are frequently transmitted between pigs and their handlers, and among pig handlers. However, reports on socio‐environmental variables as potential risk factors associated with transmission of influenza in West African swine production facilities are very scarce. Syndromic survey for influenza was therefore conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria, and Kumasi, Ghana, in order to...
Sun, 02/10/2019 - 13:35
Abstract Practising veterinary medicine has an inherent risk of exposure to zoonotic agents, including the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. We screened sera of veterinarians authorized to work in Finland for the presence of specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with an enzyme‐linked fluorescent assay, and evaluated potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity from...
Tue, 02/05/2019 - 08:49
Abstract Human salmonellosis is a major public health problem worldwide. Infections can pass to humans by contact with contaminated substances in the food chain. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and contamination levels of Salmonella isolated from pork, chicken and beef sold in different types of retail stores in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces and to investigate the genetic...
Sun, 01/27/2019 - 11:10
Abstract The aim of the present study was to detect DNA of Toxoplasma gondii in Crassostrea spp. oysters cultured in the state of Pará, Brazil. A total of 400 oysters were directly collected from a fixed rack system. Gills, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and intervalvular liquid were separated and grouped into pool samples of 10 animals, resulting in 40 samples each of gills, GIT and intervalvular...
Wed, 01/09/2019 - 08:09
Abstract The objective of this meta‐analysis was to summarize available information on the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter (TC) in different food‐producing animals worldwide. Databases (i.e., PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus) were searched from 1980 to 2017 unrestricted by language. The inclusion criteria were as follows: prevalence or incidence studies, published in peer‐reviewed...
Sun, 12/09/2018 - 08:44
Abstract There are few epidemiologic studies on the shedding of Campylobacter among dogs in the United States, despite the potential public health implications. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among Texas shelter dogs as detected by culture methods and to characterize the isolates by species and antimicrobial susceptibility. Using a cross‐sectional...
Tue, 03/13/2018 - 00:26
Summary Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are one of the leading global causes of diarrhoeal diseases and are transmitted mainly from person to person but also through contaminated food, water and fomites. The possible zoonotic nature of NoVs has occasionally been discussed, although the viruses are generally considered to be host-species-specific. We investigated whether wild birds and rodents could...
Tue, 02/13/2018 - 23:21
Summary Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen that can be transmitted through contaminated raw or undercooked meat derived from domestic pigs. HEV infections have been documented among pig herds, pig products and environmental samples raising concern about the spread of the virus. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are considered zoonotic and have been linked to human cases. HEV was detected in 51...
Sun, 02/04/2018 - 23:05
Summary A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was carried to evaluate the effect of a feed additive on Campylobacter contamination of broilers reared in commercial conditions. Twenty-four broiler flocks naturally contaminated with Campylobacter were enrolled in the RCT: 12 were assigned to a control group (C) fed with a conventional finishing feed from 4 weeks of age to slaughter (around 35 days),...
Mon, 01/29/2018 - 22:55
Summary In December 2012, an increase in human Salmonella Typhimurium cases was identified in the province of Ontario, Canada launching an outbreak investigation. The outbreak spanned 3 years (2012–2014), with 134 cases reported from five Canadian provinces. There was a substantial burden of illness among children: 45% of cases were children 12 years old or under, and 23% of cases were under 5 ...
Sun, 12/17/2017 - 22:35
Summary Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic pathogen typically associated with clinical and asymptomatic infection in ruminant livestock. A re-emerging pathogen of significant public health importance, C. burnetii has caused recent epidemics in the United States and Europe, and public livestock exhibitions are increasingly scrutinized as a potential source of C. burnetii exposure. Although C. ...
Fri, 12/08/2017 - 04:35
Summary In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 9 is frequently isolated during foodborne outbreaks of salmonellosis. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) trace back investigations frequently identify isolate distribution patterns that may be epidemiologically linked to disease outbreaks. In this study, the in vitro virulence potential of S. Typhimurium DT9...
Fri, 12/08/2017 - 04:05
Summary Most swine Salmonella national control programmes in Europe have been based on the categorization of herds according to risk levels based on serological results. However, none of the non-Scandinavian countries have reported of any significant success on Salmonella infection reduction in fattening pigs or the number of human cases attributable to pigs or pork. The limited accuracy of the...
Tue, 11/28/2017 - 23:10
Summary The sources and modes of transmission of non-typhoidal Salmonella particularly zoonotic transmission are poorly understood in Africa. This study compared phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Salmonellae isolated from cattle and humans. Faecal samples of diarrhoeic patients (n = 234), and a healthy population (n = 160), beef cattle at slaughter (n = 250), farms (n = 72) and market (...
Mon, 11/27/2017 - 22:50
Summary This study aimed to provide new insights into the epidemiology of Salmonella in pig production, focusing on potential shedding patterns in breeding pigs throughout a full production cycle and the risk of transmission of infection from the sow to her offspring. A longitudinal study was conducted on five farrow-to-finish commercial pig farms. In each herd, shedding of Salmonella in faeces...
Tue, 11/14/2017 - 23:45
Summary From 2009 to 2015, 74 lungs from suckling (6.8%), nursing (70.3%), fattening (20.3%) pigs and pregnant sows (2.7%) with respiratory signs from pig farms in Southern Brazil were submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for necropsy and/or histologic examination and screening for respiratory agents by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), virus isolation (VI) and subtyping for influenza A virus...
Sun, 11/12/2017 - 23:10
Summary Toxoplasma gondii infections cause a large disease burden in the Netherlands, with an estimated health loss of 1,900 Disability Adjusted Life Years and a cost-of-illness estimated at €44 million annually. Infections in humans occur via exposure to oocysts in the environment and after eating undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, leading to asymptomatic or mild symptoms, but potentially...
Wed, 11/08/2017 - 05:05
Summary Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) exhibits an ecological climax with the aquatic ecosystem. The most widely prevalent subtype of LPAIV is H9N2. Wild aquatic birds being the natural reservoirs and ducks, the “Trojan horses” for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), can contaminate the natural water bodies inhabited by them. The virus can persist in the contaminated water from days to...
Tue, 11/07/2017 - 03:30
Summary Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacteria isolated from food-producing animals is a growing concern with implications for public health. AMR surveillance is essential to identify resistance trends and help in the design of effective and efficient control strategies. The aim of the study was to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from three...
Mon, 10/30/2017 - 23:50
Summary Every year, multiple outbreaks of salmonellosis in humans are linked to contact with mail-order chicks and ducks. The objective of this study was to describe the temporal changes in the prevalence of serovars, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) recovered from shipped boxes of mail-order hatchling poultry in the United States during...
Fri, 10/27/2017 - 05:42
Summary This study was conducted to estimate the apparent prevalence of Salmonella spp. in birds kept under backyard system in Entre Ríos, Argentina, and determine the performance of two selective plating media used for Salmonella isolation, and the antimicrobial resistance of the isolated. Also, the association of farms characteristics with Salmonella presence was evaluated. A total of 657...
Sun, 09/24/2017 - 23:55
Summary Salmonella Dublin is strongly adapted to cattle causing enteritis and/or systemic disease with high rates of mortality. However, it can be sporadically isolated from humans, usually causing serious disease, especially in patients with underlying chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to molecularly type S. Dublin strains isolated from humans and animals in Brazil to verify the...
Wed, 09/20/2017 - 05:25
Summary Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of H5N1 subtype are a major global threat to poultry and public health. Export of poultry products, such as chicken and duck meat, is a known source for the cross-boundary spread of HPAI H5N1 viruses. Humans get infected with HPAI H5N1 viruses either by close contact with infected poultry or through consumption of fresh/undercooked poultry...
Tue, 09/19/2017 - 07:20
Summary There is need to determine the nature of enduring reservoirs of Salmonella contributing to perpetual contamination within poultry flocks. The dispersal of Salmonella between birds, litter and the lesser mealworm has been established, but the extent that these act as critical components in the epidemiology of Salmonella infection during broiler grow-out and flock rotation has not been...
Mon, 09/18/2017 - 00:26
Summary Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a zoonotic pathogen of public health concern whose sources and transmission routes are difficult to trace. Using a combined source attribution and case–control analysis, we determined the relative contributions of four putative livestock sources (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, poultry) to human STEC infections and their associated dietary,...
Thu, 09/14/2017 - 03:35
Summary H7N9 virus infection is a global concern, given that it can cause severe infection and mortality in humans. However, the understanding of H7N9 epidemiology, animal reservoir species and zoonotic risk remains limited. This work evaluates the pathogenicity, transmissibility and local innate immune response of three avian species harbouring different respiratory distribution of α2,6 and α2,3...
Mon, 08/21/2017 - 05:51
Summary Campylobacter is regarded as a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. We report on a case of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter jejuni infection in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania among members of a household living with a laboratory-confirmed but non-speciated Campylobacter-infected puppy. We describe an outbreak of likely dog-associated...
Sun, 08/20/2017 - 00:40
Summary The population and range of feral pigs in the United States are rapidly expanding, yet key knowledge gaps exist regarding their role in the ecology and transmission of foodborne pathogens. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding among feral pigs throughout Texas and to identify risk factors for positive status. Faecal samples...
Wed, 08/09/2017 - 00:25
Summary Influenza A virus (IAV) infection in swine plays an important role in the ecology of influenza viruses. The emergence of new IAVs comes through different mechanisms, with the genetic reassortment of genes between influenza viruses, also originating from different species, being common. We performed a genetic analysis on 179 IAV isolates from humans (n. 75) and pigs (n. 104) collected in...
Wed, 08/02/2017 - 04:40
Summary Surveillance is an important component of an overall strategy to address antimicrobial resistant bacteria in food animals and the food chain. The poultry market has many points of entry into the Canadian food chain, and some production practices are underrepresented in terms of surveillance. For example, pathogen carriage and antimicrobial resistance surveillance data are limited in...
Fri, 07/28/2017 - 23:40
Summary Feeding high levels (≥40% dry matter) of distillers grains may increase the risk for cattle to carry enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157. The mechanism for the increased risk is not known nor whether non-O157 EHEC are similarly affected. Our objective was to test whether the fibre content or other components of modified distillers grains plus solubles (MDGS) affects the...
Fri, 07/28/2017 - 23:35
Summary Campylobacter jejuni is among the most prevalent causes of human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Domesticated animals and, especially, chicken meat are considered to be the main sources of infections. However, the contribution of surface waters and wildlife in C. jejuni transmission to humans is not well understood. We have evaluated the source attribution potential of a six-gene...
Thu, 07/13/2017 - 05:26
Summary The zoonotic potential of Escherichia coli from chicken-source food products is important to define for public health purposes. Previously, genotypic and phenotypic screening of E. coli isolates from commercial chicken meat and shell eggs identified some E. coli strains that by molecular criteria resembled human-source extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Here, to clarify the...
Mon, 07/03/2017 - 00:50
Summary Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the most common cause of viral hepatitis in humans. Pigs may act as a reservoir of HEV, and pig handlers were frequently identified with a higher prevalence of antibodies to HEV. The objectives of this study were to identify evidence of HEV infection in pigs and compare the history of jaundice between pig handlers and people not exposed to pigs and pork. Blood...
Sat, 06/24/2017 - 00:35
Summary In 2009, a pandemic influenza A virus (pH1N1) spread globally in humans and infected a broad range of captive animals with close human contact. In February 2014, a pH1N1 virus was isolated from a sloth bear with respiratory signs at a US zoo, demonstrating that recurring epidemics present an ongoing threat to animals, including threatened species. This is the first report of pH1N1...
Fri, 06/09/2017 - 08:18
Summary Viral pathogens account for a significant proportion of the burden of emerging infectious diseases in humans. The Wellcome Trust-Vietnamese Initiative on Zoonotic Infections (WT-VIZIONS) is aiming to understand the circulation of viral zoonotic pathogens in animals that pose a potential risk to human health. Evidence suggests that human exposure and infections with hepatitis E virus (HEV...
Fri, 06/09/2017 - 03:10
Summary Campylobacter is the most frequently occurring cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Europe. Unlike other zoonotic diseases, European-wide incidences of Campylobacter infections have increased during the past decade, resulting in a significant disease burden. In Denmark, campylobacteriosis is notifiable by laboratory and a unique registration system of electronic transfer and storage of...
Thu, 04/27/2017 - 19:54
Summary Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has two discrete epidemiological patterns: waterborne epidemics in developing countries only, caused by HEV genotype I, and sporadic zoonotic outbreaks in developing and developed countries caused by genotypes III and IV. This study was designed to investigate seroprevalence, molecular detection and the characterization of HEV by nested RT-PCR in swine as well as...
Sun, 04/09/2017 - 03:20
Summary Various tissues, nasal swabs, urine and blood samples were collected from 376 feral swine at two federally inspected abattoirs in Texas during six separate sampling periods in 2015. Samples were tested for Brucella spp. by culture and serology. Brucella spp. were cultured from 13.0% of feral swine, and antibodies were detected in 9.8%. Only 32.7% of culture-positive feral swine were also...
Tue, 03/28/2017 - 06:55
Summary Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and...
Wed, 03/22/2017 - 07:37
Summary Patients receiving immunosuppressive cancer treatments in settings where there is a high degree of human–animal interaction may be at increased risk for opportunistic zoonotic infections or reactivation of latent infections. We sought to determine the seroprevalence of selected zoonotic pathogens among patients diagnosed with haematologic malignancies and undergoing chemotherapeutic...
Mon, 03/13/2017 - 03:05
Summary Salmonella enterica is a global health concern because of its widespread association with foodborne illness. Bayesian models have been developed to attribute the burden of human salmonellosis to specific sources with the ultimate objective of prioritizing intervention strategies. Important considerations of source attribution models include the evaluation of the quality of input data,...

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