You are here

Zoonoses and Public Health

Fri, 08/16/2019 - 08:32
Abstract We investigated the prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus (HEV), Leptospira and Ascaris suum (A. suum) seropositivity, and of nasal methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization among Austrian practising veterinarians, and assessed the association with occupational swine livestock exposure. The 261 participants completed a questionnaire on demographics, intensity of...
Mon, 07/29/2019 - 13:59
Abstract Wild animals are involved in zoonotic disease transmission cycles. These are generally complex and poorly understood, especially among animals adapted to life in human ecosystems. Raccoons are reservoirs and effective carriers for infectious agents such as Salmonella throughout different environments and contribute to the transference of resistance genes. This study examined the presence...
Tue, 07/16/2019 - 13:13
Abstract To enhance efforts related to controlling foodborne pathogens in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), information on epidemiology of non‐typhoidal Salmonella enterica (hereafter termed “Salmonella”) is limited. We quantified the overall regional and country‐specific Salmonella prevalence in different human populations and identified the most common serotypes. Published literature of...
Tue, 07/16/2019 - 06:58
Abstract Salmonella enterica is a common food‐borne pathogen with occasional multidrug resistance (MDR). Salmonella genomic island (SGI1) is a horizontally transmissible genomic island, containing an MDR gene cluster. All Salmonella serotypes are public health concern, although there is an additional concern associated with those that harbour SGI1. In Iran, there are no data on the presence of...
Thu, 07/11/2019 - 15:23
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes 20 million infections worldwide yearly, of which only about 3.3 million are symptomatic. In developed Asian countries, HEV strains detected in human sera and in food sources were genetically similar, suggesting that indigenous HEV infections may be largely food‐borne. To assess the burden of hepatitis E in Singapore, we performed a seroepidemiologic study...
Sat, 07/06/2019 - 07:47
Abstract The issue of whether market fish can be involved in the transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in the marine environment is highly debated since toxoplasmosis has been diagnosed frequently in cetaceans stranded along the Mediterranean coastlines in recent times. To support the hypothesis that fishes can harbour and effectively transmit the parasite to top‐of‐the‐food‐chain marine organisms...
Tue, 07/02/2019 - 05:54
Abstract Objectives This study investigates the frequency and characteristics of carbapenemase‐producing Escherichia coli/Klebsiella pneumoniae (CPE/K) and extended‐spectrum cephalosporinase‐producing E. coli/K. pneumoniae (ESCE/K) in healthy humans and livestock in rural Cambodia. Additionally, household practices as risk factors for faecal carriage of ESCE/K are identified. Methods Faecal...
Mon, 07/01/2019 - 15:04
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is currently considered as a global health concern due to the recognition of its zoonotic transmission to humans, mainly from swine, and its association with the development of severe cases of hepatitis in human risk populations. The lack of updated data on HEV state of infection in swineherds of Argentina, and the necessity of robust technologies for its...
Thu, 06/27/2019 - 13:08
Abstract Leptospirosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease reported worldwide. In Uganda, seropositivity has been reported in both humans and domesticated animals, including cattle. However, it remains unknown whether cattle are shedding leptospires and thus acting as potential source for human leptospirosis. We conducted this cross‐sectional study in two cattle abattoirs in Kampala, Uganda between...
Tue, 06/18/2019 - 13:03
Abstract Poultry farmers faced dual risk when mutant avian influenza (AI) virus showed the zoonotic characteristics. A/H5N1 and A/H7N9 were two dominant AI virus strains that have captured the attention of the public over the years for they have been reported to bring about greater loss to poultry and human, respectively. Previous studies mainly used quantitative methods investigating either the...
Sun, 06/09/2019 - 14:39
Abstract Livestock meat and offal contribute significantly to human nutrition as sources of high‐quality protein and micronutrients. Livestock products are increasingly in demand, particularly in low‐ and middle‐income settings where economies are growing and meat is increasingly seen as an affordable and desirable food item. Demand is also driving intensification of livestock keeping and...
Fri, 06/07/2019 - 05:58
Abstract Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution that is responsible for Q fever in humans. It is a highly infectious bacterium that can be transmitted from cattle to humans through the consumption of unpasteurized milk. We report the molecular identification of C. burnetii in raw cow's milk being sold directly for human consumption in Brazil without official...
Fri, 05/24/2019 - 15:42
Abstract Food animals are considered reservoirs of methicillin‐resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and are implicated in their zoonotic transmission in the farm‐to‐plate continuum. LA‐MRSA has been reported as a zoonotic agent that has the potential to spread to humans and may cause infections in at‐risk groups. In this study, whole genome sequencing was used to describe the genetic...
Mon, 04/29/2019 - 06:24
Abstract In the United Kingdom, there has been an increase in the number of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in people annually since 2010. Most of these are thought to be indigenously acquired Orthohepevirus A genotype 3 (HEV G3), which has been linked to pork production and consumption. However, the dominant subgroup circulating in British pigs differs from that which is found in people;...
Mon, 04/15/2019 - 15:00
Abstract The role of free‐ranging wildlife in the epidemiology of enteropathogens causing clinical illness in humans and domestic animals is unclear. Salmonella enterica and anti‐microbial resistant bacteria have been detected in the faeces of raccoons (Procyon lotor), but little is known about the carriage of these bacteria in other sympatric meso‐mammals. Our objectives were to: (a) report the...
Wed, 04/03/2019 - 06:50
Abstract An epidemiological investigation was conducted in an unvaccinated dairy farming enterprise in which three workers on one of the milking herds (Herd 1) were diagnosed with leptospirosis due to serovars Hardjo (H) (n = 2) and Pomona (P) (n = 1) between January and March 2015. Blood and urine samples were collected from milking cows in Herd 1 (N = 230) and Herd 2 (N = 400), rising one‐ (R1...
Tue, 03/19/2019 - 15:00
Abstract Salmonella Kentucky is among the most frequently isolated S. enterica serovars from food animals in the United States. Recent research on isolates recovered from these animals suggests there may be geographic and host specificity signatures associated with S. Kentucky strains. However, the sources and genomic features of human clinical S. Kentucky isolated in the United States remain...
Mon, 03/18/2019 - 15:54
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection remains an important public health problem, and it is endemic primarily in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HEV among the general population, occupational population and swine in mainland China and its risk factors based on a systematic review and meta‐analysis. Systematic search from EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science...
Mon, 03/11/2019 - 12:10
Abstract Endemic zoonoses, such as Q fever and spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiosis, are prevalent in South Africa, yet often undiagnosed. In this study, we reviewed the demographics and animal exposure history of patients presenting with acute febrile illness to community health clinics in Mpumalanga Province to identify trends and risk factors associated with exposure to Coxiella burnetii,...
Wed, 03/06/2019 - 08:39
Abstract CTX‐M‐type extended‐spectrum β‐lactamase (ESBL)‐producing Enterobacteriaceae have become identified in marine ecosystem constituting a serious ecological issue. In this respect, although contamination of coastal waters and seafood, and even colonization of seabirds and fishes have been increasingly reported, molecular data are lacking to elucidate the clinical impact of ESBL producers in...
Thu, 02/28/2019 - 08:30
Abstract In the United States, multistate Salmonella outbreaks are most commonly linked to a food source; however, contact with live animals can also result in outbreaks of human illness. To characterize Salmonella outbreaks linked to animal contact and examine differences compared to foodborne outbreaks, we analysed data reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the...
Wed, 02/20/2019 - 08:49
Abstract Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Query fever (Q fever), is among the most highly infectious zoonotic pathogens transmitted among livestock, with chronic effects challenging to veterinary and medical detection and care systems. Transmission among domestic livestock species can vary regionally due to herd management practices that determine which livestock species are raised,...
Sun, 02/10/2019 - 13:35
Abstract Influenza viruses are frequently transmitted between pigs and their handlers, and among pig handlers. However, reports on socio‐environmental variables as potential risk factors associated with transmission of influenza in West African swine production facilities are very scarce. Syndromic survey for influenza was therefore conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria, and Kumasi, Ghana, in order to...
Sun, 02/10/2019 - 13:35
Abstract Practising veterinary medicine has an inherent risk of exposure to zoonotic agents, including the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. We screened sera of veterinarians authorized to work in Finland for the presence of specific immunoglobulin G antibodies against T. gondii with an enzyme‐linked fluorescent assay, and evaluated potential risk factors for T. gondii seropositivity from...
Tue, 02/05/2019 - 08:49
Abstract Human salmonellosis is a major public health problem worldwide. Infections can pass to humans by contact with contaminated substances in the food chain. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and contamination levels of Salmonella isolated from pork, chicken and beef sold in different types of retail stores in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces and to investigate the genetic...
Sun, 01/27/2019 - 11:10
Abstract The aim of the present study was to detect DNA of Toxoplasma gondii in Crassostrea spp. oysters cultured in the state of Pará, Brazil. A total of 400 oysters were directly collected from a fixed rack system. Gills, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and intervalvular liquid were separated and grouped into pool samples of 10 animals, resulting in 40 samples each of gills, GIT and intervalvular...
Wed, 01/09/2019 - 08:09
Abstract The objective of this meta‐analysis was to summarize available information on the prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter (TC) in different food‐producing animals worldwide. Databases (i.e., PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus) were searched from 1980 to 2017 unrestricted by language. The inclusion criteria were as follows: prevalence or incidence studies, published in peer‐reviewed...
Sun, 12/09/2018 - 08:44
Abstract There are few epidemiologic studies on the shedding of Campylobacter among dogs in the United States, despite the potential public health implications. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among Texas shelter dogs as detected by culture methods and to characterize the isolates by species and antimicrobial susceptibility. Using a cross‐sectional...
Tue, 03/13/2018 - 00:26
Summary Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are one of the leading global causes of diarrhoeal diseases and are transmitted mainly from person to person but also through contaminated food, water and fomites. The possible zoonotic nature of NoVs has occasionally been discussed, although the viruses are generally considered to be host-species-specific. We investigated whether wild birds and rodents could...
Tue, 02/13/2018 - 23:21
Summary Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen that can be transmitted through contaminated raw or undercooked meat derived from domestic pigs. HEV infections have been documented among pig herds, pig products and environmental samples raising concern about the spread of the virus. HEV genotypes 3 and 4 are considered zoonotic and have been linked to human cases. HEV was detected in 51...
Sun, 02/04/2018 - 23:05
Summary A randomized controlled trial (RCT) was carried to evaluate the effect of a feed additive on Campylobacter contamination of broilers reared in commercial conditions. Twenty-four broiler flocks naturally contaminated with Campylobacter were enrolled in the RCT: 12 were assigned to a control group (C) fed with a conventional finishing feed from 4 weeks of age to slaughter (around 35 days),...
Mon, 01/29/2018 - 22:55
Summary In December 2012, an increase in human Salmonella Typhimurium cases was identified in the province of Ontario, Canada launching an outbreak investigation. The outbreak spanned 3 years (2012–2014), with 134 cases reported from five Canadian provinces. There was a substantial burden of illness among children: 45% of cases were children 12 years old or under, and 23% of cases were under 5 ...
Sun, 12/17/2017 - 22:35
Summary Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic pathogen typically associated with clinical and asymptomatic infection in ruminant livestock. A re-emerging pathogen of significant public health importance, C. burnetii has caused recent epidemics in the United States and Europe, and public livestock exhibitions are increasingly scrutinized as a potential source of C. burnetii exposure. Although C. ...
Fri, 12/08/2017 - 04:35
Summary In Australia, Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 9 is frequently isolated during foodborne outbreaks of salmonellosis. Multiple-locus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) trace back investigations frequently identify isolate distribution patterns that may be epidemiologically linked to disease outbreaks. In this study, the in vitro virulence potential of S. Typhimurium DT9...
Fri, 12/08/2017 - 04:05
Summary Most swine Salmonella national control programmes in Europe have been based on the categorization of herds according to risk levels based on serological results. However, none of the non-Scandinavian countries have reported of any significant success on Salmonella infection reduction in fattening pigs or the number of human cases attributable to pigs or pork. The limited accuracy of the...
Tue, 11/28/2017 - 23:10
Summary The sources and modes of transmission of non-typhoidal Salmonella particularly zoonotic transmission are poorly understood in Africa. This study compared phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of Salmonellae isolated from cattle and humans. Faecal samples of diarrhoeic patients (n = 234), and a healthy population (n = 160), beef cattle at slaughter (n = 250), farms (n = 72) and market (...
Mon, 11/27/2017 - 22:50
Summary This study aimed to provide new insights into the epidemiology of Salmonella in pig production, focusing on potential shedding patterns in breeding pigs throughout a full production cycle and the risk of transmission of infection from the sow to her offspring. A longitudinal study was conducted on five farrow-to-finish commercial pig farms. In each herd, shedding of Salmonella in faeces...
Tue, 11/14/2017 - 23:45
Summary From 2009 to 2015, 74 lungs from suckling (6.8%), nursing (70.3%), fattening (20.3%) pigs and pregnant sows (2.7%) with respiratory signs from pig farms in Southern Brazil were submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for necropsy and/or histologic examination and screening for respiratory agents by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), virus isolation (VI) and subtyping for influenza A virus...
Sun, 11/12/2017 - 23:10
Summary Toxoplasma gondii infections cause a large disease burden in the Netherlands, with an estimated health loss of 1,900 Disability Adjusted Life Years and a cost-of-illness estimated at €44 million annually. Infections in humans occur via exposure to oocysts in the environment and after eating undercooked meat containing tissue cysts, leading to asymptomatic or mild symptoms, but potentially...
Wed, 11/08/2017 - 05:05
Summary Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) exhibits an ecological climax with the aquatic ecosystem. The most widely prevalent subtype of LPAIV is H9N2. Wild aquatic birds being the natural reservoirs and ducks, the “Trojan horses” for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), can contaminate the natural water bodies inhabited by them. The virus can persist in the contaminated water from days to...
Tue, 11/07/2017 - 03:30
Summary Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among bacteria isolated from food-producing animals is a growing concern with implications for public health. AMR surveillance is essential to identify resistance trends and help in the design of effective and efficient control strategies. The aim of the study was to describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from three...
Mon, 10/30/2017 - 23:50
Summary Every year, multiple outbreaks of salmonellosis in humans are linked to contact with mail-order chicks and ducks. The objective of this study was to describe the temporal changes in the prevalence of serovars, genotypes and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) recovered from shipped boxes of mail-order hatchling poultry in the United States during...
Fri, 10/27/2017 - 05:42
Summary This study was conducted to estimate the apparent prevalence of Salmonella spp. in birds kept under backyard system in Entre Ríos, Argentina, and determine the performance of two selective plating media used for Salmonella isolation, and the antimicrobial resistance of the isolated. Also, the association of farms characteristics with Salmonella presence was evaluated. A total of 657...
Sun, 09/24/2017 - 23:55
Summary Salmonella Dublin is strongly adapted to cattle causing enteritis and/or systemic disease with high rates of mortality. However, it can be sporadically isolated from humans, usually causing serious disease, especially in patients with underlying chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to molecularly type S. Dublin strains isolated from humans and animals in Brazil to verify the...
Wed, 09/20/2017 - 05:25
Summary Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) of H5N1 subtype are a major global threat to poultry and public health. Export of poultry products, such as chicken and duck meat, is a known source for the cross-boundary spread of HPAI H5N1 viruses. Humans get infected with HPAI H5N1 viruses either by close contact with infected poultry or through consumption of fresh/undercooked poultry...
Tue, 09/19/2017 - 07:20
Summary There is need to determine the nature of enduring reservoirs of Salmonella contributing to perpetual contamination within poultry flocks. The dispersal of Salmonella between birds, litter and the lesser mealworm has been established, but the extent that these act as critical components in the epidemiology of Salmonella infection during broiler grow-out and flock rotation has not been...
Mon, 09/18/2017 - 00:26
Summary Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a zoonotic pathogen of public health concern whose sources and transmission routes are difficult to trace. Using a combined source attribution and case–control analysis, we determined the relative contributions of four putative livestock sources (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, poultry) to human STEC infections and their associated dietary,...
Thu, 09/14/2017 - 03:35
Summary H7N9 virus infection is a global concern, given that it can cause severe infection and mortality in humans. However, the understanding of H7N9 epidemiology, animal reservoir species and zoonotic risk remains limited. This work evaluates the pathogenicity, transmissibility and local innate immune response of three avian species harbouring different respiratory distribution of α2,6 and α2,3...
Mon, 08/21/2017 - 05:51
Summary Campylobacter is regarded as a leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. We report on a case of laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter jejuni infection in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania among members of a household living with a laboratory-confirmed but non-speciated Campylobacter-infected puppy. We describe an outbreak of likely dog-associated...
Sun, 08/20/2017 - 00:40
Summary The population and range of feral pigs in the United States are rapidly expanding, yet key knowledge gaps exist regarding their role in the ecology and transmission of foodborne pathogens. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding among feral pigs throughout Texas and to identify risk factors for positive status. Faecal samples...

Pages