Research Publications from Peer-Reviewed Journals

Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:16
Environmental contamination can negatively impact fish populations. In addition to acute toxicity leading to death, toxicants can reduce fish growth and lower reproduction. The potential for adverse population level effects of environmental contaminants are estimated to conduct risk assessments from laboratory toxicity tests that most often measure apical endpoints related to growth, survival and...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:16
Background Many foods contain proteins and polyphenols, but there is a poor understanding of the nature of the inhibitory effect of protein on the biologic activity of polyphenols. The inhibitory mechanism of the food protein lactoferrin on the antibacterial activity of oligomeric ellagitannin oenothein B (OeB) was investigated using fluorescence quenching, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:16
BACKGROUND In the last years, there is a concern about the presence of pesticides in honey since residues of DDT and carbaryl were found in honey samples. The traditional techniques, such as chromatography, reach the required limits of detection (LOD) but are not suitable for in‐situ implementation in honey packaging industry due to their high cost and the need of highly qualified staff for...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:15
Abstract Arsenic naturally occurs in the earth’s crust and can be introduced in the environment by human activities. Agricultural practices in arsenic-contaminated environments pose a threat to human health. The contamination of crops contributes to the metalloid’s introduction in the food chain. This study aims to test the hypotheses that the inoculation of a hyperaccumulator rhizobacterial...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:15
The study evaluated the antibacterial activity of chlorogenic acid (CA) against Salmonella Enteritidis S1, a foodborne pathogen in chilled fresh chicken. Its minimum inhibitory concentration for S. Enteritidis S1 was 2 mM. 1 MIC CA treatment reduced the viable count of S. Enteritidis S1 by 3 log cfu/g in chilled fresh chicken. Scanning electron microscopy examination indicated that CA induced the...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:15
The rapid development of industrial sector has increased the heavy metal pollution issue recently, as the need of various metals is increasing for manufacturing purpose. These metals are the natural components that can be found in soil, but contamination happens when the concentration of these metals are high in soil due to anthropogenic activities. Several remediation techniques such as physical...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:15
This study investigates the effects of lead (Pb) on earthworm Eisenia fetida and its potential to recover from Pb exposure. Adult earthworms E. fetida were exposed for 4 weeks to lead (40–2500 mg Pb kg−1) in soil, and after the period of exposure, earthworms were transferred to clean unpolluted soil for 4 weeks to recover. Pb had no effect on the earthworm’s survival but inhibited earthworm...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and also a strong teratogen for cleft palate (CP). But up to now, the underlying molecular mechanisms of TCDD-induced CP are largely unknown. More recently, accumulating evidences are revealing important roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in all kinds of diseases including CP. However, the role and molecular...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Brucellosis, caused by intracellular gram-negative pathogens of the genus Brucella, continues to be one of the most pandemic zoonotic diseases in most countries. At present, the therapeutic treatment of brucellosis relies on a combination of multiple antibiotics that involves a long course of treatment, easy relapse, and high side effects from the use of certain antibiotics (such as streptomycin...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
The foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes survives exposure to a variety of stresses including desiccation in the food industry. Strand-specific RNA sequencing was applied to analyze changes in the transcriptomes of two strains of L. monocytogenes (Lm 568 and Lm 08-5578) during desiccation [15°C, 43% relative humidity (RH)] on food grade stainless steel surfaces over 48 h to simulate a...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Previous studies on the influence of food matrix fat content on thermal inactivation kinetics of food pathogens have shown contradictory results due to the combined influence of fat content and other factors such as composition. Therefore, thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes at 59, 64, and 69°C was systematically investigated in emulsion and gelled emulsion food model systems with...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Oral exposure to the heavy metal lead (Pb) causes various dysfunctions in animals. However, the influence of gut bacteria on Pb absorption, bioaccumulation, and excretion is largely unknown. In this study, we use a mouse model to investigate the relationship between gut microbiota, Pb-intolerant intestinal microbes and Pb toxicity. First, mice were treated with a broad-spectrum antibiotic...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of gene expression in several biological systems. The long intergenic RNA-erythroid pro-survival (lincRNA-EPS) has been shown to play a critical role in restraining inflammatory gene expression. However, the function of lincRNA-EPS during bacterial infections remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that following infection with the...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Staphylococcus aureus is one of the main pathogens found in cheeses produced with raw milk, including Minas artisanal cheese from Brazil. However, information about S. aureus isolated from artisanal cheeses and its sources of production in small-scale dairies is very limited. We aimed to characterize the virulence factors of S. aureus isolated from raw milk, endogenous starter culture, Minas...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) cause sporadic and epidemic outbreaks of gastroenteritis in all age groups worldwide. We previously reported that stem cell-derived human intestinal enteroid (HIE) cultures support replication of multiple HuNoV strains and that some strains (e.g., GII.3) replicate only in the presence of bile. Heat- and trypsin-treatment of bile...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Spherical nucleic acids (SNAs) are nanostructures formed by chemically conjugating short linear strands of oligonucleotides to a nanoparticle template. When made with modified small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes, SNAs act as single-entity transfection and gene silencing agents and have been used as lead therapeutic constructs in several disease models. However,...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
: Bacterial genotoxins (BTGX) induce DNA damage, which results in senescence or apoptosis of the target cells if not properly repaired. Three BTGXs have been identified: the cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) family produced by several Gram-negative bacteria, the typhoid toxin produced by several Salmonella enterica serovars, and colibactin, a peptide-polyketide, produced mainly by the...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
The severity of human infection by one of the many Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is determined by a number of factors: the bacterial genome, the capacity of human societies to prevent foodborne epidemics, the medical condition of infected patients (in particular their hydration status, often compromised by severe diarrhea), and by our capacity to devise new therapeutic approaches...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Fusarium is among the top 10 most economically important plant pathogens in the world. Trichothecenes are the principal mycotoxins produced as secondary metabolites by select species of Fusarium and cause acute and chronic toxicity in animals and humans upon exposure either through consumption and/or contact. There are over 100 trichothecene metabolites and they can occur in a wide range of...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
This study investigated the antibiotic resistance, virulence profiles, and clonality of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli isolated from an intensive poultry farming system in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Following ethical approval, samples were collected over six weeks using the farm-to-fork approach. Campylobacter spp. were identified using culture, confirmed and differentiated to...
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Cadmium (Cd) is a severely toxic heavy metal to most microorganisms. Many bacteria have developed Cd2+ resistance.
Wed, 01/22/2020 - 03:14
Following the ban on antimicrobial usage for growth promotion in animal husbandry in the EU, non-antimicrobial agents including heavy metal ions (e.g. zinc and copper), prebiotics or probiotics have been sugge...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:21
Author(s): Xianjiang Li, Wen Ma, Hongmei Li, Qinghe Zhang, Zhiyong MaAbstractBackgroundFipronil is an effective phenylpyrazole insecticide commonly used in agriculture for pest control. In creature, fipronil could be metabolized to several more toxic metabolites. These compounds can contaminate or migrate into foodstuffs and potentially pose danger to human health.Scope and approachThis review...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:21
Author(s): Virginia Filipello, Lapo Mughini-Gras, Silvia Gallina, Nicoletta Vitale, Alessandro Mannelli, Mirella Pontello, Lucia Decastelli, Marc W. Allard, Eric W. Brown, Sara LomonacoAbstractListeriosis is a foodborne illness characterized by a relatively low morbidity, but a large disease burden due to the severity of clinical manifestations and the high case fatality rate. Increased...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:20
Author(s): Yuying Wang, Anqi Zhang, Xibo Wang, Ning Xu, Lianzhou JiangAbstractFor the first time, the irradiation technology combined with Maillard reaction were used to improve the freeze - thaw stability of soybean protein emulsion. The freeze-thaw stability of emulsions prepared with soy protein isolate (SPI), soy protein isolate and maltose mixture (SPI+M) or glycosylated soy protein isolate...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:19
LWT
Author(s): Jian Ju, Yunfei Xie, Hang Yu, Yahui Guo, Yuliang Cheng, Ying Chen, Lijun Ji, Weirong YaoAbstractTo control the spoilage of bread products and reduce the costs associated with preventing their spoilage, the synergistic antifungal effects of natural agents against the main bread spoilage fungi Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus niger were studied. After screening 66 groups...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:19
LWT
Author(s): Haiying Cui, Chenghui Zhang, Changzhu Li, Lin LinAbstractIn recent years, studies have found that in addition to nosocomial infections, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) can even cause community-associated infections, and MRSA spreads through food and animal that produce products in the community. In addition, MRSA can colonize the surface of food and food container...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:19
LWT
Author(s): Moussa S. Diarra, Yousef I. Hassan, Glenn S. Block, John C.G. Drover, Pascal Delaquis, B. Dave OomahAbstractCranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) fruits are known for their high polyphenolics content making them a rich source of antioxidants. These polyphenolics have been reported to promote human health and are gaining attention for their antimicrobial activities against foodborne...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:19
The capacity of bacterial pathogens to infect their hosts depends on the tight spatiotemporal regulation of virulence genes. The Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) metal efflux pump repressor CadC is highly expressed during late infection stages, modulating lipoprotein processing and host immune response. Here we investigate the potential of CadC as broad repressor of virulence genes. We show that CadC...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:17
Several investigations have recently assessed the ability of some aquatic invertebrates to act as tools for avian influenza A virus (IAV) surveillance as well as their potential role(s) in IAV ecology. Because of this, as well as the high IAV seroprevalence rates noted in select mesocarnivores that commonly inhabit aquatic and semi‐aquatic habitats, we evaluated the effects that freshwater...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:16
Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) and its derivatives are appreciated for their aroma, color, and healthy properties, and are commodities of high economic value worldwide. Wide ranges of conventional methods have been used for years to guarantee cocoa quality. Recently, however, demand for global cocoa and the requirements of sensory, functional, and safety cocoa attributes have changed. On the one hand...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:16
Sodium chloride (NaCl) universally well‐known as table salt is an ancient food additive, which is broadly used to increase the storage stability and the palatability of foods. Though, in recent decades, use of table salt in foods is a major concern among the health agencies of the world owing to ill effects of sodium (Na) that are mostly linked to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. As a...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:15
The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of metabolites of a Streptomyces strain AS1 on (a) spore germination, (b) mycelial growth, (c) control of mycotoxins produced by Penicillium verrucosum (ochratoxin A, OTA), Fusarium verticillioides (fumonisins, FUMs) and Aspergillus fumigatus (gliotoxin) and (d) identify the predominant metabolites involved in control. Initial screening...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:15
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic mycotoxin with nephrocarcinogenic potential found in a broad spectrum of food commodities. The mode of action of this compound, as well as its metabolism, is still not fully understood. To determine whether the conjugation of OTA with glutathione plays an important role in human OTA metabolism, an ochratoxin-glutathione conjugate (OTB-GSH), as well as the...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:15
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and can be excreted in milk of cows after consuming aflatoxin (AF)-contaminated feed. The aim of this research was to assess the levels of total AFs in samples of feedingstuff for dairy cows (n = 193) and the levels of AFM1 in raw bulk tank milk samples (n = 375), in order to estimate the ratio of “AFB1 feed input” versus “...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:14
Microplastics have become a global concern in recent years. In this study, we studied (i) whether the presence of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) microparticles may affect cadmium (Cd) uptake in mussel (Mytilus edulis); and (ii) the biological effects of PVC microparticles exposure alone or in combination with Cd. Significant Cd uptake in digestive gland was observed following Cd exposure. However, PVC...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:14
Disposal of industrial effluents (especially the textile industry) into the drains without prior treatment is a common practice that affects aquatic life and pollutes the soil and groundwater quality. Textile effluents contain organic and inorganic pollutants in terms of high pH, suspended and dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demand, heavy metals, and many other contaminants. Therefore, it is...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:13
Many threats exist to reptile populations, environmental pollutants being one of them. Lizards and other reptiles are usually not taken into consideration in environmental risk assessments, with the use of surrogate species for their estimates. Unfortunately, not all pesticides have the same effects in the reptile species and on these surrogates, birds and mammals, some being more toxic in...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:13
Listeria monocytogenes is a well-characterized pathogen that represents a major threat to food safety. In this study, we examine the chromosomal and plasmid transcriptomes of two different L. monocytogenes strains, 6179 [belonging to sequence type (ST) 121] and R479a (ST8), in response to 30 min exposure to oxidative (0.01% hydrogen peroxide) and acid (1% lactic acid, pH 3.4) stress. The exposure...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:13
In its native environment of rotting vegetation, the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans encounters a range of bacteria. This includes species from the ESKAPE group of pathogens that pose a clinical problem in acquired hospital infections. Here, we investigated three Gram-negative members of the ESKAPE group, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Acinetobacter baumannii....
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:13
aEPEC are associated with persistent diarrhea, and diarrheal outbreaks in both humans and animals worldwide. They are differentiated from typical EPEC by the lack of bundle-forming pili, and from EHEC by the lack of phage-mediated stx toxins. However, phylogenetic analyses often associate aEPEC with EHEC, promoting the hypothesis that aEPEC are the progenitors of EHEC, which is supported by aEPEC...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:13
Aim of this study was to genetically characterize two carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli strains obtained from a pediatric patient affected by diarrhea, expressing OXA-181 and/or NDM-5 type enzymes. The above microorganisms were collected in the same Desenzano hospital (Northern Italy) where the blaNDM–5 gene was detected for the first time in Italy 3 years ago. One strain (5P), belonged to...
Tue, 01/21/2020 - 03:13
Listeria monocytogenes is a widespread foodborne pathogen of high concern and internalin A is an important virulence factor that mediates cell invasion upon the interaction with the host protein E-cadherin. Nonsense mutations of internalin A are known to reduce virulence. Although missense mutations are largely overlooked, they need to be investigated in respect to their effects in cell invasion...
Mon, 01/20/2020 - 03:27
Author(s): N. Higuero, I. Moreno, G. Lavado, M.C. Vidal-Aragón, R. CavaAbstractFour batches of Iberian dry-cured loins were manufactured with reduced ingoing amounts of both nitrate and nitrate: 150 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg, 37.5 mg/kg and 0 mg/kg. The effect of reducing or removing nitrate and nitrite and time of drying on physicochemical parameters (moisture, pH, water activity, chloride and residual...
Mon, 01/20/2020 - 03:27
Author(s): Dongdong Jiao, Ying Liu, Ying Liu, Ruchun Zeng, Xiaoqin Hou, Guochao Nie, Lijun Sun, Zhijia FangAbstractA novel bacteriocin CAMT2, produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens ZJHD3-06, has potential as a natural biopreservative for the control of food-borne spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. To avoid interaction of CAMT2 with components of food that may adversely impact its antibacterial...
Mon, 01/20/2020 - 03:25
Author(s): Muhammad Asif Naeem, Arslan Shabbir, Muhammad Amjad, Ghulam Abbas, Muhammad Imran, Behzad Murtaza, Muhammad Tahir, Amna AhmadAbstractHeavy metals contamination of soil especially with cadmium (Cd) is a serious environmental concern in the current industrial era. Biochar serves as an excellent ameliorating agent depending upon its properties and application rates. In the pot scale study...
Mon, 01/20/2020 - 03:20
: The influence of the intestinal microbiota, such as Lactobacillus, on the intestinal mucosa, particularly intestinal stem cells, remains incompletely understood. In this study, mice and intestinal organoids were used to explore the regulatory effect of Lactobacillus on the proliferation and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells. Methods and results: This study demonstrated that S....
Mon, 01/20/2020 - 03:17
A 10-week feeding experiment was carried out examining the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated maize treated with different sodium sulphite (SoS) concentrations on performance, health and DON-plasma concentrations in fattening pigs. Two maize batches were used: background-contaminated (CON, 0.73 mg/kg maize) and Fusarium-toxin contaminated (DON, 44.45 mg/kg maize) maize. Both were wet...
Mon, 01/20/2020 - 03:16
Coastal sediment redeposition after resuspension events may change the sediment capacity to sequester pollutants after the formation of new sediment-water interfaces. To test this hypothesis, radiotracer experiments were performed to evaluate zinc (65Zn) and cadmium (109Cd) removal kinetics by redeposited mangrove sediments. After 24-h experiments, average inventories within redeposited sediments...
Mon, 01/20/2020 - 03:14
Aspergillus flavus is one of the most opportunistic pathogens invading many important oilseed crops and foodstuffs with such toxic secondary metabolites as aflatoxin (AF) and Cyclopiazonic acid. We previously used the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine to treat with an AF-producing A. flavus A133 strain, and isolated a mutant (NT) of A. flavus, which displayed impaired abilities of AF...

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