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Research Publications from Peer-Reviewed Journals

Tue, 10/20/2015 - 16:27
In this study, we compared the fecal microbiota and metabolomes of 26 healthy subjects before (HS) and after (HSB) 2 months of diet intervention based on the administration of durum wheat flour and whole-grain barley pasta containing the minimum recommended daily intake (3 g) of barley β-glucans. Metabolically active bacteria were analyzed through pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and...
Tue, 10/20/2015 - 16:27
Two previously uncharacterized potential broad-spectrum mercury (Hg) resistance operons (mer) are present on the chromosome of the soil Alphaproteobacteria Xanthobacter autotrophicus Py2. These operons, mer1 and mer2, contain two features which are commonly found in mer operons in the genomes of soil and marine Alphaproteobacteria, but are not present in previously characterized mer operons: a...
Tue, 10/20/2015 - 16:27
Although fructooligosaccharides (FOS) can selectively stimulate the growth and activity of probiotics and beneficially modulate the balance of intestinal microbiota, knowledge of the molecular mechanism for FOS metabolism by probiotics is still limited. Here a combined transcriptomic and physiological approach was used to survey the global alterations that occurred during the logarithmic growth...
Tue, 10/20/2015 - 16:27
Loss of ordered molecular structure in proteins is known to increase their adhesion to surfaces. The aim of this work was to study the stability of norovirus secondary and tertiary structures and its implications for viral adhesion to fresh foods and agrifood surfaces. The pH, ionic strength, and temperature conditions studied correspond to those prevalent in the principal vehicles of viral...
Tue, 10/20/2015 - 16:27
Manure from swine treated with antimicrobials as feed additives is a major source for the expansion of the antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) reservoir in the environment. Vermicomposting via housefly larvae (Musca domestica) can be efficiently used to treat manure and regenerate biofertilizer, but few studies have investigated its effect on ARG attenuation. Here, we tracked the abundances of 9...
Tue, 10/20/2015 - 08:34
Abstract This study presents the efficacy of six essential oils (EOs), viz. Carum carvi, Myristica fragrans, Melaleuca leucadendra, Cinnamomum camphora, Pelargonium odoratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus, as food preservatives based on antifungal, antiaflatoxin and antioxidant activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EOs against aflatoxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus (LHP-10) and 13...
Tue, 10/20/2015 - 06:59
Summary Shigella sonnei is a bacterial pathogen and causative agent of bacillary dysentery. It deploys a type III secretion system to inject effector proteins into host epithelial cells and macrophages, an essential step for tissue invasion and immune evasion. Although the arsenal of bacterial effectors and their cellular targets have been studied extensively, little is known about the...
Tue, 10/20/2015 - 00:00
A novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on magnetic nanoparticles and biotin/streptavidin-HRP (MNP-bsELISA) was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of zearalenone (ZEN). The detection signal was enhanced and the sensitivity of the assay was improved by combined use of antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles and biotin-streptavidin system. Under the optimized conditions, the...
Mon, 10/19/2015 - 23:22
Abstract AimsTo determine the cause of an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis that occurred on a cruise ship sailing along the Yangzi River from Chongqing to Nanjing, China. Methods and resultsNoroviruses were identified by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) in rectal swabs from 34 of 54 subjects tested (63.0%). Sequencing and genotyping showed that noroviruses of up to 7 different genotypes...
Mon, 10/19/2015 - 22:55
Abstract AimLittle information is available on a direct comparison of the antibacterial efficacy of LEDs of different peak wavelengths. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of LEDs of three different wavelengths on bacterial inactivation. Methods and ResultsLactobacillus plantarum, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were illuminated with 405, 460 and 520 nm...
Mon, 10/19/2015 - 22:36
Abstract AimsProbiotics have been proved to be the most preferred and effective alternative to antibiotics as growth promoter and pathogens inhibitor in poultry industry. In this study Bacillus subtilis CGMCC 1.1086 as a probiotic bacterium was administered in diet and its effects on both the growth performance and the cecal microbiota of broilers were evaluated. Methods and ResultsA total of 240...
Mon, 10/19/2015 - 22:09
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2015 Food and Chemical Toxicology Author(s): April P. Neal-Kluever, Allan B. Bailey, Karen R. Hatwell Octadecyl 3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)propionate (CAS Reg. No. 2082-79-3), currently marketed as Irganox 1076 (I-76), is a sterically hindered phenolic antioxidant used in a variety of organic substrates, including those used in the...
Mon, 10/19/2015 - 02:24
Summary The introduction of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus in pigs changed the epidemiology of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in swine in Europe and the rest of the world. Previously, three IAV subtypes were found in the European pig population: an avian-like H1N1 and two reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses with human-origin haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase proteins and internal...
Mon, 10/19/2015 - 00:00
Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin that commonly contaminates cereal grains, is a public health concern because of its adverse effects on the gastrointestinal and immune systems. The objective of this study was to compare effects of DON on anorectic responses in aged (22 mos) and adult (3 mos) mice. Aged mice showed increased feed refusal with both acute i.p. (1 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg)...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 17:00
Hweh Fen Goh, Koshy Philip A dramatic increase in bacterial resistance towards currently available antibiotics has raised worldwide concerns for public health. Therefore, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have emerged as a promisingly new group of therapeutic agents for managing infectious diseases. The present investigation focusses on the isolation and purification of a novel bacteriocin from an...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 17:00
Richard Lu, BobBrooke Herrera, Heather D. Eshleman, Yang Fu, Alexander Bloom, Zhigang Li, David B. Sacks, Marcia B. Goldberg The intracellular bacterial pathogen Shigella infects and spreads through the human intestinal epithelium. Effector proteins delivered Shigella into cells promote infection modulating diverse host functions. We demonstrate that the effector protein OspB interacts directly...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 17:00
Jessica Jenkins Broglie, Brittny Alston, Chang Yang, Lun Ma, Audrey F. Adcock, Wei Chen, Liju Yang Human norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide in a plethora of residential and commercial settings, including restaurants, schools, and hospitals. Methods for easily detecting the virus and for treating and preventing infection are critical to stopping norovirus outbreaks,...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 15:33
Abstract The effects of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seed and Wild mint (Mentha longifolia L.) leaf extracts on microbiological, chemical and sensory changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets stored at 4C ± 1 were investigated. The results showed that lipid oxidation and spoilage of the samples were significantly delayed in samples treated with a plant extract in comparison with the...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 14:44
Instant research was planned to study the dissipation behavior of antibiotic residues in chicken meat using various heat-processing treatments. Purposely, poultry birds were procured and administered with antibiotics for a period of 42 days. Chicken meat, after slaughtering, was processed through boiling, grilling, microwaving and roasting techniques to assess the impact of processing on...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 14:43
The effects of UV-C pretreatments (10, 20 and 30 kJ/m2), compared with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), on sensory change, microbial and bioactive profile of minimally processed rocket leaves throughout 12 days at 5C were investigated. Nonirradiated samples were used as controls. All UV-C treatments reduced the natural microflora growth. In relation to sensory quality, all treatments...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 10:36
Acute hepatic necrosis was diagnosed in a dog. Gram staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization identified Salmonella enterica in the liver, subsequently confirmed as S. enterica serotype I 4,5,12:–:1,2. This is the first report of acute hepatic necrosis with liver failure caused by Salmonella in a dog.
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 10:36
We used an in vitro technique to investigate blood volumes required to detect bacteremia and fungemia with low concentrations of an organism. At 1 to 10 CFU/ml, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Candida albicans, and Candida parapsilosis isolates were detected in volumes as low as 0.5 ml. Detection of Streptococcus agalactiae and...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 10:36
Detailed laboratory characterization of Escherichia coli O157 is essential to inform epidemiological investigations. This study assessed the utility of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for outbreak detection and epidemiological surveillance of E. coli O157, and the data were used to identify discernible associations between genotypes and clinical outcomes. One hundred five E. coli O157 strains...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 10:36
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is considered a zoonotic infection in developed nations. A case of acute hepatitis E in a researcher following a scalpel injury while working on a pig prompted a seroepidemiologic study to identify potential modes of transmission and determine the seroprevalence of HEV among animal handlers at the institute. Sera from personnel (n = 64) in two animal facilities and age/sex...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 10:36
The ability of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to induce cellular damage leading to disease in humans is related to numerous virulence factors, most notably the stx gene, encoding Shiga toxin (Stx) and carried by a bacteriophage. Loss of the Stx-encoding bacteriophage may occur during infection or culturing of the strain. Here, we collected stx-positive and stx-negative variants of E. coli O157:H7/NM (...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 10:36
Our objectives were to study the prevalence, risk factors for carriage, and transmission dynamics of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLPE) in a national survey of cattle. This was a point prevalence study conducted from July to October 2013 in Israel. Stool samples were collected from 1,226 cows in 123 sections on 40 farms of all production types. ESBLPE...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 10:36
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an important foodborne human pathogen that often causes self-limiting but severe gastroenteritis. Prolonged excretion of S. Typhimurium after the infection can lead to secondary transmissions. However, little is known about within-host genomic variation in bacteria associated with asymptomatic shedding. Genomes of 35 longitudinal isolates of S....
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 10:36
The control of food-borne outbreaks caused by Listeria monocytogenes in humans relies on the timely identification of food or environmental sources and the differentiation of outbreak-related isolates from unrelated ones. This study illustrates the utility of whole-genome sequencing for examining the link between clinical and environmental isolates of L. monocytogenes associated with an outbreak...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 10:36
Although new serotypes of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) emerge constantly, the mechanisms by which these new pathogens arise and the reasons emerging serotypes tend to carry more virulence genes than other E. coli are not understood. An insertion sequence (IS) excision enhancer (IEE) was discovered in EHEC O157:H7 that promoted the excision of IS3 family members and generating various...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 10:36
Fluoroquinolones (FQs) are among the drugs of choice for treatment of Salmonella infections. However, fluoroquinolone resistance is increasing in Salmonella due to chromosomal mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the topoisomerase genes gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE and/or plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) mechanisms including qnr variants, aac(6')-Ib-cr,...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 10:36
Detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in Salmonella enterica has become increasingly difficult due to evolving resistance mechanisms to this antimicrobial class in this organism. We evaluated two quinolone disks and five fluoroquinolone disks for their ability to act as a surrogate agent for the detection of fluoroquinolone resistance in a collection of 136 S. enterica isolates, including 111...
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 10:36
Fluoroquinolone resistance is a serious and increasingly common problem in Salmonella. Two companion studies in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology (E. Deak, R. Skov, J. A. Hindler, and R. M. Humphries, J Clin Microbiol 53:3405–3410, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01393-15; R. Skov, E. Matuschek, M. Sjölund-Karlsson, J. Åhman, A. Petersen, M. Stegger, M....
Fri, 10/16/2015 - 05:11
Summary Campylobacter jejuni, the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis, requires low environmental oxygen and high carbon dioxide for optimum growth, but the molecular basis for the carbon dioxide requirement is unclear. One factor may be inefficient conversion of gaseous CO2 to bicarbonate, the required substrate of various carboxylases. Two putative carbonic anhydrases (CA's) are...
Thu, 10/15/2015 - 23:10
10.1080/19440049.2015.1094709Alberto Biancardi
Thu, 10/15/2015 - 23:06
10.1080/19440049.2015.1094708Mohammadreza Khalesi
Thu, 10/15/2015 - 22:51
Volume 32, Issue 11, November 2015, pages 1875-188410.1080/19440049.2015.1086824Andrea Vass
Thu, 10/15/2015 - 22:51
Volume 32, Issue 11, November 2015, pages 1939-195110.1080/19440049.2015.1086821Bart Huybrechts
Thu, 10/15/2015 - 21:52
Volume 32, Issue 11, November 2015, pages 1959-196410.1080/19440049.2015.1086929Frederic D. Müller
Thu, 10/15/2015 - 17:00
Yue Zhang, Jason W. Tam, Patricio Mena, Adrianus W. M. van der Velden, James B. Bliska During Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection of C57BL/6 mice, an exceptionally large CD8+ T cell response to a protective epitope in the type III secretion system effector YopE is produced. At the peak of the response, up to 50% of splenic CD8+ T cells recognize the epitope YopE69-77. The features of the...

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