Research Publications from Peer-Reviewed Journals

Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
The European corn borer (ECB) plays an important role in promoting Fusarium verticillioides infections and in the consequent fumonisin contamination in maize grain in temperate areas. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the ECB feeding activity could also affect the occurrence of emerging mycotoxins in maize kernels. During the 2008–10 period, natural infestation of the insect was...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
Aflatoxins (AFs) are a group of highly oxygenated polyketidese-derived toxins mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, whose biosynthesis mechanisms are extremely sophisticated. Methylation is known as the major form of epigenetic regulation, which is correlated with gene expression. As the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-AC) blocks AF production, we studied AFB1...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
Trichothecenes are one of the most important groups of mycotoxins produced by Trichothecium roseum, which causes core rot of apple. A reliable and sensitive method was developed and successfully applied for the rapid detection of trichothecenes including T-2 toxin and neosolaniol in harvested apple using UPLC-MS/MS. After the extraction of the two mycotoxins from the apple matrix with methanol/...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
The growth of toxigenic fungi can adversely affect grain quality and even produce mycotoxins of food safety concern, which should be sensitively monitored and controlled during grain storage. To establish the relationship between the growth of toxigenic fungi and their carbon dioxide (CO2) production, the pattern of CO2 concentration changes was studied during the fungal growth in grain. The...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
Fusarium species, which can produce mycotoxins, are the predominant pathogens causing maize ear rot, a disease that results in severe economic losses and serves as a potential health risk for humans and animals. A survey was conducted in 2012 to investigate the contamination of maize by Fusarium species and fumonisins B1 and B2. A total of 250 maize samples were randomly collected from nine...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
The aim of this paper was to evaluate the capacity of several yeast-based products, derived from baker’s and brewer’s yeasts, to sequester the mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) and to decrease its rate of absorption and DNA adduct formation in vivo. The experimental protocol included in vitro binding studies using isotherm models, in vivo chicken experiments, in which the serum and tissue...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the secondary metabolite of Fusarium graminearum, which is always found in Fusarium head blight of wheat. In this study, gaseous ozone was used to treat both DON solution and scabbed wheat to investigate the effectiveness of ozone treatment on DON degradation and the effect of ozone on the quality parameters of wheat. It was found that gaseous ozone had a significant...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
A multi-mycotoxin method based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used for a mycotoxin survey in 627 samples of processed cassava collected from different districts across Tanzania and Rwanda after the method performance for this matrix had been determined. Matrix effects as well as extraction efficiencies were found to be similar to most other previously...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
The purpose of this research was to investigate the toxicity of zearalenone (ZEA) on the growing performance, genital organs, serum hormones and histopathological changes of pre-pubertal female gilts, and to evaluate the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis ANSB01G in alleviating ZEA toxicosis in gilts. Eighteen pre-pubertal female gilts were randomly allocated to three treatments with one replicate per...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
A method was developed for the determination of the mycotoxin ochratoxin A in dried jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Miller) using alkaline methanolic extraction, immunoaffinity column clean-up (IAC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.01 μg kg–1 and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.03 μg kg–1. The average recoveries were 82%,...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
Mycotoxins including aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, fumonisins and ochratoxin A are among the main fungal secondary metabolites detected as natural contaminants in South America in different commodities such as peanuts (aflatoxins), cereals (deoxynivalenol and fumonisins) or grapes (ochratoxin A). Different strategies including crop rotation, tillage practices, fungicide application and planting...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
Citrinin, a fungal secondary metabolite of polyketide origin, is moderately nephrotoxic to vertebrates, including humans. Citrinin is synthesised by condensation of acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA. Six genes involved in the citrinin biosynthesis, including pksCT, ctnA and ctnB, have been cloned in Monascus purpureus. The pksCT gene encodes a polyketide synthase; ctnA is a regulatory factor; and ctnB...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is widely found in food and feed products as a mycotoxin contaminant. It is produced by Penicillium species and several Aspergillus species. The identification OTA detoxification microorganisms is believed to be the best approach for decontamination. In this study, we isolated ASAG1, a bacterium with the ability to degrade OTA effectively, from grain depot-stored maize. A 16S...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are known to be suspected human carcinogens produced by high-temperature cooking of protein-rich foods such as meat and fish. In the present study, the influence of numerous food condiments on the formation of HCAs in cooked chicken was investigated. Chicken samples were subjected to pan-frying under controlled temperature. The levels of HCAs DMIP, MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx,...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
Patulin contamination of fruit- and vegetable-based products had become a major challenge for the food industry. Biological methods of patulin control can play an important role due to their safety and high efficiency. In this study, a strain of marine yeast with high patulin degradation ability was screened. The yeast was identified as Kodameae ohmeri by the BioLog identification system and...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
The Food Contact Notification (FCN) programme was authorised by the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) Modernization Act of 1997. Manufacturers may file FCNs for food contact substances (FCSs) not already authorised or pre-sanctioned by the USFDA by demonstrating a reasonable certainty of no harm for their intended uses. The Division of Food Contact Notifications (DFCN) 10-year Retrospective...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
The depletion of three banned nitroimidazole drugs – dimetridazole (DMZ), metronidazole (MNZ) and ronidazole (RNZ) – was investigated in black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) following in-water medication. The highest concentrations of residues were measured immediately after the 24-h immersion (d0). At this time, MNZ and MNZ-OH residues were measured in shrimp tissue samples at concentrations...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
In 2010 the European Commission placed a limit on the amount of free formaldehyde in carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed (PES) of 5 mg kg−1. Formaldehyde is not used in carrageenan and PES processing and accordingly one would not expect free formaldehyde to be present in carrageenan and PES. However, surprisingly high levels up to 10 mg kg−1 have been found using the generally accepted...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
An improved, efficient, sensitive method for the determination of 14 non-nutritive sweeteners in food products was developed using electrospray ionisation (ESI) ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in the negative-ion mode. Fourteen sweeteners and three internal standards were separated on a reversed-phase UHPLC column using a simple gradient...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
A herbal food supplement advertised as a potency pill was screened for the presence of PDE5 inhibitors. The resulting signals were characterised by UV, LC-MS in ESI-negative mode, and NMR spectroscopy using 1D and 2D experiments. Several substances were identified, bearing the basic chemical structure of sildenafil, but were not supposed to exhibit PDE5 inhibition. These compounds may be process-...
Thu, 02/12/2015 - 01:26
Publication date: 4 May 2015 , Volume 200 Author(s): Noor-Azira Abdul-Mutalib , Syafinaz Amin Nordin , Malina Osman , Natsumi Ishida , Kosuke Tashiro , Kenji Sakai , Yukihiro Tashiro , Toshinari Maeda , Yoshihito Shirai This study adopts the pyrosequencing technique to identify bacteria present on 26 kitchen cutting boards collected from different grades of food premises around Seri...
Wed, 02/11/2015 - 03:20
Flagella are multiprotein complexes necessary for swimming and swarming motility. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, flagella-mediated motility is repressed by the PhoP/PhoQ regulatory system. We now report that Salmonella can move on 0.3% agarose media in a flagella-independent manner when experiencing the PhoP/PhoQ-inducing signal low Mg2+. This motility requires the...
Wed, 02/11/2015 - 01:15
The objective of this study was to establish quantitative evaluation models for fish microbiological quality analysis based on electronic tongue technique coupled with nonlinear pattern recognition algorithms. Crucian carp stored at 4C were used. A commercial electronic tongue system was employed. The total viable counts (TVCs) of fish samples were measured by the classical microbiological...
Wed, 02/11/2015 - 01:15
This study was conducted to confirm the synergistic inactivation effect of flower pollen when applied with heat treatment to Escherichia coli O157:H7. The reduction of the number of E. coli O157:H7 was monitored during heat treatment at 55, 57.5, 60, 62.5 and 65C. The D-values in the culture were D55 = 10.03 ± 0.59, D57.5 = 3.84 ± 0.05, D60 = 2.76 ± 0.19, D62.5 = 1.31 ± 0.20 and D65 = 1.04 ± 0.01...
Wed, 02/11/2015 - 01:15
Publication date: July 2015 , Volume 53 Author(s): Maurício S. Oliveira , Andressa C.L. Diel , Ricardo H. Rauber , Fabiana P. Fontoura , Adriano Mallmann , Paulo Dilkin , Carlos A. Mallmann Fumonisins are secondary metabolites produced primarily by fungi strains that belong to the genera Fusarium and Alternaria , which have been shown to be highly prevalent in maize crops. Some authors...
Wed, 02/11/2015 - 01:15
Publication date: August 2015 , Volume 54 Author(s): Aline M. Bortoletto , André R. Alcarde This study aimed to determine the chemical composition of Brazilian sugar cane spirits and cachaças and compare it to the identity and quality standards established by national legislation. Despite the great volume of production of these beverages and their national importance, the volume exported is...
Wed, 02/11/2015 - 01:15
Effects of plant polyphenolstea polyphenol [TP], grape seed extract [GSE], and gingerol) and α-tocopherol on physicochemical parameters, microbiological counts, and biogenic amines were determined in dry-cured bacons at the end of ripening. Results showed that plant polyphenols and α-tocopherol significantly decreased pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content, and total volatile basic...
Wed, 02/11/2015 - 01:15
Publication date: 4 May 2015 , Volume 200 Author(s): Xiangning Bai , Hong Wang , Youquan Xin , Rongjie Wei , Xinyuan Tang , Ailan Zhao , Hui Sun , Wang Zhang , Yan Wang , Yanmei Xu , Zhengdong Zhang , Qun Li , Jianguo Xu , Yanwen Xiong Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) causes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome in humans. Most human...
Wed, 02/11/2015 - 01:15
Escherichia albertii is a recently described species that has been associated with gastroenteritis in humans and with healthy and ill birds. Most recently, it has been identified as the causative agent in a food-borne outbreak in Japan. The distribution and clinical importance of E. albertii are not well studied because its importance is unclear. Culture methods for clinical isolation frequently...
Wed, 02/11/2015 - 01:15
Moribund shrimp affected by acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) from farms in northwestern Mexico were sampled for bacteriological and histological analysis. Bacterial isolates were molecularly identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus by the presence of the tlh gene. The tdh-negative, trh-negative, and tlh-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains were further characterized by repetitive...
Wed, 02/11/2015 - 01:15
Escherichia coli isolates (n = 658) obtained from drinking water intakes of Comox Lake (2011 to 2013) were screened for the following virulence genes (VGs): stx1 and stx2 (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC]), eae and the adherence factor (EAF) gene (enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC]), heat-stable (ST) enterotoxin (variants STh and STp) and heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) genes (enterotoxigenic E....
Wed, 02/11/2015 - 01:15
Two hybrid bacteriocins, enterocin E50-52/pediocin PA-1 (EP) and pediocin PA-1/enterocin E50-52 (PE), were designed by combining the N terminus of enterocin E50-52 and the C terminus of pediocin PA-1 and by combining the C terminus of pediocin PA-1 and the N terminus of enterocin E50-52, respectively. Both hybrid bacteriocins showed reduced MICs compared to those of their natural counterparts....
Wed, 02/11/2015 - 01:15
Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized peptides that contain multiple posttranslational modifications. Research on lantibiotics has increased recently, mainly due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, especially against some clinical Gram-positive pathogens. Many reports about various bacteriocins in the Bacillus cereus group have been published, but few were about lantibiotics. In...
Wed, 02/11/2015 - 01:15
Listeria monocytogenes is involved in food-borne illness with a high mortality rate. The persistence of the pathogen along the food chain can be associated with its ability to form biofilms on inert surfaces. While most of the phenotypes associated with biofilms are related to their spatial organization, most published data comparing biofilm formation by L. monocytogenes isolates are based on the...
Wed, 02/11/2015 - 01:15
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains, of which E. coli O157:H7 is the best-studied serotype, are an important group of foodborne pathogens causing severe illness in humans worldwide. The main reservoirs for EHEC are ruminants, mostly cattle, which harbor the bacteria in their intestinal tracts without showing clinical symptoms. In this study, we used bovine lactoferrin, a natural...
Wed, 02/11/2015 - 01:15
The Gram-negative enteric bacterium Citrobacter rodentium is a natural mouse pathogen that has been extensively used as a surrogate model for studying the human pathogens enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. All three pathogens produce similar attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions in the intestinal epithelium. During infection these bacteria employ surface structures called...
Tue, 02/10/2015 - 01:20
Publication date: July 2015 , Volume 53 Author(s): Clara Miracle Belda-Galbis , Antonio Jiménez-Carretón , María Consuelo Pina-Pérez , Antonio Martínez , Dolores Rodrigo A study was carried out to evaluate antimicrobial activity of açaí against Listeria innocua , as a non-pathogenic surrogate for Listeria monocytogenes , at different temperatures (37, 22, and 10 °C), from a kinetic point...
Tue, 02/10/2015 - 01:20
Rebecca Cote, Robab Katani, Matthew R. Moreau, Indira T. Kudva, Terrance M. Arthur, Chitrita DebRoy, Michael M. Mwangi, Istvan Albert, Juan Antonio Raygoza Garay, Lingling Li, Maria T. Brandl, Michelle Q. Carter, Vivek Kapur Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 (O157) are significant foodborne pathogens and pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. The major reservoirs of O157...
Mon, 02/09/2015 - 03:20
Elevated levels of the second messenger c-di-GMP activate biosynthesis of an unknown exopolysaccharide (EPS) in the food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. This EPS strongly protects cells against disinfectants and desiccation, indicating its potential significance for listerial persistence in the environment and for food safety. We analyzed the potential phylogenetic origin of this EPS,...
Mon, 02/09/2015 - 01:14
Publication date: July 2015 , Volume 53 Author(s): Mahmoud Ahmed Mohammed , Khalid Ibrahim Sallam , Tomohiro Tamura Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic foodborne pathogen predominantly in neonates with reported incidences in adults especially immunocompromised and the elderly. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of these organisms on meat products sold at...
Mon, 02/09/2015 - 01:14
Wei Xia, Pengjun Shi, Xinxin Xu, Lichun Qian, Ying Cui, Mengjuan Xia, Bin Yao A novel β-xylosidase gene of glycosyl hydrolase (GH) family 3, xyl3A, was identified from the thermophilic fungus Humicola insolens Y1, which is an innocuous and non-toxic fungus that produces a wide variety of GHs. The cDNA of xyl3A, 2334 bp in length, encodes a 777-residue polypeptide containing a putative signal...
Sun, 02/08/2015 - 01:18
Publication date: July 2015 , Volume 53 Author(s): Jia Xin Chong , Shaojuan Lai , Hongshun Yang Effects of chitosan, calcium chloride, and their combination on preventing quality and safety deterioration of postharvest fresh-cut honeydew melon at 7 °C were investigated. Treatments of all these three delayed weight loss, improved firmness, delayed colour changes and moderately inhibited...
Sun, 02/08/2015 - 01:18
Publication date: July 2015 , Volume 53 Author(s): Ibrahim Mehmeti , Skender Muji , Dzung B. Diep , Ingolf F. Nes The present study was undertaken to investigate the microbial quality of raw milk from dairy farms in Kosovo with emphasis on the potential pathogen Lactococcus garvieae . Based on selective media and growth profiles approximately 770 isolates were obtained from raw milk...
Sun, 02/08/2015 - 01:18
Publication date: July 2015 , Volume 53 Author(s): Philip G. Crandall , Corliss A. O'Bryan , Robin Peterson , Natalie Dyenson , Frank Yiannas The rate of foodborne illness caused by Listeria monocytogenes continues to exceed the Healthy People 2020 goal of 0.2 cases per 100,000 persons. Listeria infections are primarily sporadic, most cases caused by eating contaminated, ready-to-eat (...
Sun, 02/08/2015 - 01:18
Publication date: July 2015 , Volume 53 Author(s): Maarten Nauta , Jens Kirk Andersen , Pirkko Tuominen , Jukka Ranta , Roland Lindqvist Risk-based microbiological criteria can offer a tool to control Campylobacter in the broiler meat production chain. Recently two approaches have been applied to derive such criteria and to analyse their potential impact in terms of human health risk...
Sun, 02/08/2015 - 01:18
Publication date: July 2015 , Volume 53 Author(s): Myra Evelyn Flores-Flores , Elena Lizarraga , Adela López de Cerain , Elena González-Peñas Mycotoxins can cause toxicity when ingested by humans and animals. Although the rumen is supposed to be a barrier against mycotoxins, some studies demonstrate that carry-over of mycotoxins to milk is possible. Different studies have found mycotoxin...
Sun, 02/08/2015 - 01:18
Publication date: July 2015 , Volume 53 Author(s): Jonathan Nimal Selvaraj , Yueju Zhao , Lancine Sangare , Fuguo Xing , Lu Zhou , Yan Wang , Xiaofeng Xue , Yi Li , Yang Liu The food toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) is frequently present in cereals such as wheat, barley and maize, which are infected by Fusarium asiaticum and Fusarium graminearium . Crop rotation and climatic conditions...
Sun, 02/08/2015 - 01:18
Skadi Kull, K. Melanie Schulz, Jasmin Weisemann née Strotmeier, Sebastian Kirchner, Tanja Schreiber, Alexander Bollenbach, P. Wojtek Dabrowski, Andreas Nitsche, Suzanne R. Kalb, Martin B. Dorner, John R. Barr, Andreas Rummel, Brigitte G. Dorner Botulism is a severe neurological disease caused by the complex family of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT). Based on the different serotypes known today, a...
Sun, 02/08/2015 - 01:18
Essential oils have been found to exert antibacterial, antifungal, spasmolytic, and antiplasmodial activity and therapeutic effect in cancer treatment. In this study, the antibacterial activities of four main essential oils’ components (thymol (Thy), eugenol (Eug), berberine (Ber), cinnamaldehyde (Cin)) were evaluated against two foodborne pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella...

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