Research Publications from Peer-Reviewed Journals

Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a well-known, natural contaminant in foods and feeds because of its toxic effects, such as nephrotoxicity in various animals. Recent studies have revealed that Alcaligenes faecalis could generate enzymes to efficiently degrade OTA to ochratoxin α (OTα) in vitro. In an effort to obtain the OTA degrading mechanism, we purified and identified a novel...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Enzymatic detoxification has become a promising approach for control of mycotoxins postharvest in grains through modification of chemical structures determining their toxicity. In the present study fumonisin esterase FumD (EC 3.1.1.87) (FUMzyme®; BIOMIN, Tulln, Austria), hydrolysing fumonisin (FB) mycotoxins by de-esterification, was utilised to develop an enzymatic reduction method in a...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is produced by the anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum. As one of the most poisonous toxins known and a potential bioterrosism agent, BoNT is characterized by a complex mode of action comprising: internalization, translocation and proteolytic cleavage of a substrate, which inhibits synaptic exocytotic transmitter release at neuro-muscular nerve...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Ultrasound is an emerging decontamination technology with potential use in the global food processing industry. In the present study, we explored power ultrasound for processing aqueous aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). AFB1 was degraded by 85.1% after 80 min of ultrasound exposure. The reaction products of AFB1 were identified and their molecular formulae elucidated by ultra-high-performance liquid...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Clostridium is a broad genus of anaerobic, spore-forming, rod-shaped, Gram-positive bacteria that can be found in different environments all around the world. The genus includes human and animal pathogens that produce potent exotoxins that cause rapid and potentially fatal diseases responsible for countless human casualties and billion-dollar annual loss to the agricultural sector. Diseases...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Salmonella Typhimurium is an enteric pathogen that causes acute and chronic infections in humans and animals. One-week-old germ-free piglets were orally colonized/infected with the Salmonella Typhimurium LT2 strain or its isogenic rough ΔrfaL, ΔrfaG or ΔrfaC mutants with exactly defined lipopolysaccharide (LPS) defects. After 24 h, the piglets were euthanized and the...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
The larvae of the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L., BSFL) have received increased industrial interest as a novel protein source for food and feed. Previous research has found that insects, including BSFL, are capable of metabolically converting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), but recovery of total AFB1 is less than 20% when accounting for its conversion to most known metabolites. The aim of this...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Blue light, as an important environmental factor, can regulate the production of various secondary metabolites of Monascus purpureus M9, including mycotoxin-citrinin, pigments, and monacolin K. The analysis of citrinin in Monascus M9 exposed to blue light for 0 min./d, 15 min./d, and 60 min./d showed that 15 min./d of blue light illumination could significantly increase citrinin production, while...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
“Ciguatera” fish poisoning (CFP) is one of the well-known food poisoning caused by the ingestion of fish that have accumulated trace amounts of ciguatoxins (CTXs). CFP affects more than 50,000 individuals annually. The difficulty in preventing CFP comes from the lack of reliable methods for analysis of CTXs in contaminated fish, together with the normal appearance, taste, and...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential protective mechanism of astaxanthin (ASTA) against oxidative damage and inflammation caused by ochratoxin (OTA) in mouse lung. We divided mice into a control group (CG), an OTA group (PG), an astaxanthin group (AG), and an OTA+ASTA group (JG). Oxidative indices (malondialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), and reduced...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Feed samples are frequently contaminated by a wide range of chemically diverse natural products, which can be determined using highly sensitive analytical techniques. Next to already well-investigated mycotoxins, unknown or unregulated fungal secondary metabolites have also been found, some of which at significant concentrations. In our study, 1141 pig feed samples were analyzed for more than 800...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Clostridium perfringens toxinotype D, toxinotype E, and gastroenteritis-linked BEC/CPILE-positive strains have never been reported in healthy children. We isolated, whole-genome sequenced and bioinformatically characterised three C. perfringens isolates—type D (IQ1), type E (IQ2) and BEC/CPILE-positive (IQ3), recovered from the stools of three healthy two-year-olds, which were further...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Rice grains can be attacked by a range of pathogens, including Aspergillus species, which can cause the accumulation of aflatoxins and represent a serious threat to the consumers. Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites synthesized by Aspergillus species and naturally occur in various foodstuffs. In this study, we sought to analyze the prevalence of aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. in rice...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Dried blood spots (DBSs), a micro-sampling technique whereby a drop of blood is collected on filter paper has multiple advantages over conventional blood sampling regarding the sampling itself, as well as transportation and storage. This is the first paper describing the development and validation of a method for the determination of 23 mycotoxins and phase I metabolites in DBSs from pigs and...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species that can contaminate human food and animal feed. Due to the harmful effects of FBs on animals, the European Union (EU) defined a recommendation of a maximum of 5 mg FBs (B1 + B2)/kg for complete feed for swine and 1 µg FBs/kg body weight per day as the tolerable daily intake for humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) can exhibit various lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) owing to bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), prostatic inflammation, and bladder response to BOO. The pathogenesis of BPH involves an imbalance of internal hormones and chronic prostatic inflammation, possibly triggered by prostatic infection, autoimmune responses, neurogenic inflammation,...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Alternaria alternata is a critical phytopathogen that causes foodborne spoilage and produces a polyketide mycotoxin, alternariol (AOH), and its derivative, alternariol monomethyl ether (AME). In this study, the inhibitory effects of the essential oil citral on the fungal growth and mycotoxin production of A. alternata were evaluated. Our findings indicated that 0.25 μL/mL (222.5 μg/...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
A novel polyclonal antibody against tetrodotoxin (TTX) was raised using its haptenic antigen, where 4,9-anhydroTTX was reacted with 1,2-ethanedithiol and this derivative was further reacted with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH). This newly designed antigen (KLH-TTX) was inoculated into rabbits, resulting in the production of the specific polyclonal antibody, which reacted well with TTX and its...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
In this work, we report an on-chip aptasensor for ochratoxin A (OTA) toxin detection that is based on a graphene field-effect transistor (GFET). Graphene-based devices are fabricated via large-scale technology, allowing for upscaling the sensor fabrication and lowering the device cost. The sensor assembly was performed through covalent bonding of graphene’s surface with an aptamer...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Species of the fungus Fusarium cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) of cereal crops and contaminate grain with sesquiterpenoid mycotoxins, including culmorin (CUL) and trichothecenes. While the phytotoxicity of trichothecenes, such as deoxynivalenol (DON), and their role in virulence are well characterized, less is known about the phytotoxicity of CUL and its role in the development of FHB. Herein,...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Bovine mycotoxicosis is a disorder caused by the ingestion of fungal toxins. It is associated with chronic signs, such as reduced growth rate and milk yield, and causes significant economic cost to the dairy industry. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are commonly found in grain fed to cattle. Patulin (PA) is a common grass silage contaminant but is...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Fusarium head blight (FHB) epidemics in wheat and contamination with Fusarium mycotoxins has become an increasing problem over the last decades. This prompted the need for non-invasive and non-destructive techniques to screen cereal grains for Fusarium infection, which is usually accompanied by mycotoxin contamination. This study tested the potential of hyperspectral imaging to monitor the...
Wed, 10/02/2019 - 03:18
Saxitoxin (STX) and its analogues produced by toxic dinoflagellates accumulate in bivalves, and routine monitoring of bivalves is important to prevent cases of human poisoning. In this study, we describe a rapid detection method for the analysis of STXs using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with post-column fluorescent detection and to investigate water depths and sampling points optimal...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:27
Author(s): Giannis Katsaros, Daya Shankar Pandey, Alen Horvat, Guadalupe Aranda Almansa, Lydia E. Fryda, James J. Leahy, Savvas A. TassouAbstractPoultry litter (PL) gasification was experimentally investigated using a lab-scale bubbling fluidised bed reactor. Characterisation of the gasification process was performed in terms of yields and compositions of both gas and tar, lower calorific value (...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:26
Author(s): A. Schoster, T. Kunz, M. Lauper, C. Graubner, S. Schmitt, J.S. WeeseAbstractOvergrowth of enteric clostridia in dysbiosis in horses with colic is presumed but scarcely investigated. The objective was to provide prevalence data of Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in horses with and without gastrointestinal disease in Switzerland, and investigate microbiota differences...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:26
Author(s): Gabriela M. Chiocchetti, Teresa Latorre, María Jesús Clemente, Carlos Jadán-Piedra, Vicenta Devesa, Dinoraz VélezAbstractMushrooms can accumulate toxic trace elements. The objectives of the present study are to evaluate levels of mercury, cadmium, lead, and arsenic in dried mushrooms, to determine the effect of cooking on the contents of these elements, and to evaluate their...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:26
Author(s): Jasim Khan, Shikha Salhotra, Poonam Goswami, Juheb Akhtar, Shagufta Jahan, Sakshi Gupta, Shikha Sharma, Basu Dev Banerjee, Suhel Parvez, Sarika Gupta, Sheikh RaisuddinAbstractBisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitously distributed endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). Its exposure in humans has been of concern due to its increased application in the products of day to day use. BPA has been...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:26
Author(s): Ibukunoluwa Fola Olawuyi, Soo Rin Kim, Dongyup Hahn, Won Young LeeAbstractThis study obtained two novel polysaccharides from okra by enzyme-assisted and combined enzyme-ultrasonic methods while comparing with previously established hot-water, ultrasonic methods, for their food application potentials. Structural characteristics and physicochemical properties were evaluated and their...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:25
Author(s): Tohru Tominaga, Shunji KurokawaAbstractThis review states the outline of field crop production of Japan and weed problems to be solved. Field crop production of Japan is characterized by rice cultivation and small size farming. Most major field crops other than rice are imported, and various kinds and a very large amount of living weed seeds contaminate the imported grains. These alien...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:25
Author(s): M.S. Hossain, B.C. Sarkar, M.M. Hossain, M.Y. Mian, E.G. Rajotte, R. Muniappan, M.E. O'RourkeAbstractMango (Mangifera indica L.) is a major fruit crop throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world including Bangladesh. The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a major pest of mango causing both quantitative and qualitative losses as...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:25
Author(s): Grazina Kadziene, Skaidre Suproniene, Ona Auskalniene, Simona Pranaitiene, Povilas Svegzda, Agne Versuliene, Jurgita Ceseviciene, Daiva Janusauskaite, Virginijus FeizaAbstractSeveral studies have reported positive effect of cover crop on topsoil physical properties as well as weed suppression, but few have quantified its effect on Fusarium head blight prevention. This study explored...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:25
Author(s): Honest Machekano, Brighton M. Mvumi, Peter Chinwada, Susan J. Kageler, Richard RwafaAbstractReducing farm-level grain storage losses for small-scale rural farmers is important for sustainable household food security in Africa. Farmer-managed trials were conducted over two 32-week grain storage seasons in Zimbabwe to evaluate the effectiveness of diatomaceous earths (DEs); Protect-It®...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:25
Author(s): Soledad Verdejo-Lucas, Miguel TalaveraAbstractRoot-knot nematodes (RKN; Meloidogyne spp.) are obligate sedentary endoparasites of plant roots depending on the induction of feeding sites for their reproduction. Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica have similar thermal requirements to complete their life cycle on zucchini but M. incognita has greater pathogenic potential (ability to...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:25
Author(s): R.R. Sharma, S.C. Datta, Eldho VargheseAbstractSeveral pests and diseases infest apple during production, potentially causing heavy losses. Numerous pesticides are used to control pests and diseases, sprays of which contaminate the environment and result in pesticide residues. Among Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs), particle film technology (PFT) is promising for organic fruit...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:25
Author(s): Bulat Kuluev, Elena Mikhaylova, Alexander Ermoshin, Svetlana Veselova, Anastasia Tugbaeva, Gulnar Gumerova, Karina Gainullina, Evgenia ZaikinaAbstractA small family of ARGOS genes encodes transmembrane proteins that act as negative regulators of ethylene signaling. Recent studies show that ARGOS genes are involved in the regulation of plant growth under the influence of stress factors...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:17
Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is a ubiquitous organism that can easily enter the food chain. Infection with L. monocytogenes can cause invasive listeriosis. Since 2014, in Austria, L. monocytogenes isolates from human and food/food-associated samples have been provided on a mandatory basis by food producers and laboratories to the National Reference Laboratory. Since 2017, isolates...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:17
A few reports indicate that livestock might represent a new reservoir for carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE). In 2015, VIM-1-producing Escherichia coli were detected at slaughter in colon contents of animals from a German fattening pig farm within the national monitoring on ESBL-producing E. coli. In this study, pooled faces samples from pigs, as well as samples from the barn...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:17
Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) urethral sphincter injections have been applied in treating voiding dysfunction but the treatment outcome is not consistent. This study analyzed treatment outcomes between patients with different bladder and urethral sphincter dysfunctions. Patients with refractory voiding dysfunction due to neurogenic or non-neurogenic etiology were treated with urethral sphincter 100...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:17
Zearalenone (ZEN) is a nonsteroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by various Fusarium species and commonly occurring in corn and other cereals. Even though its acute toxicity is low, still the estrogenic activity of ZEN and metabolites is a matter of concern. In this work, a new magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer (mMIP) for the selective extraction of ZEN from cereal flours is presented. The...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:17
Botulinum toxin (BoNT) has been used for the treatment of a variety of neurologic, medical and cosmetic conditions. Two serotypes, type A (BoNT-A) and type B (BoNT-B), are currently in clinical use. While considered safe and effective, their use has been rarely complicated by the development of antibodies that reduce or negate their therapeutic effect. The presence of antibodies has been...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 03:17
Animal venoms are promising sources of novel drug leads, but their translational potential is hampered by the low success rate of earlier biodiscovery programs, in part reflecting the narrow selection of targets for investigation. To increase the number of lead candidates, here we discuss a phylogeny-guided approach for the rational selection of venomous taxa, using tarantulas (family...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 00:00
Sorghum has gained popularity with consumers as a grain source with its gluten-free and high protein dietary characteristics. Acreage has increased recently, in part due to the demand for an alternative feed source for poultry and swine. New information is needed about the level of mycotoxin contamination in sorghum accessions, and accurate and affordable analytical methods...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 00:00
A novel multiresidue analytical method based on disposable pipette extraction (DPX) to determine the trace level of 28 pesticides in wine samples using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) has been developed. The DPX method is used for both extraction and purification. After the optimization, targets were eluted with 1% HCl in acetonitrile and the eluent...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 00:00
In this study, the new approach of dispersive micro-solid phase extraction using a magnetic sheet was developed. A circle magnetic sheet (diameter, 25 mm; thickness, 0.4 mm) was perforated and used as a support for fixing and re-collecting three-dimensional magnetic graphene nanoparticles as an adsorbent. The method was coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography-...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 00:00
Common procedures for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extraction involve the use of large amount of solvents and a long extraction time. To address these difficulties, ultrasound-assisted solvent extraction followed by microextraction by packed sorbent (UAE-MEPS) was investigated as a novel extraction procedure for the recovery of PAHs from apple, a model of solid...
Tue, 10/01/2019 - 00:00
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), a foodborne pathogen, is a major contributor to human bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and detrimental to public health. In this paper, we developed a dual-mode aptasensor for Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) determination. Based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and chiral optical response, the concentrations of C. jejuni in...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:29
Phosphorus enrichment of aquatic ecosystems through diffuse source pollution is an ongoing issue worldwide. A potential solution lies in the use of fast‐growing, multipurpose feedstocks, such as trees, to limit the flow of phosphorus into riparian areas through luxury consumption. However, the perennial nature of trees and their use of leaves as storage organs for excess phosphorus may reduce the...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:29
The red coloration of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) results from anthocyanin accumulation in the fruit peel. Light is required for anthocyanin biosynthesis in pear. A pear homolog of Arabidopsis thaliana BBX22, PpBBX16, was differentially expressed after fruits were removed from bags and may be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Here, the expression and function of PpBBX16 were analysed. PpBBX16's...
Mon, 09/30/2019 - 17:28
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely distributed in nature and, due to their beneficial effects on the host, are used as probiotics. This review describes the applications of LAB in animal production systems such as beekeeping, poultry, swine and bovine production, particularly as probiotics used to improve health, enhance growth and reproductive performance. Given the importance of honeybees in...

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