Research Publications from Peer-Reviewed Journals

The Research Publications track research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. The most recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal Title, Subject, USDA Grant Funding Agencies or FDA Grant Funding Agencies. The research publications are tracked across five subject areas: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, and Viruses.

Fri, 06/26/2020 - 00:00
The trichothecene mycotoxins contaminate cereal grains and have been related to alimentary toxicosis resulted in emetic response. This family of mycotoxins comprises type A to D groups of toxic sesquiterpene chemicals. Diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), one of the most toxic type A trichothecenes, is considered to be a potential risk for human and animal health by the European Food Safety Authority. Other...
Fri, 06/26/2020 - 00:00
Given the increasing antimicrobial resistance in urinary tract infections (UTI), alternative strategies need to be investigated. Determination of minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of essential oils from cajeput, lemongrass, tea tree, and thyme in artificial urine, revealed bactericidal activity of all four tested essential oils against seven uropathogenic species with values...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 22:10
Acrylamide (AA), classified as a probable carcinogen, can be neurotoxic, genotoxic, and can damage DNA. This study explored the ability of seabuckthorn berries juice (SBJ) to alleviate AA‐induced toxic injury in rats. Twenty‐four adult male Sprague‐Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, AA group (40 mg/kg), AA + SBJ (40 mg/kg AA and 5 mL/kg SBJ), and AA + vitamin...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 22:10
The migration of eight trace elements (Fe, Sn, Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, and Zn) was monitored for fruits canned in uncoated tinplate cans under different storage conditions until the shelf life. The levels of most of these elements significantly increased with storage time and were also affected by storage temperature. Particularly, storage at 40°C (simulating sunlight exposure of the cans) caused...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 22:10
Antioxidant and anti‐proliferative activities of M. laevigeta leaf and bark extract were determined against EAC cells in the peritoneum fluid of Swiss albino mice. Morphological alteration of the treated EAC cells on florescence microscope and DNA degradation in gel electrophoresis confirmed the apoptosis induction. The Expression pattern of the Bax, Bcl‐2 and PARP‐1 in comparison to control...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 22:09
Background: Stimulatory efficacy of spent mushroom compost (SMC) cannot be overemphasized. Aims: In this study, the effect of SMC on phytoremediation and plant's response to heavy metal polluted soil was investigated and suggested for the establishment of feasible soil remediation. Methods: Heavy metal polluted soil (80 kg) was sterilized at 121°C in soil sterilizer for 30 min and repeated four...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 22:07
Aflatoxins as the remarkable food safety issues are toxic compounds produced by some of the fungus among variety of food and feed products while their decontamination has been investigated through some proposed kinetics based on the various conversion factors. Among them, in terms of the chemical based decontamination techniques, the zero, first, and second‐order reaction mechanisms are utilized...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 16:00
In the present study, we conducted field surveys to detect the population density of the most important invasive weed species and their associated virus vectoring aphids in crops grown under high input field (HIF) vs. low-input field (LIF) conditions, with and without fertilizers and pesticides. The most frequent invasive weed species were annual fleabane, Erigeron annua (L.), Canadian horseweed...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 16:00
Meiotic recombination ensures accurate homologous chromosome segregation during meiosis and generates novel allelic combinations among gametes. During meiosis, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are generated to facilitate recombination. To maintain genome integrity, meiotic DSBs must be repaired using appropriate DNA templates. Although the DNA damage response protein kinase Ataxia-telangiectasia...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 16:00
All RNA viruses encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) which replicates and transcribes viral RNA. This essential viral enzyme does not exist in mammalian cells, thus presents a main target for the development of antiviral drugs with potential pan-antiviral activity. In this study, we take advantage of the structurally equivalent site in the dengue virus (DENV) RdRp, the N-pocket, and in...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 16:00
Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major foodborne pathogens. Isolates of PCR-serogroups IIb (n = 17) and IVb (n = 31) recovered from food (n = 33) and food processing environment (n = 15) in Poland were characterized using whole genome sequencing. Most isolates belonged to Multi-Locus Sequence Type (MLST) ST2 (31.3%) and ST5 (22.9%). Core genome MLST (cgMLST) analysis classified isolates into...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 16:00
Nitrile hydratases have received significant interest both in the large-scale industrial production of acrylamide and nicotinamide, and the remediation of environmental contamination with nitrile-containing pollutants. Almost all known nitrile hydratases include an α-subunit (AnhA) and β-subunit (AnhB), and a specific activator protein is crucial for their maturation and catalytic activity. Many...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 10:02
We report here a complete genome sequence of a Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor (Inaba; sequence type 515 [ST515]) strain isolated from a cholera patient in North Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), which showed a complete deletion (~80 kb) of the Vibrio pathogenicity island 1.
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 10:01
Group A streptococcus (GAS) species cause bacterial pharyngitis in both adults and children. Early and accurate diagnosis of GAS is important for appropriate antibiotic therapy to prevent GAS sequalae. The Revogene Strep A molecular assay (Meridian Bioscience Canada Inc, Quebec City, QC, Canada) is an automated real-time PCR assay for GAS detection from throat swab specimens within approximately...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 10:01
NG-Test Carba 5 is a rapid in vitro multiplex immunoassay for the phenotypic detection and differentiation of five common carbapenemase families (KPC, OXA-48-like, VIM, IMP, and NDM) directly from bacterial colonies. The assay is simple to perform and has recently received U.S. Food and Drug Administration clearance. A method comparison study was performed at geographically diverse medical...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 10:01
Neosporosis has become a concern since it is associated with abortion in cattle. Currently, in situ diagnosis is determined through anamnesis, evaluation of the history, and perception of the clinical signs of the herd. There is no practical and noninvasive test adapted to a large number of samples, which represents a gap for the use of new approaches that provide information about infections and...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 10:01
Recovery from enteric bacterial illness often includes a phase of organismal shedding over a period of days to months. The monitoring of this process through laboratory testing forms the foundation of public health action to prevent further transmission. Regulations in most jurisdictions in the United States exclude individuals who continue to shed certain organisms from sensitive occupations and...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 10:01
Members of the Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) are multidrug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacteria and cause opportunistic pulmonary infections in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). In this study, genomic analysis of MABC isolates was performed to gain greater insights into the epidemiology of circulating strains in Ireland. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 70 MABC...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 10:01
Lower respiratory tract infections, including hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia, are common in hospitalized patient populations. Standard methods frequently fail to identify the infectious etiology due to the polymicrobial nature of respiratory specimens and the necessity of ordering specific tests to identify viral agents. The potential severity of these infections combined...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 08:01
Antimicrobial resistance is of growing concern. To encourage development of new treatments, some commentators have suggested regulators exercise increased flexibility on the clinical evidence required for approval. We examined all 1065 new drugs and biologics approved by the US Food and Drug Administration between 1984 and 2018 and recorded each drug's use of the Orphan Drug Act, fast-track,...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Zhengxin Xie, Ying Gan, Jun Tang, Shisuo Fan, Xiangwei Wu, Xuede Li, Haomiao Cheng, Jie Tang The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac (DCF) is considered a contaminant of emerging concern. DCF can co-exist with heavy metals in aquatic environments, causing unexpected risks to aquatic organisms. This study aimed to assess the combined effects of DCF and cadmium (Cd) at...
Thu, 06/25/2020 - 04:03
Tilimycin is an enterotoxin produced by the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella oxytoca that causes antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis (AAHC). This pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) natural product is synthesized by a bimodular nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) pathway composed of three proteins: NpsA, ThdA, and NpsB. We describe the functional and structural characterization of the fully...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 22:09
Bilobetin, a natural compound extracted from Ginkgo biloba, has various pharmacological activities such as anti‐oxidation, anti‐cancer, anti‐bacterial, anti‐fungal, anti‐inflammatory, anti‐viral, and promoting osteoblast differentiation. However, few studies have been conducted and there are no reports on its metabolites owing to its low content in nature. In addition, it has been reported to...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 22:07
Peppers are rich in health‐promoting phytochemicals, which are involved in the defense mechanisms against cancer. To select a lead variety of pepper with anti‐proliferative activity against colon cancer cells and liver cancer cells, high antioxidant activity, and high concentrations of capsaicin, flavonoids, and phenolics, we compared these attributes in nine different pepper accessions belonging...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 16:00
The use of RNA interference (RNAi) enables the silencing of target genes in plants or plant-dwelling organisms, through the production of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) resulting in altered plant characteristics. Expression of properly synthesized dsRNAs in plants can lead to improved crop quality characteristics or exploit new mechanisms with activity against plant pests and pathogens. Genetically...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 16:00
BackgroundThe prevalence of colonization with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) among healthy adults in the community is largely unknown. This study investigated the colonization rate of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in the community in Taiwan, and compared the gut microbiota between MDRO...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 16:00
Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause for clinical infections and food intoxications, causing over 100,000 yearly cases of bacteremia in the United States and 434 food-borne outbreaks in the European Union. Approximately 30% of the population permanently carry S. aureus asymptomatically in their nasal cavity. The risk of infection and transmission to food items or the environment is higher in...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 16:00
Background: Growing evidence points out that a disturbance of gut microbiota may also disturb the gut–brain communication. However, it is not clear to what extent the alteration of microbiota composition can modulate brain function, affecting host behaviors. Here, we investigated the effects of gut microbiota depletion on emotional behaviors.Methods: Mice in the experimental group were orally...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 16:00
The biofloc system is a relatively new aquaculture technology that offers practical solution to maintain culture water quality by recycling nutrients and improves the health status and resistance of shrimps against microbial infection, yet the mode of action involved remains unclear. This study aimed to unravel the underlying mechanism behind the protective effect of a biofloc system using...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 12:00
We reviewed relevant syphilis diagnostic literature and conducted a meta-analysis to address the question, “What is the sensitivity and specificity of the Syphilis Health Check, a rapid qualitative test for the detection of human antibodies to Treponema pallidum.” The Syphilis Health Check is the only rapid syphilis test currently cleared by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We conducted a...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 12:00
Direct detection methods for Treponema pallidum include dark-field microscopy (DFM), direct fluorescence antibody (DFA) testing, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). Here, we reviewed the relevant syphilis diagnostic literature to address 2 main questions with respect to T. pallidum direct detection techniques: “What are the performance characteristics for...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Rifampin is the first-line antituberculosis drug, with Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNA polymerase as the molecular target. Unfortunately, M. tuberculosis strains that are resistant to rifampin have been identified in clinical settings, which limits its therapeutic effects. In clinical isolates, S531L and D516V (in Escherichia coli) are two common mutated codons in the gene rpoB, corresponding to...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Attention has been paid to H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) because of its heavy burden on the poultry industry and human mortality. Since an influenza A virus carrying N6 neuraminidase (NA) has never spread in humans, the potential for H5N6 HPAIV to cause disease in humans and the efficacy of antiviral drugs against the virus need to be urgently assessed. We used nonhuman...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
The rise of extensively drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has occurred in parallel with the increasing demand for new drugs. However, the current methods of drug discovery are burdened with rigorous assessments and require more time than can be spared until gonococcal infections become difficult to control. To address this urgency, we utilized a drug-...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Globally, mutations in the katG gene account for the majority of isoniazid-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Buyankhishig et al. analyzed a limited number of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Mongolia and found that isoniazid resistance was mainly attributable to inhA mutations (B. Buyankhishig, T. Oyuntuya, B. Tserelmaa, J. Sarantuya, et al., Int J Mycobacteriol 1:40–44...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has grown to become a major burden on health care systems. The cumulation of limited therapeutic options and worsened patient outcomes with persistent MRSA bacteremia has driven research in optimizing its initial management. The guidelines published by the Infectious Diseases Society of America currently recommend combination therapy for...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Clostridium (Clostridioides) difficile causes toxin-mediated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis, primarily among hospital inpatients. Outbreaks of C. difficile infection (CDI) have been caused by strains with acquired antimicrobial resistance, particularly fluoroquinolone resistance, including C. difficile ribotype (RT) 027 in North America and Europe and RT 017, the most common strain in Asia...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Each year, 5% to 20% of the population of the United States becomes infected with influenza A virus. Combination therapy with two or more antiviral agents has been considered a potential treatment option for influenza virus infection. However, the clinical results derived from combination treatment with two or more antiviral drugs have been variable. We examined the effectiveness of cotreatment...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Florfenicol belongs to a class of phenicol antimicrobials widely used as feed additives and for the treatment of respiratory infections. In recent years, increasing resistance to florfenicol has been reported in Campylobacter spp., the leading foodborne enteric pathogens causing diarrheal diseases worldwide. Here, we reported the identification of fexA, a novel mobile florfenicol resistance gene...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Two nonamidated host defense peptides named Pin2[G] and FA1 were evaluated against three types of pathogenic bacteria: two (Staphylococcus aureus UPD13 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPD3) isolated from diabetic foot ulcer patients, and another (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium [ATCC 14028]) from a commercial collection. In vitro experiments showed that the antimicrobial performance of the...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
Ceftazidime-avibactam and cefiderocol are two of the latest generation β-lactam agents that possess expanded activity against highly drug-resistant bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales. Here, we show that structural changes in AmpC β-lactamases can confer reduced susceptibility to both agents. A multidrug-resistant Enterobacter cloacae clinical strain (Ent385) was...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 10:01
A total of 2,283 Salmonella isolates were recovered from 18,334 samples, including samples from patients with diarrhea, food of animal origin, and pets, across 5 provinces of China. The highest prevalence of Salmonella spp. was detected in chicken meats (39.3%, 486/1,237). Fifteen serogroups and 66 serovars were identified, with Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis being the...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 08:01
Phosphorothioate (PT) DNA modifications—in which a nonbonding phosphate oxygen is replaced with sulfur—represent a widespread, horizontally transferred epigenetic system in prokaryotes and have a highly unusual property of occupying only a small fraction of available consensus sequences in a genome. Using Salmonella enterica as a model, we asked a question...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 06:08
Author(s): Jin Hwa Park, Mi Seon Kang, Kyung Min Park, Hee Young Lee, Gyeong Sik Ok, Min Seon Koo, Seok In Hong, Hyun Jung Kim The present study aimed to develop and validate a predictive model of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus growth in fresh egg under isothermal and non-isothermal (fluctuating temperature) conditions and also estimate infection probability based on Monte Carlo...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 06:07
Author(s): Kaituo Liu, Ruyi Gao, Xiaoquan Wang, Wenwen Han, Zhuxing Ji, Huafen Zheng, Min Gu, Jiao Hu, Xiaowen Liu, Shunlin Hu, Sujuan Chen, Song Gao, Daxin Peng, Xin-an Jiao, Xiufan Liu Pigeons were previously thought to be resistant to H5 viruses and to play a minimal role in spreading these viruses. In this study, we evaluated the pathogenicity of two clade 2.3.4.4 H5N6 viruses in pigeons and...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 06:06
Author(s): Long Cang, Jinfeng Xing, Cun Liu, Yujun Wang, Dongmei Zhou Chemical immobilization of heavy metals is a simple, low-cost, and environment-friendly technology for remediation of heavy metals contaminated soils. However, changes in environmental conditions, such as water management, acid deposition, temperature fluctuation, etc., might result in release of metal ions from the fixation...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 04:03
Previous surveys have found that few Canadians report using a food thermometer to check cooking doneness, and many report rinsing or washing poultry prior to cooking. A cross-sectional survey study was conducted to investigate the sociodemographic and psychosocial determinants of the reported use of these behaviors among Canadians. A questionnaire was developed, guided by the Theoretical Domains...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 04:03
We aimed to perform serotyping and the antimicrobial resistance profile of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from raw meats imported illegally into Brazil along the borders of Argentina and Uruguay. Distinct isolates of Salmonella spp. (n=6) and L. monocytogenes (n=25) obtained from 270 of these food products of earlier work were serotyped and tested for antimicrobial...
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 02:01
The distribution, seasonal variation and sources of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from suspended particulate matter (SPM) of the Aurá River, a small amazon typical river located in Northern Brazil, were determined. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of SPM revealed a mixture of PAH from different origins and a seasonal variation of PAH primary source for the studied area....
Wed, 06/24/2020 - 02:01
Despite a 2.3% increase in world cereal production in 2019 over 2018, the number of people facing severe food insecurity may double from 135 million in January 2020 to 265 million by the end of 2020. The problem of food and nutritional insecurity is severe in urban centers, where the global population is projected to increase (%/year) by 1.84, 1.63, and 1.44 between 2015 to 2020, 2020 to 2025,...

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