Research Publications from Peer-Reviewed Journals

Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT Pullorum disease caused by Salmonella Pullorum is one of the most important infectious diseases in the poultry industry worldwide, which leads to serious economic losses in many developing countries because of its high mortality rate in young chicks. The traditional slide agglutination test with low cost, fast reaction, and on-site detection has been widely used in the diagnosis of...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT Duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV) is one of the pathogens that cause fatal duck viral hepatitis (DVH) in ducklings, which is an acute and contagious disease with a high mortality rate. Despite a continuing official duck vaccination program, DHAV infection remains a major threat to the duck industry. Considerable changes were observed in the epidemiology of DHAV-1/-3 in China over time....
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT To investigate Molybdenum (Mo) and Cadmium (Cd) co-induced the levels of autophagy-related genes via AMPK/mTOR signaling pathway in Shaoxing Duck (Anas platyrhyncha) kidney, 60 healthy 11-day-old ducks were randomly divided into 6 groups, which were treated with Mo or/and Cd at different doses on the basal diet for 120 d. Kidney samples were collected on day 120 to determine the mRNA...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT The poultry industry has recently undergone transitions into antibiotic free production, and viable antibiotic alternatives, such as probiotics, are necessary. Through in ovo probiotic inoculation, beneficial microflora development in the gastrointestinal tract may occur prior to hatch without negatively impacting chick performance. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT This study was aimed to assess the protective effects of γ-irradiated Astragalus polysaccharides (IAPS) on the development of small intestine and intestinal mucosal immunity of immunosuppressed broilers induced by cyclophosphamide (CPM). A total of 384 one-day-old broiler chicks with similar initial weight were randomly assigned into 6 groups: non-treated group (control), and CPM-...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT Subclinical necrotic enteritis (NE) is primarily caused by the gram-positive bacterium, Clostridium perfringens (Cp). The trend towards removal of in-feed antimicrobials and subsequent increased emergence of infection in poultry has resulted in a wide interest in better understanding of the mechanism behind this disease. The virulence of NE, to a large extent, depends on the virulence...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the efficacy of ethanol treatment (0, 30, 50, or 70%) alone or in combination with ultrasound (37 kHz, 380 W) for the reduction of natural indigenous mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB), coliforms, and inoculated Salmonella Typhimurium on chicken skin. Bacterial cells with loose, intermediate, or tight attachment to chicken skin were recovered by shaking in an...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT In Ethiopia, poultry production is an important source of domestic food and nutrition security while providing income for nearly 80% of Ethiopians. However, several infectious and parasitic diseases hamper poultry production. To date, evidence on the nationwide burden of specific diseases has not been collated to inform targeting of poultry health interventions. The objective of this...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT The efficiency of combination treatment of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) and ultraviolet light (UV) for inactivation of Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) on the surface of plastic poultry coops and other facility surfaces was evaluated in the presence of organic matter. The bactericidal activities of SAEW, UV + SAEW, and composite phenol (CP) for inactivating S....
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT This study evaluated the effect of in ovo Bacillus spp. base probiotic (BBP) administration on hatchability, Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) recovery, performance, and microbiota composition in 2 independent trials using a virulent E. coli seeder challenge model. In each trial, one hundred and eighty 18-day-old embryos were allocated into 1 of 2 groups: Control and treated group (...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT One natural recombinant avian leukosis virus (ALV) strain GX14DJ3–18 was isolated from a native gamecock by DF-1 cell culture and identified with Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), immunofluorescence assay and the viral genome's nucleotide sequencing. This strain was revealed as a novel recombinant virus with nucleotide sequence similarities of 95.4% Long Terminal Repeated (LTR), 95.8% 5...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT Interspecies transmission of fecal microbiota can serve as an indicator for (indirect) contact between domestic and wild animals to assess risks of pathogen transmission, e.g., avian influenza. Here, we investigated whether oral inoculation of laying hens with feces of wild ducks (mallards, Anas platyrhynchos) resulted in a hen fecal microbiome that was detectably altered on community...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT Dietary prebiotics are thought to be potentially important alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production because of their beneficial performance and health effects. The administration of dietary prebiotics has been demonstrated to improve animal health, growth performance, and microbial food safety in poultry production. In this study, we evaluated the effects of...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat for both human and animal health. One of the main drivers of antimicrobial resistance is inappropriate antimicrobial use in livestock production. The aim of this study was to examine the technical and economic impact of tailor-made interventions, aimed at reducing antimicrobial use in broiler production. Historical (i.e., before intervention)...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT We developed a rapid fluorescent microsphere immunochromatographic test strip (FM-ICTS) assay for the quantitative detection of avian leukosis virus (ALV). A monoclonal antibody specific for the ALV major capsid protein encoded by the gag gene was coupled to label fluorescent microspheres. ALV antibodies were coated on a nitrocellulose membrane to prepare a test line for sample...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:15
ABSTRACT Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), health departments, and other state and federal partners have linked contact with live poultry to 70 human Salmonella outbreaks in the United States from 2000 to 2017, which resulted in a total of 4,794 illnesses, 894 hospitalizations, and 7 deaths. During human salmonellosis outbreaks environmental sampling is rarely conducted as part...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:14
S. Guix et al. Abstract During a waterborne outbreak of norovirus in Spain, we estimated 50% illness doses for a group of exposed (secretor) persons to be 556 (95% CI 319–957) genome copies/day for norovirus GI and 2,934 (95% CI 1,683–5,044) genome copies/day for norovirus GII. Use of a propidium monoazide viability assay reduced these values.
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:14
M. Tobin-D’Angelo et al. Abstract Shigella commonly causes gastroenteritis but rarely spreads to the blood. During 2002–2012, we identified 11,262 Shigella infections through population-based active surveillance in Georgia; 72 (0.64%) were isolated from blood. Bacteremia was associated with age >18 years, black race, and S. flexneri. More than half of patients with bacteremia were HIV-infected...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:14
F. Burckhardt and E. Kissling Abstract We created a free and interactive training activity based on playing cards (disease detective cards) that introduces foodborne outbreak investigations to public health professionals and students. Competencies taught cover-selected descriptive and analytic epidemiologic topics, such as case definition, epidemic curve, 2-by-2 tables, relative risks, attack...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:14
Aflatoxin contamination in foods is a global concern as they are carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic compounds. The aflatoxin-producing fungi, mainly from the Aspergillus section Flavi, are ubiquitous in nature and readily contaminate various food commodities, thereby affecting human’s health. The incidence of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxins in various types of food, especially...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:14
Concerns about food contamination by Listeria monocytogenes are on the rise with increasing consumption of ready-to-eat foods. Biofilm production of L. monocytogenes is presumed to be one of the ways that confer its increased resistance and persistence in the food chain. In this study, a collection of isolates from foods and food processing environments (FPEs) representing persistent, prevalent,...
Fri, 11/22/2019 - 03:14
Eggs are a highly nutritious food source used in a wide range of food products. In Australia, eggs are a frequent source of foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks, associated with eggshell contamination with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST). Despite their potentially hazardous nature, raw eggs are often used and consumed in mayonnaise, mousse, ice cream and eggnog. The aim of this study...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:25
by Kelsey A. Behrens, Leigh A. Jania, John N. Snouwaert, MyTrang Nguyen, Sheryl S. Moy, Andrey P. Tikunov, Jeffrey M. Macdonald, Beverly H. Koller Environmental and endogenous electrophiles cause tissue damage through their high reactivity with endogenous nucleophiles such as DNA, proteins, and lipids. Protection against damage is mediated by glutathione (GSH) conjugation, which can occur...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:25
by Elizeth Lopes, Teresa Conceição, Laurent Poirel, Hermínia de Lencastre, Marta Aires-de-Sousa Background In 2016, very high rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-ST398 (99%) were found in Portuguese pig farms that used colistin, amoxicillin, and zinc oxide as feed additives. Since then, farms A and B banned the use of colistin, and farm C banned the use of both antibiotics...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:25
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence and genomic characteristics of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) in fennec fox imported from Sudan to China. We screened 88 fecal samples from fennec fox for ESBL-EC, using cefotaxime- and meropenem-supplemented selective medium. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the agar...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:24
Author(s): Kelvin B. Musyoka, John N. Kiiru, Eva Aluvaala, Protus Omondi, William K. Chege, Terry Judah, Daniel Kiboi, Joseph K. Nganga, Francis T. KimaniAbstractResistance to the mainstay antimalarial drugs is a major concern in the control of malaria. Delayed Plasmodium falciparum parasite clearance has been associated with Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the kelch propeller region (...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:23
Author(s): Silvia Gianì, Verdiana Di Cesare, Floriana Gavazzi, Laura Morello, Diego BreviarioAbstractWe present a new method for the authentication of the biological identity of raw meat and processed meat products that is based on length polymorphism found in the introns of the members of the animal beta-tubulin gene family. The method, denominated aTBP for animal Tubulin-Based-Polymorphism, is...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:22
Author(s): Maryia Mishyna, Jianshe Chen, Ofir BenjaminAbstractBackgroundEdible insects are considered a new alternative sustainable source of proteins that exhibits higher feed-conversion efficiency and has a less negative environmental impact, compared to conventional animal-derived protein sources. Highly nutritional edible insects may help solve issues of global malnutrition and food...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:22
Author(s): Xueli Luo, Yong Han, Xiumei Chen, Wenzhi Tang, Tianli Yue, Zhonghong LiAbstractBackgroundFood analysis is essential in monitoring food quality for risk assessment regarding public health. Traditional techniques can meet the requirement of routine food analysis in laboratory. However, serious food safety situations urgently demand rapid, time-saving, low-cost analysis methods even on-...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:22
Author(s): Jixian Zhang, Chaoting Wen, Haihui Zhang, Yuqing Duan, Haile MaAbstractBackgroundBecause of the important role of bioactive compounds in functional foods and health care, more and more attention has been paid to the active components extracted by green extraction methods. However, how to ensure the extraction yield and biological activity during the extraction process is an urgent...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Pradeep Paudel, Su Hui Seong, Aditi Wagle, Byung Sun Min, Hyun Ah Jung, Jae Sue ChoiAbstractOxidation and enzymatic browning of food can affect nutritional quality, physical and chemical properties, and food safety, emphasizing the utmost importance of discovering new natural antioxidants and anti-browning agents. The present study aimed to characterize the antioxidant and anti-...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:21
Author(s): Yabo Liu, Fei Wu, Qing Chen, Yuanyuan Ying, Yi Jiang, Junwan Lu, Xi Lin, Kewei Li, Teng Xu, Qiyu Bao, Liyan NiAbstractTo characterize the florfenicol resistance gene and analyze the structure of the resistance gene-related sequence of an Raoultella planticola strain S25 isolated from a duck fecal sample from a farm in South China. Molecular cloning was performed to clone the resistance...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:19
Food safety knowledge is created, validated, disseminated, and acted upon. It is conflicted, contextual, and contingent. The technology has a history, the knowledge has a history, and how everyday people interact with food safety ideas has a history. Taking three historical examples from Singapore – pure food advertising; anxiety about botulism; and the prohibition of saccharin – this paper...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:17
In this review, we focus on per‐ and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), synthetic compounds used for a variety of applications, including firefighting foam and manufacturing. Recently, researchers have linked human exposure to PFAS to negative health effects. Hundreds of communities are affected by PFAS contamination, which has raised awareness about the toxicity of these chemicals. Most work has...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:15
BACKGROUND The research focused on the evaluation of the impact of cover cropping on trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Co and Cd) and nutrients in vineyard soils and Vitis vinifera L. For this purpose, two types of cover crops (Lolium perenne L. and Medicago sativa L.) and their mixture were planted between vine rows of Muscat white in the vineyard in South Crimea. Trace elements, nutrients and...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:15
The health status of the commercial Tehuelche scallop Aequipecten tehuelchus from San Román and El Riacho in San José gulf (Patagonia, Argentina) was evaluated through biomarkers widely used in ecotoxicological applications. Natural levels of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) were measured to determine their potential relationships with fluctuations of several oxidative stress biomarkers in the...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:15
Cadmium (Cd) contamination in water resources has become a potentially serious threat to public health and environment across the globe. In this experiment, we investigated the capacity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) for selective removal of Cd from wastewater. The TiO2 NPs were prepared using newly developed sol-gel method and sorption attributes were investigated as a function of...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:14
The presence of ear rots in maize caused by Aspergillus flavus that are also associated with the production of aflatoxins has evolved into an increasing problem over the last few years. Since no commercial biological control products are still available to control A. flavus in maize in Europe, this study targets to the evaluation of six biopesticides/biostimulants (Botector®, Mycostop®, Serenade...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:14
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are responsible for multiple clinical syndromes, including hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). E. coli O157:H7 is the most prevalent serotype associated with HUS and produces a variety of virulence factors being Stx2 the responsible of the most HUS severe cases. After intestinal colonization by STEC, Stx2 is released into the intestinal lumen,...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:14
Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), a non-toxic homopentameric component of Vibrio cholerae holotoxin, is an oral cholera vaccine antigen that induces an anti-toxin antibody response. Recently, we demonstrated that a recombinant CTB variant with a Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL) endoplasmic reticulum retention motif (CTB-KDEL) exhibits colon mucosal healing effects that have therapeutic implications for...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:14
The deliberate release of biological agents with terrorist or criminal intent continues to pose concerns in the current geopolitical situation. Therefore, attention is still needed to ensure preparedness against the potential use of pathogens as unconventional weapons. Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is one such biological threat, characterized by an extremely low lethal dose, high morbidity and...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:14
A pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla derived (a.k.a. PC12) cell-based assay for dopamine measurement by luminescence detection was customized for the qualitative evaluation of agonists and antagonists of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The assay mechanism begins with ligand binding to transmembrane nAChRs, altering ion flow into the cell and inducing dopamine release from the...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:14
It has been reported that Heteropodatoxin3 (HpTx3), a peptidic neurotoxin purified from the venom of the spider species Heteropoda venatoria, could inhibit Kv4.2 channels. Our present study newly found that HpTx3 also has potent and selective inhibitory action on Nav1.7, with an IC50 of 135.61 ± 12.98 nM. Without effect on the current–voltage (I-V) relationship of Nav1.7,...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:14
Foodborne illness associated with fresh, ready-to-eat produce continues to be a significant challenge to public health. In this study, we created a phyllosphere-associated lactic acid bacteria (PLAB) library and screened it via a high-throughput in vitro fluorescent assay to identify bacteria capable of inhibiting the growth of the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica. One isolate, 14B4,...
Thu, 11/21/2019 - 03:14
Aspergillus spp. are a common contaminant of grapes and a major source of mycotoxins. China is the largest producer of grape in the world now, however, the toxigenic Aspergillus population on grape in this country is still largely unknown. In this study, a total of 345 strains were isolated from grapes of 13 main grapevine producing regions in China. Based on calmodulin gene sequences, eight...
Wed, 11/20/2019 - 03:44
by Mamman Bajehson, Baba Maiyaki Musa, Mustapha Gidado, Bassey Nsa, Useni Sani, Ahmad T. Habibu, Ibrahim Aliyu, Tijjani Hussaini, AbdulRasheed Yusuf, Yakubu Gida Background Drug-Resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) is estimated to cause about 10% of all TB related deaths. There is dearth of data on determinants of DR-TB mortality in Nigeria. Death among DR-TB treated cohorts in Nigeria from 2010 to...
Wed, 11/20/2019 - 03:44
by Hiroaki Baba, Hajime Kanamori, Hayami Kudo, Yasutoshi Kuroki, Seiya Higashi, Kentaro Oka, Motomichi Takahashi, Makiko Yoshida, Kengo Oshima, Tetsuji Aoyagi, Koichi Tokuda, Mitsuo Kaku Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) can cause severe gastrointestinal disease and colonization among food handlers. In Japan, STEC infection is a notifiable disease, and food handlers are required to...
Wed, 11/20/2019 - 03:43
ABSTRACT The microbiome in fermentation has direct impacts on the quality of fermented foods and is of great scientific and commercial interest. Despite considerable effort to explain the microbial metabolism associated with food fermentation, the role of the microbiome in pu-erh tea fermentation remains unknown. Here, we applied integrated meta-omics approaches to characterize the microbiome in...
Wed, 11/20/2019 - 03:41
Author(s): Qingying Liu, Minglei Xu, Zhenzhu Sun, Huaqun Ye, Kangsen Mai, Xiaohong Tan, Cuiyun Zou, Shu Chen, Ningning Su, Yuanyuan Zhou, Leling Chen, Chaoxia YeAbstractThe purpose of the present study was to explore the impaired anti-bacteria ability in immune organs and immune systems of obscure puffer induced by chronic dietary phosphorus (P) deficiency. Fish were fed diets supplemented with 6...
Wed, 11/20/2019 - 03:40
Author(s): Talita Junia da Silva Cândido, Anderson Clayton da Silva, Luiz Gustavo de Matos, Maristela da Silva do Nascimento, Carlos Henrique Camargo, Rosemeire Cobo Zanella, Vera Lúcia Mores Rall, Nathália Cristina Cirone SilvaAbstractThe aim of this study was to isolate, identify and perform molecular characterisation of Staphylococcus sp. isolated from the processing chain of organic and...

Pages