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Development of Tools for Integrated Pest Management of Stable Flies

Objective 1. Develop push-pull strategies for managing stable flies in agricultural systems. Sub-objective 1A. Identify stimuli that influence fly orientation and distribution. Sub-objective 1B. Develop a push-pull strategy utilizing identified attractants and repellents as components to manage flies.

Objective 2. Refine the application of larval control of stable flies by studying maggot distribution, manipulation of larval habitat, and geographic extent of control required. Sub-objective 2A. Examine the causes for clumped distribution of maggots within a breeding site. Sub-objective 2B. Examine modification of soil microflora to reduce larval stable fly populations in concentrated breeding habitats. Sub-objective 2C. Determine effective radius of larval control required to see reduction below economic threshold on an individual property.

The purpose of this project is to develop tools for reducing the impact of stable flies on livestock production. Three entomologists are assigned to this project, each supported by a full time research technician and one or two part time students. These scientists are members of the Agroecosystem Management Research Unit (AMRU). The AMRU is a diverse research unit with soil scientists, agronomist, agricultural engineer, and microbiologists completing the staff. The scientists assigned to this project interact with co-workers having expertise in spatial statistics, soil chemistry and physics, soil microbial ecology, and chemical synthesis and formulation to accomplish the mission of the unit.

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Approach: Methodologies to achieve the objectives: 1) Examine the morphology and structure of sensory organs of stable fly adults and larvae. 2) Electrophysiological techniques will be used to identify attractant constituents associated with host animals (breath and skin emissions, etc.) and oviposition substrates (livestock animal manures and decomposing organic matter such as silage, rotting hay, and grass/alfalfa clippings) 3) Identify and evaluate novel repellents on stable fly populations. 4) Use visual and landscape features to develop a spatiotemporal model of stable fly dispersion that will describe and predict habitat use and suitability for larvae and adults. 5) Develop formulations of identified attractants and repellants for field application. 6) Reduce stable fly populations in confined and pastured cattle with Push-Pull strategy. 7) Take a holistic approach to reduce the development of immature stable flies by examining the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of larval developmental sites and develop tools to modify these sites to render them unsuitable for stable fly development. Though this research will be directed at a better understanding of the stable fly habitat, other filth flies developing in similar habitats will be examined. 8) The limits of chemical and physical properties on survival of both stable flies and house flies will be studied in the laboratory. 9) Patterns of stable fly and house fly larval dispersal in relation to physical and chemical factors will be studied in the laboratory. 9) Mark release recapture studies will be performed in the field to study stable fly larval dispersal. 10) Antibiotics and food preservatives will be tested in the in the laboratory and then the field to determine their effect on stable fly survival. 11) Self marking technique will be usedat stable fly larval development sites to study the dispersal distances from these sites.
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Friesen, Kristina
Taylor, David
Zhu, Junwei
Project Reports:
Published Journal Articles USDA ARS (NP 108):
Efficacy of Novaluron as a feed-rhrough for control of immature horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in cow manure
Lohmeyer KH, Pound JM, Yeater KM, May MA.
J Med Entomol. 2014 Jul 1;51(4):725-906.
Efficacy and longevity of newly developed catnip oil microcapsules against stable fly oviposition and larval growth
Zhu JJ, Wienhold BJ, Wehrle J, Davis D, Chen H, Taylor D, Friesen K, Zurek L.
Med Vet Entomol. 2014 Jun;28(2):222-7.
Mosquito and West Nile virus surveillance in northeast Montana, U.S.A., 2005 and 2006
Friesen KM, Johnson GD.
Med Vet Entomol. 2014 Mar;28(1):85-93.
Reducing whiteflies on cucumber using intercropping with less preferred vegetables
Zhao Q, Zhu JJ, Qin Y, Pan P, Tu H, Du W, Zhou W, Baxendale FP.
Entomol Exp Appl. 2014 Jan;150(1):19-27.
Mosquito and West Nile virus surveillance in northeast Montana, U.S.A., 2005 and 2006
Friesen KM, Johnson GD.
Med Vet Entomol. 2014;28:85-93.
Identification of oviposition attractants of the secondary screwworm, Cochliomyia macellaria (F) released from rotten chicken liver
Zhu JJ, Chaudhury MF, Tangtrakulwanich K, Skoda SR.
J Chem Ecol. 2013 Dec;39(11):1407-14.
Overexpression of a soybean salicylic acid methyltransferase gene confers resistance to soybean cyst nematode
Lin J, Mazarei M, Zhao N, Zhu JJ, Zhuang X, Liu W, Pantalone VR, Arelli PR, Stewart CN Jr, Chen F.
Plant Biotech J. 2013 Dec;11(9):1135-45.
Insecticide resistance in house flies from the United States: Resistance levels and frequency of pyrethroid resistance alleles
Scott JG, Leichter CA, Rinkevihc FD, Harris SA, Su Cathy, Aberegg LC, Moon R, Geden CJ, Gerry AC, Taylor DB, Byford RL, Watson W, Johnson G, Boxler D, Zurek L.
Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2013 Nov;107(3):377-84.
Spatial-temporal dynamics of stable fly (Diptera: muscidae) trap catches in Eastern Nebraska
Taylor DB, Friesen K, Zhu JJ.
Environ Entomol. 2013 Jun;42(3):524-31.
Evaluation of methods for collecting blood-engorged mosquitoes from habitats within a wildlife refuge
Friesen KM, Johnson GD .
J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2013 Jun;29(2):102-7.
Identification of volatile compounds from a food-grade vinegar attractive to house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)
Qian K, Zhu JJ, Sims SR, Taylor DB, Zeng X.
J Econ Entomol. 2013 Apr;106(2):979-87.
Stable fly phenology in a mixed agricultural--wildlife ecosystem in northeast Montana
Friesen KM, Johnson GD.
Environ Entomol. 2013 Feb;42(1):49-57.
Enhanced attraction of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) to pheromone-baited traps with the addition of green leaf volatiles
Li P, Zhu J, Qin Y.
J Econ Entomol. 2012 Aug;105(4):1149-56.
Pan trapping soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) using attractants
Behrens NS, Zhu J, Coats JR.
J Econ Entomol. 2012 Jun;105(3):890-5.
Nepetalactones from essential oil of Nepeta cataria represent a stable fly feeding and oviposition repellent
Zhu JJ, Berkebile DR, Dunlap CA, Zhang A, Boxler D, Tangtrakulwanich K, Behle RW, Baxendale F, Brewer G.
Med Vet Entomol. 2012 Jun;26(2):131-8.
Reproductive potential of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) fed cattle, chicken, or horse blood
Friesen KM, Johnson GD.
J Med Entomol. 2012 May;49(3):461-6.
Substrate properties of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) developmental sites associated with round bale hay feeding sites in eastern Nebraska
Wienhold BJ, Taylor DB.
Environ Entomol. 2012 Apr;41(2):213-21.
Efficacy of cyromazine to control immature stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in winter hay feeding sites
Taylor DB, Friesen K, Zhu JJ, Sievert K.
J Econ Entomol. 2012 Apr;105(2):726-31.
Dewatered sewage biosolids provide a productive larval habitat for stable flies and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae)
Doud CW, Taylor DB, Zurek L.
J Med Entomol. 2012 Mar;49(2):286-92.
Contact and fumigant toxicity of a botanical-based feeding deterrent of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae)
Zhu JJ, Li AY, Pritchard S, Tangtrakulwanich K, Baxendale FP, Brewer G.
J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Sep 28;59(18):10394-400.
Characterization of olfactory sensilla of Stomoxys calcitrans and electrophysiological responses to odorant compounds associated with hosts and oviposition media
Tangtrakulwanich K, Chen H, Baxendale F, Brewer G, Zhu JJ.
Med Vet Entomol. 2011 Sep;25(3):327-36.
Phenology of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in round bale hay feeding sites in Eastern Nebraska
Taylor DB, Berkebile DR.
Environ Entomol. 2011;40(2):184-93.
Use of modified cages attached to growing calves to measure the effect of stable flies on dry matter intake and digestibility, and defensive movements
Schole LA, Taylor DB, Brink DR, Hanford KJ.
Professional Animal Scientist. 2011;27(2):133-40.
Full text available in the NAL Digital Collections.
Repellency of a wax-based catnip-oil formulation against stable flies
Zhu JJ, Dunlap CA, Behle RW, Berkebile DR, Wienhold B.
J Agric Food Chem. 2010;58(23):12320-26.
Non-Journal Publications:
Essential oil of catnip, Nepeta cataria, as a repellent, an oviposition deterrent and a larvicide against mosquitoes and biting flies - (Book / Chapter)
Accepted Publication (22-Oct-12)
Push and Pull strategy in control of filth flies in urban settings - (Abstract Only)
Accepted Publication (12-Apr-12)
Manipulation of microbial community in fly development media to develop novel control strategies - (Abstract Only)
Zhu, J.J. 2012. Manipulation of microbial community in fly development media to develop novel control strategies. In: ISCE 2012 Conference Abstract Book. International Society of Chemical Ecology Meeting, July 22-26, 2012, Vilnius, Lithuania. p. 106.
Contact and spatial repellency from catnip essential oil, Nepeta cataria, against stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and other filth flies - (Book / Chapter)
Zhu, J.J. 2012. Contact and spatial repellency from catnip essential oil, Nepeta cataria, against stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, and other filth flies. In: Paluch, G.E., Coats, J.R., editors. Recent Developments in Invertebrate Repellents. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. ACS Symposium Series Vol. 1090. p. 79-96.
Chemical ecology of stable fly and its future practical applications in control - (Abstract Only)
Zhu, J.J. 2010. Chemical ecology of stable fly and its future practical applications in control [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting. p. 1307-1308.