An official website of the United States government.

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Research Publications (Food Safety)

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 57

  1. Multi-residue analysis, dissipation behavior, and final residues of four insecticides in supervised eggplant field

    • Fri, 05/20/2022 - 04:00
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • In this study, the residues of four insecticides, spirotetramat, flonicamid, thiamethoxam, and tolfenpyrad, and their metabolites, including spirotetramat-enol, spirotetramat-mono-hydroxy, spirotetramat-keto-hydroxy, spirotetramat-enol-glucoside, 4-trifluoromethylnicotinamide, 4-trifluoromethylnicotinic acid, N-(4-trifluoromethylnicotinoyl) glycine, and clothianidin, were assessed using a single analysis method.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  2. Seasonal and geographical variations in insecticide and miticide residues in hop samples produced across three hop-growing regions in the Czech Republic during the years 2018–2020

    • Fri, 04/15/2022 - 04:00
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • The aim of this study was to determine the presence of zoocide (insecticide and miticide) residues in hops collected in three hop-growing regions located in the Czech Republic, and to assess their zoocide profiles and residue levels in terms of variability in temperature and precipitation across the 2018–2020 seasons. Furthermore, the weather factors that influenced the occurrence of hop pests are described and discussed.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  3. Residue changes of five pesticides during the production and storage of rice flour

    • Thu, 01/27/2022 - 12:00
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • The residue changes of five pesticides in samples from different steps of rice flour production and accelerated storage were systematically investigated. Rice flour was produced both by the extrusion process and the drying on roller process. The change of pesticide residues varied in different processing steps and storage time. The water adjusting step had little influence on the pesticide residues.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  4. Extraction and determination of strobilurin fungicides residues in apple samples using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction based on a novel hydrophobic deep eutectic solvent followed by H.P.L.C-U.V

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  5. Analysis and occurrence of matrine in liquorice raw materials - Exclusion of its application as pesticide

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  6. Highly selective monoclonal antibody-based lateral flow immunoassay for visual and sensitive determination of conazole fungicides propiconazole in vegetables

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  7. Assessment of pesticide residues in citrus fruit on the Czech market

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  8. Assessment of pesticide residues in citrus fruit on the Czech market

    • Tue, 12/07/2021 - 14:04
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • When assessing citrus fruit quality, besides natural health-promoting compounds, attention also has to be paid to residues of chemicals used to protect fruit against various pests. A set of 49 samples of different types of citrus fruits collected at the Czech market were analysed for 460 pesticide residues using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS methods.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  9. US Food and Drug Administration regulatory pesticide residue monitoring of human foods: 2009-2017

    • Wed, 06/30/2021 - 14:04
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • Pesticides such as insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides can protect crops from insects, fungi, weeds, and other pests but must be applied following label instructions so that the pesticide residues in human and animal foods do not exceed maximum residue limits (MRLs, known in the US as pesticide tolerances).

      • Antibiotic residues
      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  10. LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS analysis of pesticide residues in Ecuadorian and Filipino Cavendish bananas imported into Saudi Arabia

    • Wed, 06/02/2021 - 14:04
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • The occurrence of pesticide residues in bananas imported from Ecuador and the Philippines into Saudi Arabia was investigated. Eighty-seven banana samples were purchased from various supermarkets around the country. The conventional QuEChERS method was used to extract 294 pesticides in whole bananas and the analysis was carried out using LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  11. Optimisation using the finite element method of a filter-based microfluidic SERS sensor for detection of multiple pesticides in strawberry

    • Thu, 03/11/2021 - 14:02
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • This study developed an in-field analytical technique for food samples by integrating filtration into a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) microchip. This microchip embedded a filter membrane in the chip inlet to eliminate interfering particulates and enrich target analytes.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  12. Evaluation of clean-up procedures and sample dilution in multi-residue pesticide analysis of spices and herbs by UPLC-MS/MS

    • Fri, 12/11/2020 - 14:03
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • The matrix effect in complex spices and herbs presents a great challenge to the simultaneous, rapid, quantitative analysis of multiple pesticides by mass spectrometry. The aim of this work was to develop and validate an effective UPLC–MS/MS multi-residue method for the analysis of pesticide residues to reduce matrix effects in four spices and one herb and infer which component caused the matrix effect in black pepper. In this paper, we highlight the importance of reducing matrix effects.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  13. Multi-residue determination of pesticides in green tea by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation using nitrogen as the carrier gas

    • Wed, 11/25/2020 - 14:03
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • Helium is commonly used as a carrier gas in gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS); however, there are growing concerns regarding its global shortage and the resulting limited supply and high cost.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  14. Do background levels of the pesticide pirimiphosmethyl in plant-based aquafeeds affect food safety of farmed Atlantic salmon?

    • Wed, 10/21/2020 - 14:06
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • The substitution of fish oil and fishmeal with plant-based ingredients in commercial aquafeeds for Atlantic salmon, may introduce novel contaminants that have not previously been associated with farmed fish. The organophosphate pesticide pirimiphos-methyl (PM) is one of the novel contaminants that is most prevalent in commercial salmon feed. In this study, the feed-to-fillet transfer of dietary PM and its main metabolites was investigated in Atlantic salmon fillet.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  15. Determination of pesticide residues in edible snails with QuEChERS coupled to GC-MS/MS

    • Wed, 09/09/2020 - 14:06
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • A QuEChERS multi-residue GC-MS/MS method was developed for determining 160 pesticides in fresh edible snails. The method was validated according to the EU guidance SANTE/12682/2019. Twenty-seven different pesticides were quantified in the 824 samples analysed. Of these, 22.09% contained pesticide residues; in one case six different pesticides.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  16. Processing factors of pesticide residues in biscuits and their relation to the physicochemical properties of pesticides

    • Tue, 07/28/2020 - 14:06
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • Agricultural commodities are generally consumed as processed food. Therefore, it is indispensable to assess pesticide residues in processed products rather than only in the raw agricultural commodity, in order to approach a more realistic scenario of dietary exposure. Processing factors are important tools for dietary exposure risk assessments. In this study, processing factors for the baking process were derived for 41 pesticides in cereal bran-based biscuits.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  17. Experimental determination of pesticide processing factors during extraction of seed oils

    • Wed, 07/22/2020 - 14:05
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • Processing Factors (PFs) reflect the concentration or dilution of pesticide residues resulting from food processing. PFs are key elements to demonstrate the compliance of processed foods with Maximum residue levels (MRLs) as set by Regulation 396/2005. While efforts have been made by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and by national authorities to compile PFs from processing studies, such PFs are not available for all pesticides/processed product combinations.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  18. Pesticide residues in vegetables and risk assessment for consumers in Korea during 2010–2014

    • Tue, 06/23/2020 - 14:05
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • This study was carried out to assess the exposure to pesticide residues from vegetable consumption of residents in Seoul using data on pesticide residue concentrations and the quantity of vegetables consumed. A total of 34,520 samples of 96 types of vegetables collected from 2010 to 2014 by the Seoul Metropolitan Government Institute of Health and Environment (SIHE) were analysed for 283 different pesticide residues.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  19. Dietary risk assessment of pesticide residues on Tremella fuciformis Berk (snow fungus) from Fujian Province of China

    • Thu, 05/21/2020 - 03:47
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • To assess the dietary exposure risks of pesticide residues in snow fungus for the general population and young children, 91 snow fungus samples were collected from major production areas in Fujian Province, China and the presence of 44 pesticides was determined. A total of thirteen pesticides were detected; 65.9% of the samples contained one or more pesticide residues. The most frequently found pesticide was carbofuran, followed by acetamiprid and then imidacloprid.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  20. Effect of processing on the reduction of pesticide residues in a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)

    • Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:44
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • The behaviour of residues of tebuconazole, prochloraz, and abamectin in rehmannia during rehmannia decoction processing was systemically assessed. The pesticides were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) after each processing step including washing, steaming and drying, carbonising, and boiling. Results showed that the pesticide residues significantly decreased after the steps of washing, carbonising, and boiling.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  21. Dietary exposure of Tunisian adult population aged from 19 to 65 years old to pesticides residues

    • Tue, 05/05/2020 - 03:44
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • Dietary exposure of the Tunisian adult population to pesticide residue was assessed using the Total Diet Study method. In the present study 170 pesticides were searched for in 42 aggregated foods characterised by 64 food samples representing the Tunisian diet. All the food samples were collected, prepared, and analysed for remains of pesticides including organochlorine, organophosphorous, carbamates and pyrethroids.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  22. Effects of the cooking modes on commonly used pesticides residue in vegetables and their chronic dietary exposure risk in South China

    • Wed, 10/30/2019 - 03:31
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  23. Performance enhancement and sample throughput increase of a multiresidue pesticides method in fruits and vegetables using Data-Dependent MS acquisition

    • Sat, 10/19/2019 - 03:23
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
    • Due to the growing number of analysed pesticide residues, analytical strategies have evolved for the data processing of 100s of pesticides in a single analysis. We present herein a LC-MS/MS method based on triple quadrupole technology capable of detecting concentrations at 5 ng/g and confirming 381 pesticides in a single injection.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  24. Extended liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry screening method for veterinary drug, pesticide and human pharmaceutical residues in aquaculture fish

    • Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:18
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
      • Antibiotic residues
      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  25. Residue levels and health risk of pesticide residues in bell pepper in Shandong

    • Sun, 09/22/2019 - 03:18
    • Food Additives & Contaminants: Part A
      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants