An official website of the United States government.

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Research Publications (Food Safety)

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 24 of 24

  1. Multi-Residual Determination of Multi-Class Pesticides in Groundwater by Direct Immersion Solid-Phase Microextraction with Gas Chromatography-Selected Ion Monitoring Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS/SIM) Detection

    • Fri, 02/25/2022 - 06:00
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • This paper describes a simple, quick, and solvent-free multi-residue method to determine 90 pesticides in groundwater samples from 30 different chemical groups. The extraction was carried out by solid-phase microextraction in direct immersion mode (DI-SPME) using a polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene fiber (65 µm thickness) followed by GC–MS detection. The main parameters affecting the DI-SPME process were studied in detail: temperature, NaCl addition, stirring rate, and extraction time.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  2. Degradation of Dimethoate Pesticide in Soil: Impact of Soil Moisture and Enhanced Sunlight Intensity

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • In today’s agriculture, the use of pesticides has become a necessity for higher yield of crops. Out of the total pesticides applied, only a small fraction reaches the target pest and the rest pollute different environmental segments. The present study signifies the effect of soil moisture and enhanced sunlight intensity on the degradation of dimethoate, a commonly used organophosphate pesticide in soil.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  3. Soil and Leaf Mineral Element Contents in Mediterranean Vineyards: Bioaccumulation and Potential Soil Pollution

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • The study reported here concerns the geochemical distributions of macro- and trace elements (including potentially toxic elements, PTEs) in the vineyard soils of Alcubillas, which is one of the oldest, albeit not world-renowned, wine-growing areas in La Mancha (Central Spain). Soil and leaf samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to ascertain the levels of various elements in the soil and the plant.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  4. Degradation of Dimethoate Pesticide in Soil: Impact of Soil Moisture and Enhanced Sunlight Intensity

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 02:01
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • In today’s agriculture, the use of pesticides has become a necessity for higher yield of crops. Out of the total pesticides applied, only a small fraction reaches the target pest and the rest pollute different environmental segments. The present study signifies the effect of soil moisture and enhanced sunlight intensity on the degradation of dimethoate, a commonly used organophosphate pesticide in soil.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  5. Effect of Residual Pesticides in Recycled Nursery Runoff on Growth and Physiology of Six Ornamental Shrubs

    • Thu, 12/23/2021 - 02:00
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Nursery runoff may contain pesticide residues, which, if released off-site, could impair surrounding ecosystems. As a solution, nursery growers can retain runoff water on-site and recycle retained water to irrigate plants. However, concerns related to potential phytotoxicity caused by residual pesticides in recycled water can discourage growers from recycling water.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  6. Effects of Pesticides Use (Glyphosate & Paraquat) on Biological Nitrogen Fixation

    • Fri, 10/08/2021 - 02:00
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Abstract

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
      • Leafy Greens
      • Produce Safety
  7. Sources and Health Risk of Organochlorine Pesticides in Surface Water from Buerhatong River and Hunchun River in Northeast China

    • Thu, 09/30/2021 - 02:00
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Abstract

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  8. Toxicity Assays of Commercial Chlorpyrifos Under UV/H2O2 and UVC Photolysis Treatments

    • Wed, 08/25/2021 - 02:00
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Abstract

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  9. The Effect of Water and Sewage Treatment on Reducing Residues of Selected Organochlorine Pesticides in Szczecin (Poland)

    • Sat, 07/17/2021 - 02:01
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Water is principally intended for direct consumption and for the production of food and beverages. It is also a valuable raw material in the industry. Despite the use of multi-stage treatment processes, the quality of drinking water may still be a concern in some countries due to the presence of toxic pollutants, often challenging to remove through the conventional treatment process.

      • Antibiotic residues
      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  10. Enzyme Activities as Indicators of Soil Quality: Response to Intensive Soybean and Rice Crops

    • Tue, 07/06/2021 - 02:01
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Soil enzyme activities are often used as indicators of soil contamination. The responses of the activities of specific soil enzymes, dehydrogenase, acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, carboxylesterase, and urease to different land uses (soybean and rice crops, and a reference site) were analyzed. Changes in activity at the start and end of each crop cycle were quantified. In general, the catalytic activity of all enzymes was lower in both crops than in the reference site.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  11. Pine Litter and Vermicompost as Alternative Substrates for Biobeds: Efficiency in Pesticide Degradation

    • Fri, 07/02/2021 - 02:01
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Pesticide use generates wastewaters from its handling and from washing of spraying equipment, bringing concern about punctual discharge. Biobeds are biopurification systems for pesticide residues disposal, representing safe alternatives to avoid soil contamination. Peat that composes the original biomixture is not available all around Brazil.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  12. Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Soils Using a QuEChERS Extraction Procedure and LC-MS/MS

    • Fri, 04/16/2021 - 02:02
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Abstract

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  13. Runoff of Hexazinone and Diuron in Green Cane Systems

    • Sun, 03/07/2021 - 02:02
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Sugarcane is a major crop in Brazil as well as other tropical areas. The rise of green cane systems that maintain straw on the soil surface after mechanical harvesting alongside extreme precipitation has changed the use and environmental fate of pesticides, mainly herbicides.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  14. Biochar Generated from Agro-Industry Sugarcane Residue by Low Temperature Pyrolysis Utilized as an Adsorption Agent for the Removal of Thiamethoxam Pesticide in Wastewater

    • Wed, 02/10/2021 - 02:01
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Abstract

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  15. Dissipation Behavior and Residue Distribution of Famoxadone and Cymoxanil in Cucumber and Soil Ecosystem Under Open-Field Conditions

    • Tue, 11/17/2020 - 02:02
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • In this study, a practical and excellent method was used to determine the famoxadone and cymoxanil via high-performance liquid chromatography equipped utilizing ultraviolet detector lamp (HPLC-UV) for investigating the dissipation behavior and residue distribution of famoxadone and cymoxanil in cucumber and soil ecosystem. The limit of quantification (LOQS) of famoxadone and cymoxanil in cucumber were 0.50, 1.00, 2.00 and 0.05, 0.50, 1.00 mg kg−1 in soil, respectively.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
      • Produce Safety
      • Pre Harvest
  16. Soil Amendment with Biochar, Hydrochar and Compost Mitigates the Accumulation of Emerging Pollutants in Rocket Salad Plants

    • Thu, 11/12/2020 - 02:02
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • The uptake of organic pollutants by agricultural plants and their accumulation in edible parts cause serious health problems to animals and humans.

      • Antibiotic residues
      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  17. Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) Residues Along Sino-Russian Boundary River

    • Sat, 09/26/2020 - 02:03
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • River Erguna is the Sino-Russian boundary river which has been widely concerned both by Russia and China due to the water quality and water resources management. As one class of persistent organic pollutants, no enough attention is paid to investigate the behavior characteristics and risk of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the rivers originated from forests and grasslands distributing in the middle-high latitude belts.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  18. Degradation Products, Mineralization, and Toxicity Assessment of Pesticides Malathion and Fenitrothion

    • Sat, 08/08/2020 - 02:02
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • The aim of this study was to investigate, analyze, and compare applied techniques suitable for achieving efficient removal of organophosphorus pesticides (OPPs) (malathion and fenitrothion) from aqueous solutions and analyze the degradation products and processes. Pesticide degradation efficiency (%) was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a photodiode array detector (DAD), while mineralization degree was determined by total organic carbon analysis (TOC).

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Pesticide residues
  19. Partitioning, Translocation Pathways and Environmental Risk Evaluation of Selected Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Pesticides

    • Sun, 07/26/2020 - 02:01
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Degradation-resistant chemical contaminants of health concern such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment are redistributed between different environmental compartments, where they partition between biotic heterotrophic routes and abiotic features (water and immobile soil components).

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  20. Micropollutant Removal from Laundry Wastewater in Algal-Activated Sludge Systems: Microbial Studies

    • Wed, 07/15/2020 - 02:02
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • The main objective of this research was to study the feasibility of using algal and algal-activated sludge systems in treating laundry wastewater.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
      • Bacterial pathogens
  21. Natural and Human Factors Affect the Distribution of Soil Heavy Metal Pollution: a Review

    • Fri, 07/03/2020 - 02:02
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Summarized the heavy metal pollution caused by natural and human activities. The natural causes include the migration and redistribution of soil debris and the hydraulic migration of soil parent rock with high background value under the action of wind; human factors include mining, abandoned mining areas, fertilizer and pesticide application, and sewage irrigation.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  22. Identification of Pesticide Residues and Prediction of Their Fate in Agricultural Soil

    • Wed, 06/03/2020 - 03:40
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Fourteen pesticides were screened and determined through quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction process combined with GC-MS/MS in arid agriculture soil.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  23. Irrigation Water Quality of a Community Garden Complex in the State of Piauí, Northeastern Brazil

    • Sat, 03/07/2020 - 03:25
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Microbiological, physical, chemical, cytotoxic, and genotoxic analyses of waters from ten tubular wells intended for irrigation of a community garden complex in the state of Piaui, northeastern Brazil, were carried out in two periods of 2018 (rainy and drought). All wells in both periods were contaminated with total coliforms, and wells P1, P3, P5, and P10 also had fecal coliforms.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants
  24. Coconut Shell Activated Carbon as Solid-Phase Extraction Adsorbent for Preconcentration of Selected Pesticides from Water Samples

    • Thu, 12/12/2019 - 03:28
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Solid-phase extraction (SPE) on activated carbon derived from coconut shell (CSAC) for the preconcentration of four varying polarity pesticides (imidacloprid, acetamiprid, simazine, and linuron) prior to their determination using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was investigated.

      • Pesticide residues
      • Chemical contaminants