An official website of the United States government.

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Research Publications (Food Safety)

This page tracks research articles published in national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. Research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies (requires login) and FDA Grant Funding Agencies (requires login) are also tracked in Scopus.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 713

  1. Antiviral Activity of Natural Compounds for Food Safety

    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Gastroenteritis and hepatitis are the most common illnesses resulting from the consumption of food contaminated with human enteric viruses. Several natural compounds have demonstrated antiviral activity against human enteric viruses, such as human norovirus and hepatitis A virus, while little information is available for hepatitis E virus. Many in-vitro studies have evaluated the efficacy of different natural compounds against human enteric viruses or their surrogates.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  2. Survival modelling of infectious human norovirus and surrogates for high-pressure inactivation in strawberry puree

    • Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies
    • Berries contaminated with human norovirus (HuNoV) have been frequently identified as a cause of foodborne gastroenteritis. To prevent virus transmission while preserving sensory and quality parameters, non-thermal treatments, such as high-pressure processing (HPP), can be applied to the berries and products thereof.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  3. Tulane Virus Persistence and Microbial Stability in 3D Food Ink under Various Storage Conditions: A Pre- and Post-Printing Analysis

    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • 3D food printers facilitate novel customization of the physicochemical properties of food. This study aimed to investigate the impact of storage conditions on the inactivation of the human norovirus surrogate, Tulane virus (TuV), within 3D printed foods. TuV-inoculated protein cookie food ink (∽ 4 log PFU/g) was distributed into 18 3D food printer capsules (50 g each); half immediately underwent extrusion.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  4. Whole-Genome Sequencing-Based Confirmatory Methods on RT-qPCR Results for the Detection of Foodborne Viruses in Frozen Berries

    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Accurate detection, identification, and subsequent confirmation of pathogens causing foodborne illness are essential for the prevention and investigation of foodborne outbreaks. This is particularly true when the causative agent is an enteric virus that has a very low infectious dose and is likely to be present at or near the limit of detection.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  5. Evaluation of crAssphages as a potential marker of human viral contamination in environmental water and fresh leafy greens

    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • CrAssphages are human gut bacteriophages with potential use as an indicator of human fecal contamination in water and other environmental systems. We determined the prevalence and abundance of crAssphages in water, food, and fecal samples and compared these estimates with the prevalence of norovirus. Samples were tested using two crAssphage-specific qPCR assays (CPQ056 and TN201-203) and for norovirus using TaqMan realtime RT-PCR.

      • Produce Safety
      • Leafy Greens
      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  6. Norovirus GII.17 Caused Five Outbreaks Linked to Frozen Domestic Bilberries in Finland, 2019

    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • In March 2019, the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare and Finnish Food Authority started an outbreak investigation after a notification of food business operators’ recall of frozen bilberries due to a norovirus finding. A retrospective search was conducted in the food and waterborne outbreak notification system to identify the notifications linked to norovirus and consumption of bilberries in January–March 2019.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  7. PMAxx-RT-qPCR to Determine Human Norovirus Inactivation Following High-Pressure Processing of Oysters

    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Norovirus is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis globally. While person-to-person transmission is most commonly reported route of infection, human norovirus is frequently associated with foodborne transmission, including through consumption of contaminated bivalve molluscan shellfish.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  8. Evaluation of a new automated viral RNA extraction platform for hepatitis A virus and human norovirus in testing of berries, lettuce, and oysters

    • International Journal of Food Microbiology
    • Fruits, vegetables, and shellfish are often associated with outbreaks of illness caused particularly by human norovirus (HuNoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV), the leading causative agents of foodborne illness worldwide.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  9. Evaluation of Extraction Methods to Detect Noroviruses in Ready-to-Eat Raw Milk Minas Artisanal Cheese

    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • This study aimed to assess two homogenization methods to recover norovirus from Minas artisanal cheese (MAC) made with raw bovine milk obtained from four microregions of the Minas Gerais state, Brazil, with different ripening times and geographical and abiotic characteristics. For this purpose, 33 fiscal samples were artificially contaminated with norovirus GI and GII, and Mengovirus (MgV), used as an internal process control (IPC).

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  10. Hydroponic Nutrient Solution Temperature Impacts Tulane Virus Persistence over Time

    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Controlled environment agriculture (CEA), or indoor agriculture, encompasses non-traditional farming methods that occur inside climate-controlled structures (e.g., greenhouses, warehouses, high tunnels) allowing for year-round production of fresh produce such as leaf lettuce. However, recent outbreaks and recalls associated with hydroponically grown lettuce contaminated with human pathogens have raised concerns.

      • Produce Safety
      • Leafy Greens
      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  11. Study of Shellfish Growing Area During Normal Harvesting Periods and Following Wastewater Overflows in an Urban Estuary With Complex Hydrography

    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Viral testing combined with hydrographic studies is considered standard good practice in determining microbiological impacts on shellfish growing areas following wastewater overflows.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  12. A systematic review and meta-analysis indicates a high risk of human noroviruses contamination in vegetable worldwide, with GI being the predominant genogroup

    • International Journal of Food Microbiology
    • Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most predominant viral agents of acute gastroenteritis. Vegetables are important vehicles of HuNoVs transmission. This study aimed to assess the HuNoVs prevalence in vegetables.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  13. Meta-analysis of the prevalence of norovirus and hepatitis a virus in berries

    • International Journal of Food Microbiology
    • Norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) stand as the predominant agents associated with viral foodborne infections. Outbreaks have been documented to be caused by various types of food items, including fresh and/or frozen berries. Comprehensive data concerning crucial viral pathogens in berries remain limited and are not currently available in aggregate form. Consequently, the present study aimed to compile the existing information regarding the prevalence of NoV and HAV in this matrix.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  14. An international inter-laboratory study to compare digital PCR with ISO standardized qPCR assays for the detection of norovirus GI and GII in oyster tissue

    • Food Microbiology
    • An optimized digital RT-PCR (RT-dPCR) assay for the detection of human norovirus GI and GII RNA was compared with ISO 15216-conform quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) assays in an interlaboratory study (ILS) among eight laboratories. A duplex GI/GII RT-dPCR assay, based on the ISO 15216-oligonucleotides, was used on a Bio-Rad QX200 platform by six laboratories. Adapted assays for Qiagen Qiacuity or ThermoFisher QuantStudio 3D were used by one laboratory each.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  15. Foodborne Viruses and Somatic Coliphages Occurrence in Fresh Produce at Retail from Northern Mexico

    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Foodborne disease outbreaks linked to consumption of vegetables have been often attributed to human enteric viruses, such as Norovirus (NoV), Hepatitis A virus (HAV), and Rotavirus (RoV).

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  16. Retention of Virus Versus Surrogate, by Ultrafiltration in Seawater: Case Study of Norovirus Versus Tulane

    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • In the field of chemical engineering and water treatment, the study of viruses, included surrogates, is well documented. Often, surrogates are used to study viruses and their behavior because they can be produced in larger quantities in safer conditions and are easier to handle. In fact, surrogates allow studying microorganisms which are non-infectious to humans but share some properties similar to pathogenic viruses: structure, composition, morphology, and size.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  17. Persistence of Infectious Human Norovirus in Estuarine Water

    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Norovirus is the predominant cause of viral acute gastroenteritis globally. While person-to-person is the most reported transmission route, norovirus is also associated with waterborne and foodborne illness, including from the consumption of contaminated bivalve molluscan shellfish. The main cause of shellfish contamination is via the bioaccumulation of norovirus from growing waters impacted by human wastewater.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  18. Examining the efficiency of porcine gastric mucin-coated magnetic beads in extraction of noroviruses from frozen berries

    • Food Microbiology
    • Human norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne gastroenteritis worldwide. Due to the low infectious dose of noroviruses, sensitive methodologies are required to detect and characterize small numbers of viral particles that are found in contaminated foods.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  19. Ozone and photodynamic inactivation of norovirus surrogate bacteriophage MS2 in fresh Brazilian berries and surfaces

    • Food Microbiology
    • This study assessed the efficacy of ozone (bubble diffusion in water; 6.25 ppm) and photodynamic inactivation (PDT) using curcumin (75 μM) as photosensitizer (LED emission 430–470 nm; 33.6 mW/cm2 irradiance; 16.1, 20.2, and 24.2 J/cm2 light dose) against the 

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  20. The European Union One Health 2022 Zoonoses Report

    • EFSA Journal
    • Abstract This report by the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of the zoonoses monitoring and surveillance activities carried out in 2022 in 27 Member States (MSs), the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland) and 11 non‐MSs. Key statistics on zoonoses and zoonotic agents in humans, food, animals and feed are provided and interpreted historically.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Campylobacter
      • Listeria monocytogenes
      • Salmonella
      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  21. Development of recombinant oyster heat shock protein 70 mediated in situ capture RT-qPCR to detect human norovirus and Tulane virus

    • Food Control
    • Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major foodborne pathogen that causes non-bacterial gastroenteritis globally. Conventional RT-qPCR is prone to counting free RNA in the sample, resulting in an inflated infectious virus titer. Porcine gastric mucin (PGM), broadly used as the capture unit of in situ capture RT-qPCR (ISC-RT-qPCR), can precisely capture intact norovirus without adsorbing free RNA.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  22. Metabarcoding of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 3 and Norovirus GII from Wastewater Samples in England Using Nanopore Sequencing

    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Norovirus is one of the largest causes of gastroenteritis worldwide, and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging pathogen that has become the most dominant cause of acute viral hepatitis in recent years. The presence of norovirus and HEV has been reported within wastewater in many countries previously. Here we used amplicon deep sequencing (metabarcoding) to identify norovirus and HEV strains in wastewater samples from England collected in 2019 and 2020.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  23. Monitoring and Genotyping of Norovirus in Bivalve Molluscan Shellfish from Northern Italian Seas (2018–2020)

    • Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
    • Norovirus (NoV) is an enteric virus with foodborne transmission. Bivalve shellfish are a main source of infections and outbreaks. In Italy a voluntary based monitoring plan to check the safety of bivalve shellfish was set up at provincial level. This study describes the occurrence and distribution of NoV in the Northern Adriatic Sea and in the Ligurian Sea.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  24. Navigating the UKAS Accreditation Process for Detecting Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus in Fresh and Frozen Produce: a Case Study

    • Food Analytical Methods
    • Given the urgent requirement for more laboratories to develop proficiency in detecting foodborne viruses, this case study charts the path to accreditation, demystifying the process of validating a method for detecting norovirus and hepatitis A virus in fresh produce. Securing accreditation is crucial to ensuring dependable and precise food analysis, particularly relevant for products frequently consumed raw, which are at risk of contamination by foodborne viruses.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  25. Sequential infection of human norovirus and Salmonella enterica resulted in higher mortality and ACOD1/IRG1 upregulation in zebrafish larvae

    • Microbes and Infection
    • Human norovirus (HNoVs) and Salmonella are both very important foodborne pathogens with mixed infection of HNoV and Salmonella reported clinically.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
      • Viruses
      • Norovirus