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Research Publications (Food Safety)

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 672

  1. A systematic review and meta-analysis indicates a substantial burden of human noroviruses in shellfish worldwide, with GII.4 and GII.2 being the predominant genotypes

    • Mon, 09/12/2022 - 04:00
    • Food Microbiology
    • Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) have been found as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks in all age groups and are significantly correlated with the consumption of shellfish. In this study, the contamination of HuNoVs in shellfish was estimated through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies on the contamination of HuNoVs in shellfish were searched from PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library from January 2000 to August 2021.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  2. Recent Developments in Norovirus Interactions with Bacteria

    • Sun, 09/11/2022 - 04:00
    • Current Opinion in Food Science
    • Human norovirus is the leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States. Among many of the challenges related to understanding and controlling noroviruses, the influence of host microbiota on viral pathogenesis has continued to remain the subject of increased focus. Foundational work previously suggested that some bacteria may directly interact with noroviruses and promote infection.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  3. Soluble extracellular polymeric substance (SEPS) of histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expressing bacterium Sphingobacterium sp. SC015 influences the survival and persistence of norovirus on lettuce

    • Sat, 09/10/2022 - 04:00
    • Food Microbiology
    • Foodborne norovirus (NoV) outbreaks linked to leafy greens are common due to a lack of efficient strategies to prevent NoV spread from contaminated surfaces. We previously found that Sphingobacterium sp. SC015 in lettuce phyllosphere expresses histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances in soluble extracellular polymeric substances (SEPS) that contribute to NoV adherence on lettuce.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  4. Global public health implications of human exposure to viral contaminated water

    • Tue, 08/30/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • Enteric viruses are common waterborne pathogens found in environmental water bodies contaminated with either raw or partially treated sewage discharge. Examples of these viruses include adenovirus, rotavirus, noroviruses, and other caliciviruses and enteroviruses like coxsackievirus and polioviruses.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  5. Interactions Between Infectious Foodborne Viruses and Bacterial Biofilms Formed on Different Food Contact Surfaces

    • Mon, 08/29/2022 - 04:00
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Bacterial biofilms contribute to contamination, spoilage, persistence, and hygiene failure in the food industry, but relatively little is known about the behavior of foodborne viruses evolving in the complex communities that make up biofilm. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between enteric viruses and biofilms on food contact surfaces.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  6. The Efficacy of Commercial Surface Sanitizers against Norovirus on Formica Surfaces with and without Inclusion of a Wiping Step

    • Fri, 08/26/2022 - 04:00
    • Applied and Environmental Microbiology
    • Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Ahead of Print. Commonly used surface sanitizers often lack activity against human noroviruses (hNoVs). The impact of inactivation versus removal when these products are applied via wiping is poorly characterized.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of ethanol, peracetic acid, and quaternary ammonium compounds against murine norovirus using carrier and suspension tests

    • Thu, 08/25/2022 - 11:11
    • Food Control
    • Virucidal suspension testing is commonly used as an authorized test for disinfectants. However, this method could not precisely evaluate the effect of disinfectants on food-contact surfaces. To solve this problem, a carrier testing method needs to be established in the food-processing industries by following a standard guideline.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  8. Crystal digital RT-PCR for the detection and quantification of norovirus and hepatitis A virus RNA in frozen raspberries

    • Tue, 08/23/2022 - 04:00
    • International Journal of Food Microbiology
    • Berries are important vehicles for norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) foodborne outbreaks. Sensitive and quantitative detection of these viruses in food samples currently relies on RT-qPCR, but remains challenging due to their low concentration and the presence of RT-qPCR inhibitors. Moreover, quantification requires a standard curve.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  9. Norovirus Attribution Study: Detection of norovirus from the commercial food preparation environment in outbreak and non‐outbreak premises

    • Sat, 08/06/2022 - 04:00
    • Journal of Applied Microbiology
    • Journal of Applied Microbiology, Accepted Article. Aims Norovirus remains the most significant virological risk that is transmitted via food and the environment to cause acute gastroenteritis.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  10. Evolutionary history and spatiotemporal dynamic of GIII norovirus: From emergence to classification in four genotypes

    • Wed, 07/20/2022 - 04:00
    • Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
    • Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Volume 69, Issue 4, Page 1872-1879, July 2022. Noroviruses belong to a genetically diverse group of viruses infecting a wide range of mammalian host species, and those detected in cattle and sheep are classified within genogroup III (GIII).

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  11. Norovirus GI and GII and hepatitis a virus in berries and pomegranate arils in Canada

    • Wed, 07/20/2022 - 04:00
    • International Journal of Food Microbiology
    • Between 2016 and 2021, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) collected 4218 samples of fresh and frozen berries (blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, strawberries and mixed berries) and pomegranate arils at retail across 11 major cities in Canada and tested these samples for the presence of norovirus GI, norovirus GII and hepatitis A virus RNA.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  12. Fucosyltransferase 2: A Genetic Risk Factor for Intestinal Diseases

    • Mon, 07/18/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • The fucosyltransferase 2 gene (FUT2) mediates the synthesis of histoblood group antigens (HBGA) that occur in vivo from multiple organs, particularly on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells and body fluids. To date, many studies have demonstrated that the interaction of HBGA with the host microbiota is the cause of pathogenesis of intestinal diseases, making FUT2 non-secretor a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) due to the lack of HBGA.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  13. Quantitative modeling of school cafeteria share tables predicts reduced food waste and manageable norovirus-related food safety risk.

    • Sat, 07/02/2022 - 04:00
    • Microbial Risk Analysis
    • Share tables (ST) allow students to share unwanted food items with other students in school cafeterias, making them a possible method to reduce food waste and insecurity. This study assesses potential food safety risks and food security benefits of a ST system, to assess if future work on STs is warranted. But food safety concerns from stakeholders hinder ST implementation.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  14. Fucoidan from Fucus versiculosus can inhibit human norovirus replication by enhancing the host innate immune response

    • Mon, 06/20/2022 - 04:00
    • Journal of Functional Foods
    • Fucoidan extracted from Fucus versiculosus was able to inhibit the replication of human noroviruses (hNoV) GII.4[P16] in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. In the hNoV infected zebrafish larvae, a transcriptomic analysis showed significant upregulation (p < 0.01) of the interferons (IFNs) signaling related genes as well as a series of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) encoding antiviral effectors compared to the mock-infected controls.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  15. Enteric Illness Outbreaks Reported Through the National Outbreak Reporting System—United States, 2009–2019

    • Sat, 06/11/2022 - 04:00
    • Clinical Infectious Diseases
    • Background The National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) captures data on foodborne, waterborne, and enteric illness outbreaks in the United States. This study describes enteric illness outbreaks reported during 11 years of surveillance. Methods We extracted finalized reports from NORS for outbreaks occurring during 2009–2019.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Campylobacter
      • Salmonella
      • Shigella
      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  16. Use of Human Intestinal Enteroids to Evaluate Persistence of Infectious Human Norovirus in Seawater

    • Fri, 06/10/2022 - 04:00
    • Emerging Infectious Diseases
    • Little data on the persistence of human norovirus infectivity are available to predict its transmissibility. Using human intestinal enteroids, we demonstrate that 2 human norovirus strains can remain infectious for several weeks in seawater. Such experiments can improve understanding of factors associated with norovirus survival in coastal waters and shellfish.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  17. Antiviral Activity of Olanexidine-Containing Hand Rub against Human Noroviruses

    • Sat, 06/04/2022 - 04:00
    • mBio
    • mBio, Volume 13, Issue 2, April 2022. Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of epidemic and sporadic acute gastroenteritis worldwide. HuNoV transmission occurs predominantly by direct person-to-person contact, and its health burden is associated with poor hand hygiene and a lack of effective antiseptics and disinfectants.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  18. Method for detecting norovirus, hepatitis A and hepatitis E viruses in tap and bottled drinking water

    • Mon, 05/30/2022 - 04:00
    • International Journal of Food Microbiology
    • Viruses are a leading cause of foodborne disease worldwide. Human norovirus and hepatitis viruses (hepatitis A (HAV) and hepatitis E (HEV)) are recognised to be the main viruses of importance to public health. The ISO 15216 procedure describes molecular methods for detecting HAV and norovirus in bottled water by using an electropositive filter to concentrate viruses.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  19. Temperature, Time, and Type, Oh My! Key Environmental Factors Impacting the Recovery of Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Tulane Virus from Surfaces

    • Fri, 05/20/2022 - 04:00
    • Environmental monitoring (EM) programs are designed to detect the presence of pathogens in food manufacturing environments with the goal of preventing microbial contamination of food. Nevertheless, limited knowledge exists regarding the influence of environmental conditions on microbial recovery during EM. This study utilizes a commercially-available polyurethane foam (PUF) EM tool to determine the influence of environmental factors on the recovery of foodborne pathogens.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Listeria monocytogenes
      • Salmonella
      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  20. Evaluation of Virucidal Efficacy of Human Norovirus Using Combined Sprayed Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and Ultraviolet C-Light-Emitting Diode Irradiation Treatment Based on Optimized Capture Assay for Quantitative RT-qPCR

    • Mon, 04/25/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • Slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW), an effective non-thermal virucidal treatment, is used widely to prevent infectious viral cross-contamination. Surface disinfection technologies using ultraviolet C-light-emitting diode (UVC-LED) irradiation have recently attracted considerable attention. The SAEW sprayer technique is an efficient approach to preventing the spread of infectious viral pathogens in the public healthcare sector.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  21. Effects of sodium hypochlorite on the potential infectivity of human norovirus GII.4 using propidium monoazide with RT‐qPCR and quality assessments in Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum)

    • Thu, 04/21/2022 - 04:00
    • Journal of Food Processing and Preservation
    • Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, Accepted Article. This study investigated the effect of NaOCl on the inactivation of human norovirus (HNoV) GII.4 infectivity in Manila clams treated with NaOCl solution at 100-1,000 mg/L chlorine for 10 min using propidium monoazide (PMA)/RT-qPCR.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  22. Evaluation of a New Norovirus Genogroups GI and GII In Vitro Molecular Diagnostic Assay Using Clinical Specimens Collected from Acute Diarrheal Outbreaks

    • Tue, 04/12/2022 - 04:00
    • Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
    • Norovirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in Taiwan. To improve diagnosis as part of laboratory surveillance, AGE surveillance was conducted using a new fluorescent probe hydrolysis-based insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, the POCKIT system, and the results were compared with those obtained from conventional methods. A total of 119 clinical stool samples from reported AGE outbreaks were collected for this study.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  23. Monitoring Human Viral Pathogens Reveals Potential Hazard for Treated Wastewater Discharge or Reuse

    • Fri, 04/08/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • Wastewater discharge to the environment or its reuse after sanitization poses a concern for public health given the risk of transmission of human viral diseases. However, estimating the viral infectivity along the wastewater cycle presents technical challenges and still remains underexplored.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  24. Comparative Assessment of the Efficacy of Commercial Hand Sanitizers Against Human Norovirus Evaluated by an in vivo Fingerpad Method

    • Thu, 04/07/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • Human noroviruses (hNoV) are the leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and contaminated hands play a significant role in the spread of disease. Some hand sanitizers claim to interrupt hNoV transmission, but their antiviral efficacy on human hands is poorly characterized. The purpose of this work was to characterize the efficacy of representative commercial hand sanitizers against hNoV using an in vivo fingerpad method (ASTM E1838-17).

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  25. Evaluation of water‐assisted UV‐C light and its additive effect with peracetic acid for the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and murine norovirus on whole and fresh‐cut strawberries during shelf‐life

    • Wed, 04/06/2022 - 04:00
    • Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
    • Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, Accepted Article. Background The purpose of the present study was to examine the inactivation of Salmonella enterica (50 μL; 109 CFU/g), Listeria monocytogenes (50 μL; 109 CFU/g), and murine norovirus (MNV-1; 50 μL; 107 TCID50/mL) on whole and fresh-cut strawberries after 2-min disinfection treatments (water (H2O), chlorine 200 mg/L (NaClO), water-assisted UV-C (WUV), and the combination WUV and 40 mg/L of PA (WUV+PA))

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Listeria monocytogenes
      • Salmonella
      • Viruses
      • Norovirus