An official website of the United States government.

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Research Publications (Food Safety)

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 118

  1. Seasonal and Spatial Variations in the Presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Rural Drinking Water Supply Systems in Different Municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia

    • Sun, 09/11/2022 - 04:00
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • This study evaluated the seasonal and spatial variations in the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in rural drinking water supply systems of different municipalities of Antioquia. The municipalities evaluated were Envigado, Caldas, Sabaneta, La Estrella, Itagüi, Bello, Barbosa, Copacabana, and Girardota, located in the department of Antioquia, Colombia. The experimentation was carried out over 9 sampling campaigns in the period between July 2019 and November 2020.

      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  2. First report of Giardia duodenalis assemblage F in humans and dogs in southern Brazil

    • Sat, 09/10/2022 - 04:00
    • Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
    • The present study aimed to molecularly characterize Giardia duodenalis from stool samples of humans, dogs, and cats. Molecular analyses were performed on 59 samples that tested positive for G. duodenalis on coproparasitological examinations.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  3. Pathogenic parasites in vegetables in the Middle East and North Africa: Occurrence of Ascaris eggs and Giardia cysts, and epidemiological implications

    • Thu, 08/25/2022 - 11:11
    • Food Control
    • Parasitic diseases are a major health problem in many developing countries. The consumption of contaminated fresh vegetables can play a crucial epidemiological role in the transmission of parasitic foodborne diseases including ascariasis and giardiasis. This review explored the occurrence of the pathogenic parasites Ascaris and Giardia on vegetables collected from markets, street vendors, groceries, and farms in the Middle East and North African countries.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  4. Giardial lipid rafts share virulence factors with secreted vesicles and participate in parasitic infection in mice

    • Tue, 08/23/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
    • Giardia lamblia, a protozoan parasite, is a major cause of waterborne infection, worldwide. While the trophozoite form of this parasite induces pathological symptoms in the gut, the cyst form transmits the infection. Since Giardia is a noninvasive parasite, the actual mechanism by which it causes disease remains elusive. We have previously reported that Giardia assembles cholesterol and GM1 glycosphingolipid-enriched lipid rafts (LRs) that participate in encystation and cyst production.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  5. Giardia duodenalis carries out canonical homologous recombination and single-strand annealing

    • Mon, 08/08/2022 - 04:00
    • Research in Microbiology
    • In the past decades, the ability of Giardia duodenalis to perform homologous recombination has been suggested, supported by the observations of genomic integration of foreign plasmids and the disruption of genes using CRISPR technology. Unfortunately, the direct study of a HR mechanism has not been addressed, which would be pertinent in a minimalist organism lacking fundamental DNA-repair elements and even complete pathways.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  6. Survey of U.S. based veterinarians' knowledge, perceptions and practices about canine giardiasis

    • Wed, 08/03/2022 - 04:00
    • Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports
    • Giardia spp. is a protozoal parasite capable of causing diarrhea in mammals. Certain Giardia assemblages are potentially zoonotic. As part of a public health study, a questionnaire-based cross-sectional web survey was distributed among U.S. small and mixed animal veterinarians to assess perceived prevalence, preferred testing and treatment methods, recommended control measures, and information communicated about the zoonotic potential of canine giardiasis.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  7. Survey of the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in green leafy vegetables marketed in the city of Valencia (Spain)

    • Sun, 07/24/2022 - 04:00
    • International Journal of Food Microbiology
    • The role of vegetables usually consumed without prior culinary treatment is known to contribute to the prevalence of foodborne diseases. Cysts and oocysts can contaminate food, which can then be the source of infection in humans. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp.

      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  8. Microbiological Contaminants in Drinking Water: Current Status and Challenges

    • Fri, 07/22/2022 - 04:00
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • Water is a vital resource to every living thing on the earth. Once the water is contaminated (physically, chemically, biologically, or radiologically), it brought negative impacts to the living thing. This paper provides a brief review of the characterization of biological pollutants in drinking water and their effects on human health.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
      • Vibrio
      • Parasites
      • Cyclospora cayetanensis
      • Giardia lamblia
      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  9. Oxygen-dependent regulation of permeability in low resistance intestinal epithelial cells infected with Giardia lamblia

    • Wed, 07/20/2022 - 04:00
    • Experimental Parasitology
    • Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) reside in a highly anaerobic environment that is subject to daily fluctuations in partial oxygen pressure (pO2), depending on intestinal tissue perfusion.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  10. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis and evidence for cross‐species transmission in Northern Argentina

    • Wed, 07/20/2022 - 04:00
    • Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
    • Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, Volume 69, Issue 4, Page 2209-2218, July 2022. Anthropogenic activities, such as human population expansion and land-use change, create ecological overlap between humans, domesticated animals, and wildlife and can exacerbate the zoonotic transmission of parasites.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  11. First Characterization and Zoonotic Potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in Pigs in Hubei Province of China

    • Mon, 07/11/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
    • The zoonotic protozoa parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis infect a wide range of hosts, including humans. Pigs are reservoir hosts for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis, which can transmit cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis to humans and other animals. The current study sought to investigate the infection rates and species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis in pigs in Hubei of China.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Giardia lamblia
  12. Humans and Hoofed Livestock Are the Main Sources of Fecal Contamination of Rivers Used for Crop Irrigation: A Microbial Source Tracking Approach

    • Thu, 06/30/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • Freshwater bodies receive waste, feces, and fecal microorganisms from agricultural, urban, and natural activities. In this study, the probable sources of fecal contamination were determined. Also, antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) were detected in the two main rivers of central Chile. Surface water samples were collected from 12 sampling sites in the Maipo (n = 8) and Maule Rivers (n = 4) every 3 months, from August 2017 until April 2019.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Giardia lamblia
  13. Variation in haplotypes in single cysts of assemblages C and D, but not of assemblage E of Giardia duodenalis

    • Wed, 06/29/2022 - 04:00
    • BMC Microbiology
    • Background Giardia duodenalis, a single-celled intestinal parasite, is divided into eight assemblages (A-H), with differences in host specificity. Giardia duodenalis reproduces asexually and cycles between the binucleated trophozoite (4 N) and the infectious cyst with four nuclei (16 N). Interaction between the nuclei is limited. Therefore, genetic drift causes differences in genetic make-up between the non-daughter nuclei; the allelic sequence heterozygosity (ASH).

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  14. Repurposing the Kinase Inhibitor Mavelertinib for Giardiasis Therapy

    • Thu, 06/16/2022 - 04:00
    • Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
    • Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Ahead of Print. A phenotypic screen of the ReFRAME compound library was performed to identify cell-active inhibitors that could be developed as therapeutics for giardiasis. A primary screen against Giardia lamblia GS clone H7 identified 85 cell-active compounds at a hit rate of 0.72%. A cytotoxicity counterscreen against HEK293T cells was carried out to assess hit compound selectivity for further prioritization.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  15. Label-free detection and enumeration of Giardia cysts in agitated suspensions using in situ microscopy

    • Sun, 06/12/2022 - 04:00
    • Journal of Microbiological Methods
    • Laboratory procedures performed in water treatment studies frequently require the characterization of (oo)cyst suspensions. Standard methods commonly used are laborious, expensive and time-consuming, besides requiring well-trained personnel to prepare samples with fluorescent staining and perform analysis under fluorescence microscopy.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  16. Prevalence and multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in zoo animals in three cities in China

    • Wed, 06/08/2022 - 04:00
    • Parasitology Research
    • Giardia duodenalis is a flagellated parasitic microorganism that parasitizes in the intestines of humans and animals. Although asymptomatic infections commonly exist in both humans and animals, some enteric symptoms have been reported in immunocompromised individuals, posing a threat to public health. Children could be infected with G. duodenalis through an environment contaminated by infective animals. Thus, the investigation of the prevalence and genotypes of G.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  17. Evaluation of the efficacy of gold nanoparticles on Giardia lamblia infection in experimental animals

    • Tue, 05/24/2022 - 04:00
    • Experimental Parasitology
    • Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia) is an important cause of severe malabsorption, weight loss, physical and mental retardation especially in infants and children throughout the world. Metronidazole (MTZ) is the standard drug used for their treatment which possesses several drawbacks with low efficacy. Gold nanoparticles possess a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and could be considered as a future alternative to many microbial agents.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  18. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis in small ruminants of Shiraz, southwestern Iran: A zoonotic concern

    • Fri, 05/13/2022 - 04:00
    • Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
    • Livestock are commonly affected by gastrointestinal protozoan parasites, including Giardia duodenalis. In small ruminants, G. duodenalis infection may decrease carcass weight and dressing percentage. Current study was done to determine the prevalence, assemblage distribution, and zoonotic significance of Giardia infection in sheep and goats in Shiraz, southwestern Iran.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  19. Machine Learning and Its Applications for Protozoal Pathogens and Protozoal Infectious Diseases

    • Fri, 04/29/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
    • In recent years, massive attention has been attracted to the development and application of machine learning (ML) in the field of infectious diseases, not only serving as a catalyst for academic studies but also as a key means of detecting pathogenic microorganisms, implementing public health surveillance, exploring host-pathogen interactions, discovering drug and vaccine candidates, and so forth.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Giardia lamblia
      • Toxoplasma gondii
  20. The Giardia ventrolateral flange is a lamellar membrane protrusion that supports attachment

    • Fri, 04/29/2022 - 04:00
    • PLOS Pathogens
    • by William R. Hardin, Germain C. M. Alas, Nikita Taparia, Elizabeth B. Thomas, Melissa C. Steele-Ogus, Kelli L. Hvorecny, Aaron R. Halpern, Pavla Tůmová, Justin M. Kollman, Joshua C. Vaughan, Nathan J. Sniadecki, Alexander R. Paredez Attachment to the intestinal epithelium is critical to the lifestyle of the ubiquitous parasite Giardia lamblia. The ventrolateral flange is a sheet-like membrane protrusion at the interface between parasites and attached surfaces.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  21. Dual RNA Sequencing Reveals Key Events When Different Giardia Life Cycle Stages Interact With Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells In Vitro

    • Thu, 04/28/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
    • Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite causing diarrheal disease, giardiasis, after extracellular infection of humans and other mammals’ intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) of the upper small intestine. The parasite has two main life cycle stages: replicative trophozoites and transmissive cysts.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  22. An Overview of Mucosa-Associated Protozoa: Challenges in Chemotherapy and Future Perspectives

    • Tue, 04/26/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
    • Parasitic infections caused by protozoans that infect the mucosal surfaces are widely neglected worldwide. Collectively, Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium spp. and Trichomonas vaginalis infect more than a billion people in the world, being a public health problem mainly in developing countries. However, the exact incidence and prevalence data depend on the population examined.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Giardia lamblia
  23. Multilocus Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in Alpine Musk Deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in China

    • Wed, 04/20/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
    • Giardia duodenalis is the underlying cause of a significant number of outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness in humans and animals worldwide. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the prevalence and genetic diversity of G. duodenalis in captive alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in China. A total of 202 fecal samples were collected from three farms in Gansu Province, China. Identification of G.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  24. Occurrence, genetic characterization, and zoonotic importance of Giardia duodenalis in various species of rodents (Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, and Rattus rattus)

    • Sun, 04/10/2022 - 04:00
    • Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
    • Giardia duodenalis is a well-known flagellated parasite and the causative agent of protozoal diarrhea in animals and humans worldwide. Current study was aimed at determination of G. duodenalis prevalence, genetic variation and zoonotic significance in various species of rodents in Shiraz, southwestern Iran.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  25. Current status of intestinal parasitosis among patients attending teaching hospitals in Zagazig district, Northeastern Egypt

    • Fri, 04/01/2022 - 04:00
    • Parasitology Research
    • Almost 80% of health problems in the developing world are due to malnutrition and infectious diseases, which are mainly parasitic. Updated records on the prevalence of parasitic infections and the potential risk factors are essential to enhancing control strategies. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the current situation of intestinal parasitism among patients attending teaching hospitals in Zagazig district, Northeastern Egypt. The study involved five hundred cases.

      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia