An official website of the United States government.

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Food Safety Publications

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 590

  1. Local and Global Protein Interactions Contribute to Residue Entrenchment in Beta-Lactamase TEM-1

    • Sat, 05/14/2022 - 04:00
    • Antibiotics
    • Due to their rapid evolution and their impact on healthcare, beta-lactamases, protein degrading beta-lactam antibiotics, are used as generic models of protein evolution. Therefore, we investigated the mutation effects in two distant beta-lactamases, TEM-1 and CTX-M-15. Interestingly, we found a site with a complex pattern of genetic interactions. Mutation G251W in TEM-1 inactivates the protein’s function, just as the reciprocal mutation, W251G, does in CTX-M-15.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  2. In vitro oxidation promoted by sarafloxacin antibiotic residues on myosin and chicken meat proteins

    • Sun, 05/08/2022 - 04:00
    • Journal of Food Composition and Analysis
    • Fluoroquinolones are widely employed to treat or prevent respiratory diseases in poultry, and their residues could be present even after slaughtering. Thus, this study aimed to assess the oxidative effect of fluoroquinolones on myosin and chicken meat proteins under in vitro conditions, using proteomics and peptidomics approaches. Myosin was initially exposed to ciprofloxacin and sarafloxacin, which showed an increase in protein carbonylation over time, especially with sarafloxacin.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  3. Development of 1,3,4-Oxadiazole Derived Antifungal Agents and Their Application in Maize Diseases Control

    • Wed, 05/04/2022 - 05:00
    • Frontiers in Plant Science
    • Maize is an important food crop and its fungal disease has become a limiting factor to improve the yield and quality of maize. In the control of plant pathogens, commercial fungicides have no obvious effect on corn diseases due to the emergence of drug resistance. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop new fungicides with novel structure, high efficiency, and low toxicity to control maize diseases.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
      • Pesticide residues
  4. Inspection of antimicrobial remains in bovine milk in Egypt and Saudi Arabia employing a bacteriological test kit and HPLC-MS/MS with estimation of risk to human health

    • Thu, 04/28/2022 - 04:00
    • PLOS ONE
    • by Nora H. Al-Shaalan, Jenny Jeehan Nasr, Shereen Shalan, Areej M. El-Mahdy Veterinary medicine uses antibiotics randomly for treatment and growth promotion. Milk of dairy animals contains substantial quantities of antibiotics that have harmful effects on health. It is therefore necessary to test commercially available milk using immunological, chromatographic, or microbiological methods to confirm the absence of antibiotic residues.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  5. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Risk Perception of Broiler Grow-Out Farmers on Antimicrobial Use and Resistance in Oyo State, Nigeria

    • Mon, 04/25/2022 - 04:00
    • Antibiotics
    • Assessing knowledge, attitudes, and risk perception of Nigerian broiler grow-out farmers (n = 152) to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) with a five sectional purposive-structured-questionnaire: demographics; knowledge; attitudes; risk-perception; and response to regulation of antimicrobial practices. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and binary logistic regression.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  6. A simple method to determine changes in the affinity between HisF and HisH in the Imidazole Glycerol Phosphate Synthase heterodimer

    • Sat, 04/23/2022 - 04:00
    • PLOS ONE
    • by Vitor M. Almeida, J. Patrick Loria, Sandro R. Marana The bi-enzyme HisF-HisH heterodimer is part of the pathway that produces histidine and purines in bacteria and lower eukaryotes, but it is absent in mammals. This heterodimer has been largely studied probing the basis of the allosteric effects and the structural stability in proteins. It is also a potential target for antibacterial drugs.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  7. SspH, a Novel HATPase Family Regulator, Controls Antibiotic Biosynthesis in Streptomyces

    • Wed, 04/20/2022 - 04:00
    • Antibiotics
    • Streptomyces can produce a wealth of pharmaceutically valuable antibiotics and other bioactive compounds. Production of most antibiotics is generally low due to the rigorously controlled regulatory networks, in which global/pleiotropic and cluster-situated regulatory proteins coordinate with various intra- and extracellular signals.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
      • Pesticide residues
  8. 29 Nutritional Interventions for Intestinal Health of Nursery Pigs: Carbohydrates

    • Fri, 04/15/2022 - 04:00
    • Journal of Animal Science
    • In swine production, using feed antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promotants has been reduced; thus, feed alternatives to manage gut health are required to prevent post-weaning diarrhea. Dietary fiber, resistant starch, oligosaccharides, and exopolysaccharides are carbohydrates that together with glycoproteins are nutritional tools that may be part of managing gut health in pigs.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  9. 11 Determination of Milk Concentrations and Pharmacokinetics of Salicylic Acid Following Acetylsalicylic Acid (Aspirin) Administration in Postpartum Dairy Cows

    • Fri, 04/15/2022 - 04:00
    • Journal of Animal Science
    • Administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as the widely available drug aspirin, or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), may improve health and milk production in postpartum dairy cows. However, plasma pharmacokinetic (PK) data for salicylic acid (SA), the active metabolite of ASA, are unrepresentative of lactating dairy cows and current treatment regimens, and there are currently no published milk residue and minimal pharmacodynamic data available for ASA or SA in dairy cows.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  10. Rapid Detection and Prediction of Norfloxacin in Fish Using Bimetallic Au@Ag Nano-Based SERS Sensor Coupled Multivariate Calibration

    • Fri, 04/15/2022 - 04:00
    • Food Analytical Methods
    • Norfloxacin is an antibiotic in the fluoroquinolone family licenced for use in animals. However, residues in animal products can have negative consequences for consumers. As a result, residue detection in various food matrices must be considered. Norfloxacin accumulates in animal-derived foods, causing deleterious consequences in humans such as foetal deformity, renal failure and drug resistance.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  11. Bacterial Multidrug Efflux Pumps at the Frontline of Antimicrobial Resistance: An Overview

    • Thu, 04/14/2022 - 04:00
    • Antibiotics
    • Multidrug efflux pumps function at the frontline to protect bacteria against antimicrobials by decreasing the intracellular concentration of drugs. This protective barrier consists of a series of transporter proteins, which are located in the bacterial cell membrane and periplasm and remove diverse extraneous substrates, including antimicrobials, organic solvents, toxic heavy metals, etc., from bacterial cells.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  12. HIV Capsid Protein Genetic Diversity Across HIV-1 Variants and Impact on New Capsid-Inhibitor Lenacapavir

    • Tue, 04/12/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • The HIV p24 capsid protein has an essential, structural, and functional role in the viral replication cycle, being an interesting target for vaccine design, diagnostic tests, and new antiretroviral drugs (ARVs). The HIV-1 variability poses a challenge for the accuracy and efficiency of diagnostic and treatment tools. This study analyzes p24 diversity among HIV-1 variants and within its secondary structure in HIV-1 M, O, P, and N groups.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  13. Phenolic Compound Ethyl 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate Retards Drug Efflux and Potentiates Antibiotic Activity

    • Sat, 04/09/2022 - 04:00
    • Antibiotics
    • The World Health Organization indicated that antibiotic resistance is one of the greatest threats to health, food security, and development in the world. Drug resistance efflux pumps are essential for antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Here, we evaluated the plant phenolic compound ethyl 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate (EDHB) for its efflux pump inhibitory (EPI) activity against drug-resistant Escherichia coli.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  14. Long-Term Exposure to the Water of Wadi El-Rayan Lakes Induced Testicular Damage and Endocrine Disruption in Mugil cephalus

    • Tue, 04/05/2022 - 04:00
    • Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
    • This study aimed to investigate the testicular function of Mugil cephalus that inhabit Wadi El-Rayan lakes. Testes of fish inhabiting the upper lake (site 2) and the lower lake (site 3) of Wadi El-Rayan showed significant decreases in gonadosomatic index, high accumulation levels of six metals, and eight organochlorine pesticide residues.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
      • Pesticide residues
  15. Residues of veterinary drugs in animal products commercialized in the border region of Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay

    • Fri, 04/01/2022 - 04:00
    • The traffic of international animal products can be public health hazard when legal import sanitary procedures are not followed. In Brazil, due to its extensive border area, the importation of animal products is a common practice in many areas of the country, especially in Rio Grande do Sul (RS), a state that borders Argentina and Uruguay.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  16. The Interference Mechanism of Basil Essential Oil on the Cell Membrane Barrier and Respiratory Metabolism of Listeria monocytogenes

    • Fri, 04/01/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • In order to prevent food-borne diseases caused by Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) safely and effectively, plant essential oils that have no toxic side effects and are not prone to drug resistance have become the focus of research. This article takes basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) essential oil (BEO) as the research object and explores its antibacterial mechanism against L. monocytogenes.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Listeria monocytogenes
      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  17. Multi-class, multi-residue determination of 132 veterinary drugs in milk by magnetic solid-phase extraction based on magnetic hypercrosslinked polystyrene prior to their determination by high-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spect

    • Fri, 04/01/2022 - 04:00
    • Food Chemistry
    • A quantitative multi-class multi-residue analytical method was developed for the determination of veterinary drugs in milk by high-performance liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS).

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  18. Quantification and Degradation of 2,2-Dibromo-3-Nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) in Bioethanol Fermentation Coproducts

    • Wed, 03/30/2022 - 04:00
    • World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • 2,2-Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) has been used as a biocide in industrial water applications due to its instantaneous antimicrobial activity and rapid chemical breakdown. In this study, DBNPA is considered a potential alternative for antibiotics used for bacterial control during corn-to-ethanol fermentation. A method using LC/MS/MS was developed to accurately quantify DBNPA in water.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  19. Discovery of Highly Active Derivatives of Daptomycin by Assessing the Effect of Amino Acid Substitutions at Positions 8 and 11 on a Daptomycin Analogue

    • Sun, 03/27/2022 - 04:00
    • ACS Infectious Diseases
    • Daptomycin is an important antibiotic used for treating serious infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Establishing structure–activity relationships of daptomycin is important for developing new daptomycin-based antibiotics with expanded clinical applications and for tackling the ever-increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Staphylococcus aureus
      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  20. Strategies for Enzymatic Inactivation of the Veterinary Antibiotic Florfenicol

    • Sat, 03/26/2022 - 04:00
    • Antibiotics
    • Large quantities of the antibiotic florfenicol are used in animal farming and aquaculture, contaminating the ecosystem with antibiotic residues and promoting antimicrobial resistance, ultimately leading to untreatable multidrug-resistant pathogens. Florfenicol-resistant bacteria often activate export mechanisms that result in resistance to various structurally unrelated antibiotics.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  21. A Survey on Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices of Large-Animal Farmers towards Antimicrobial Use, Resistance, and Residues in Mymensingh Division of Bangladesh

    • Fri, 03/25/2022 - 04:00
    • Antibiotics
    • The widespread and indiscriminate use of antimicrobials in food animals is a key contributor to antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial residue, which have become a growing public and animal health concern in developing countries such as Bangladesh. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of large-animal farmers towards antimicrobial use (AMU), antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and antimicrobial residue (AR) with their correlation.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  22. IPA-3: An Inhibitor of Diadenylate Cyclase of Streptococcus suis with Potent Antimicrobial Activity

    • Tue, 03/22/2022 - 09:15
    • Antibiotics
    • Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a huge threat to public health. The development of novel antibiotics is an effective strategy to tackle AMR. Cyclic diadenylate monophosphate (c-di-AMP) has recently been identified as an essential signal molecule for some important bacterial pathogens involved in various bacterial physiological processes, leading to its synthase diadenylate cyclase becoming an attractive antimicrobial drug target.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  23. Estimates of Dietary Exposure to Antibiotics among a Community Population in East China

    • Fri, 03/18/2022 - 12:00
    • Antibiotics
    • Antibiotics are widely used in clinics, livestock farms and the aquaculture industry. A variety of antibiotics in foods and drinking water may lead to important and inadvertent dietary exposure However, the profile of dietary exposure to antibiotics in humans is not well-explored. East China is an economically developed area with a high usage of antibiotics and a high rate of antibiotic resistance (ABR).

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  24. Effects of different amino acid levels and a carvacrol–thymol blend on growth performance and intestinal health of weaned pigs

    • Wed, 03/09/2022 - 06:00
    • Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
    • Over the past years, antibiotic growth promoter had been restricted in animal husbandry production in many countries because of antimicrobial resistance and foodborne antibiotic residues.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues
  25. Detection of Antibiotic Residues in Blossom Honeys from Different Regions in Turkey by LC-MS/MS Method

    • Tue, 03/08/2022 - 12:00
    • Antibiotics
    • In the present study, a total of 80 commercial blossom honey samples were obtained from local markets in Ankara, Turkey. These honeys were analyzed for 35 important and risky antibiotics (sulfonamide, tetracycline, macrolide, cephalosporin, aminoglycoside, quinolone, nitrofuran, chloramphenicol, and anthelmintic groups) by the LC-MS/MS multi-antibiotic method. In addition to these analyses, pH measure, moisture, and electrical conductivity were determined in these honey samples.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Antibiotic residues