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Research Publications (Food Safety)

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 434

  1. In Silico Conformational Features of Botulinum Toxins A1 and E1 According to Intraluminal Acidification

    • Sun, 09/18/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Although botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are among the most toxic compounds found in nature, their molecular mechanism of action is far from being elucidated. A key event is the conformational transition due to acidification of the interior of synaptic vesicles, leading to translocation of the BoNT catalytic domain into the neuronal cytosol.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  2. Pooled Analysis of Real-World Evidence Supports Anti-CGRP mAbs and OnabotulinumtoxinA Combined Trial in Chronic Migraine

    • Tue, 08/02/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • OnabotulinumtoxinA, targeting the CGRP machinery, has been approved for the last two decades for chronic migraine prevention. The recently approved monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed towards the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway open a new age for chronic migraine control. However, some 40% patients suffering from chronic migraine is still resistant to treatment.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  3. Novel Anatomical Proposal for Botulinum Neurotoxin Injection Targeting Lateral Canthal Rhytids

    • Thu, 07/07/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Botulinum neurotoxin injections near the lateral canthal rhytids are commonly used in cosmetic settings; however, there is a lack of thorough anatomical knowledge, and an effective way to treat them with accumulating knowledge is needed. The anatomical characteristics concerning the injection of botulinum neurotoxin into the orbicularis oculi muscle were evaluated in this review.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  4. Botulinum Toxin Therapy for Spasmodic Dysphonia in Japan: The History and an Update

    • Sat, 07/02/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a rare neurological disorder that impairs phonatory function by triggering involuntary and intermittent contractions of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. SD is classified into three types: adductor SD (AdSD), abductor SD (AbSD), and mixed SD. Of these, AdSD accounts for 90–95% of disease; younger females are predominantly affected. Botulinum toxin injection into the laryngeal muscles is safe, minimally invasive, and very effective.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  5. Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type-A I in the Improvement of Mandibular Motion and Muscle Sensibility in Myofascial Pain TMD Subjects: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    • Thu, 06/30/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • This study assessed the effects of botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) in mandibular range of motion and muscle tenderness to palpation in persistent myofascial pain (MFP) patients (ReBEC RBR-2d4vvv). Eighty consecutive female subjects with persistent MFP, were randomly divided into four groups (n = 20): three BoNT-A groups with different doses and a saline solution group (placebo control group).

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium botulinum Subtype bont/A5(B2′)

    • Wed, 06/29/2022 - 04:00
    • Microbiology Resource Announcements
    • Microbiology Resource Announcements, Ahead of Print. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium botulinum strain CDC76130, which harbors a rare botulinum toxin gene (bont) complex arrangement of bont/A5 and truncated bont/B2 within the same ha toxin gene cluster.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  7. Prospective Comparison of Longer Needle Lengths to Assess the Risk of OnabotulinumtoxinA-Associated Neck Pain in Patients with Chronic Migraine

    • Sat, 06/25/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • We aimed to prospectively assess the role of needle length in improving the tolerability/safety profile of OnabotulinumtoxinA (BoNTA) for chronic migraine (CM) prophylaxis, with a specific focus on neck pain, based on patients’ body habitus and other variables.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  8. Incobotulinum Toxin Type A for Treatment of Ultraviolet-B-Induced Hyperpigmentation: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial

    • Sat, 06/18/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Incobotulinum toxin A (IncoBoNT-A) is effective in preventing ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced hyperpigmentation. This prospective, randomized, controlled study aimed to evaluate the effect of IncoBoNT-A on the treatment of UVB-induced hyperpigmentation in 15 volunteers. Five hyperpigmentation squares (2 × 2 cm) were induced by local UVB on the abdomen at baseline.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  9. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Botulinum Toxin Treatment Combined with Robot-Assisted Therapy, Mirror Therapy, or Active Control Treatment in Patients with Spasticity Following Stroke

    • Sat, 06/18/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Effects of the combined task-oriented trainings with botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection on improving motor functions and reducing spasticity remains unclear. This study aims to investigate effects of 3 task-oriented trainings (robot-assisted therapy (RT), mirror therapy (MT), and active control treatment (AC)) in patients with stroke after BoNT-A injection.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  10. Genomic and Phenotypic Characterization of Clostridium botulinum Isolates from an Infant Botulism Case Suggests Adaptation Signatures to the Gut

    • Sat, 06/04/2022 - 04:00
    • mBio
    • mBio, Ahead of Print. In early life, the immature human gut microbiota is prone to colonization by pathogens that are usually outcompeted by mature microbiota in the adult gut. Colonization and neurotoxin production by a vegetative Clostridium botulinum culture in the gut of an infant can lead to flaccid paralysis, resulting in a clinical outcome known as infant botulism, a potentially life-threatening condition.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  11. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Clostridium botulinum Group II Strains Carrying Phage-Like Plasmids

    • Sat, 06/04/2022 - 04:00
    • Microbiology Resource Announcements
    • Microbiology Resource Announcements, Ahead of Print. Clostridium botulinum is responsible for botulism, a potentially lethal foodborne intoxication. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of C. botulinum group II strains 202F (serotype F) and Hazen (serotype E). The genomes share many similarities, including multiple mobile genetic elements.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  12. Detection and inhibition of Clostridium botulinum in some Egyptian fish products by probiotics cell-free supernatants as bio-preservation agents

    • Wed, 06/01/2022 - 04:00
    • LWT
    • The detection and inhibition of Clostridium botulinum by probiotics' cell-free supernatants, as a bio-preservation strategy, were investigated in some Egyptian fish-stuffs i.e., canned sardines, fesikh, moloha, renga, and anchovy. The conventional and multiplex polymerase chain reaction were used to detect C.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  13. Treatment of Depression with Botulinum Toxin

    • Wed, 06/01/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Injection of botulinum toxin (BoNT) into the glabellar region of the face is a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of depression. This treatment method has several advantages, including few side effects and a long-lasting, depot-like effect. Here we review the clinical and experimental evidence for the antidepressant effect of BoNT injections as well as the theoretical background and possible mechanisms of action.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  14. Can Botulinum Toxin-A Contribute to Reconstructing the Physiological Homeostasis of the Masticatory Complex in Short-faced Patients during Occlusal Therapy? A Prospective Pilot Study

    • Sun, 05/29/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • The physiological homeostasis of the masticatory complex in short-faced patients is too robust to be disintegrated and reconstructed due to the powerful masseter muscle. This study innovatively introduced the botulinum toxin-A (BTX-A) into the field of dental occlusal treatment, providing a novel and minimally invasive therapy perspective for the two major clinical problems in these patients (low treatment efficiency and high rates of complications).

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  15. Botulinum Toxin Type A for Treatment of Forehead Hyperhidrosis: Multicenter Clinical Experience and Review from Literature

    • Sat, 05/28/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Among the forms of idiopathic hyperhidrosis, those involving the forehead have the greatest impact on patients’ quality of life, as symptoms are not very controllable and are difficult to mask for patients. Although the local injection therapy with Incobotulinum toxin type A (IncoBTX-A therapy) can be considered a rational treatment, data from the literature describing both efficacy and safety of the treatment over the long term are poor.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  16. Clostridium sporogenes as surrogate for proteolytic C. botulinum - Development and validation of extensive growth and growth-boundary model

    • Thu, 05/26/2022 - 04:00
    • Food Microbiology
    • An extensive cardinal parameter growth and growth boundary model for C. sporogenes, as a surrogate for proteolytic C. botulinum, was developed to include the inhibitory effect of 11 environmental factors.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  17. Comparative Pharmacodynamics of Three Different Botulinum Toxin Type A Preparations following Repeated Intramuscular Administration in Mice

    • Thu, 05/26/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT/A) causes muscle paralysis by blocking cholinergic signaling at neuromuscular junctions and is widely used to temporarily correct spasticity-related disorders and deformities. The paralytic effects of BoNT/A are time-limited and require repeated injections at regular intervals to achieve long-term therapeutic benefits.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  18. Regulatory Networks Controlling Neurotoxin Synthesis in Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani

    • Wed, 05/25/2022 - 06:00
    • Toxins
    • Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium tetani are Gram-positive, spore-forming, and anaerobic bacteria that produce the most potent neurotoxins, botulinum toxin (BoNT) and tetanus toxin (TeNT), responsible for flaccid and spastic paralysis, respectively. The main habitat of these toxigenic bacteria is the environment (soil, sediments, cadavers, decayed plants, intestinal content of healthy carrier animals). C.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  19. Therapeutic Approach to Botulinum Injections for Hemifacial Spasm, Synkinesis and Blepharospasm

    • Tue, 05/24/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • The aim of this study was to show our therapeutic outcome of botulinum injection to the facial muscles and thereby to find the best therapeutic concept which should be embraced. The decision to treat the lower eyelid with 1-point or 2-points injection was randomly taken as there is no consensus regarding this debate.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  20. Structural Features of Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype A2 Cell Binding Domain

    • Fri, 05/20/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are a group of clostridial toxins that cause the potentially fatal neuroparalytic disease botulism. Although highly toxic, BoNTs are utilized as therapeutics to treat a range of neuromuscular conditions. Several serotypes (BoNT/A-/G, /X) have been identified with vastly differing toxicological profiles. Each serotype can be further sub-categorised into subtypes due to subtle variations in their protein sequence.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  21. Evaluation and Optimization of Microdrop Digital PCR for Detection of Serotype A and B Clostridium botulinum

    • Mon, 05/09/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • Clostridium botulinum is the causative pathogen of botulism. Laboratory detection of C. botulinum is essential for clinical therapy treatment of botulism due to the difficulty in diagnosis, especially in infant botulism. The extreme toxicity of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) requires a sensitive detection method. Due to the detection limit of real-time quantitative PCR (q-PCR), a more sensitive detection method, micro-drop digital PCR (ddPCR) was applied in C. botulinum main serotypes A and B.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  22. High Doses of Botulinum Toxin Type A for the Treatment of Post-Stroke Spasticity: Rationale for a Real Benefit for the Patients

    • Sat, 05/07/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • In the past few years, there was a great interest in the use of higher doses of botulinum toxin type A, especially in case of upper and lower limb severe spasticity. To date, only one prospective, non-randomized, single-arm, multicenter, open-label, dose-titration study with the employment of incobotulinum toxin up to 800 U has been published, and the authors investigated safety and tolerability.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  23. Synergistic interaction between pH and NaCl in the limits of germination and outgrowth of Clostridium sporogenes and Group I Clostridium botulinum vegetative cells and spores after heat treatment

    • Fri, 05/06/2022 - 04:00
    • Food Microbiology
    • Group I Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium sporogenes are physiologically and genetically closely related. Both are widely distributed in the environment and can cause foodborne botulism. In this work, a physiological study was conducted with 37 isolates from spoiled canned food and five referenced strains of C. sporogenes (three isolates) and Group I C. botulinum (two isolates).

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  24. An Update on the Cosmetic Use of Botulinum Toxin: The Pattern of Practice among Korean Dermatologists

    • Thu, 05/05/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • The efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin injection have made it a popular aesthetic procedure worldwide. A cross-sectional survey was performed in order to determine the pattern of type A botulinum toxin injections in cosmetic practice, for which an 18-item questionnaire was distributed to dermatologists.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  25. Botulinum Toxin Injection for the Treatment of Upper Esophageal Sphincter Dysfunction

    • Sun, 05/01/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Dysphagia associated with upper esophageal sphincter (UES) dysfunction remarkably affects the quality of life of patients. UES injection of botulinum toxin is an effective treatment for dysphagia. In comparison with skeletal muscles of the limb and trunk, the UES is a special therapeutic target of botulinum toxin injection, owing to its several anatomical, physiological, and pathophysiological features.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum