An official website of the United States government.

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Research Publications (Food Safety)

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 54

  1. Single domain antibodies against enteric pathogen virulence factors are active as curli fiber fusions on probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917

    • Fri, 09/16/2022 - 04:00
    • PLOS Pathogens
    • by Ilia Gelfat, Yousuf Aqeel, Jacqueline M. Tremblay, Justyna J. Jaskiewicz, Anishma Shrestha, James N. Lee, Shenglan Hu, Xi Qian, Loranne Magoun, Abhineet Sheoran, Daniela Bedenice, Colter Giem, Avinash Manjula-Basavanna, Amanda R. Pulsifer, Hann X. Tu, Xiaoli Li, Marilyn L. Minus, Marcia S. Osburne, Saul Tzipori, Charles B. Shoemaker, John M. Leong, Neel S.

      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Shigella
      • Parasites
  2. Seasonal and Spatial Variations in the Presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Rural Drinking Water Supply Systems in Different Municipalities of Antioquia, Colombia

    • Sun, 09/11/2022 - 04:00
    • Water, Air, & Soil Pollution
    • This study evaluated the seasonal and spatial variations in the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in rural drinking water supply systems of different municipalities of Antioquia. The municipalities evaluated were Envigado, Caldas, Sabaneta, La Estrella, Itagüi, Bello, Barbosa, Copacabana, and Girardota, located in the department of Antioquia, Colombia. The experimentation was carried out over 9 sampling campaigns in the period between July 2019 and November 2020.

      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  3. Cryptosporidium infection in young dogs from Germany

    • Sun, 09/11/2022 - 04:00
    • Parasitology Research
    • Cryptosporidium is an enteric protozoan parasite which is able to cause severe gastrointestinal disease and is distributed all over the world. Since information about the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in German dogs is rare, the aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in dogs and the potential zoonotic risk emanating from these infected animals. In total, 349 fecal samples of 171 dogs were collected during the dogs’ first year of life.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
  4. First report of rodent-adapted Cryptosporidium wrairi in an immunocompetent child, Spain

    • Sun, 09/11/2022 - 04:00
    • Parasitology Research
    • Cryptosporidiosis is a leading cause of childhood diarrhoea. Two species, Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum, are responsible for most confirmed cases globally. Close contact with pet animals can be an unnoticed source of children infections.

      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Parasites
  5. Development and evaluation of a real-time PCR for genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. from water monitoring slides.

    • Sat, 09/10/2022 - 04:00
    • Experimental Parasitology
    • Cryptosporidium is an important cause of gastroenteritis globally and the main agent of waterborne outbreaks caused by protozoan parasites. Water monitoring for Cryptosporidium oocysts is by detection and enumeration using stained slide microscopy. Species identification (known as genotyping) may be undertaken post hoc and remains a specialist test, only undertaken in some laboratories.

      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Parasites
  6. Transmission of Cryptosporidium by Fresh Vegetables

    • Fri, 09/02/2022 - 04:00
    • Consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables is increasing thanks to the awareness to the benefits to human health. Vegetables may become contaminated by enteric pathogens (protozoan parasites, bacteria and viruses) by irrigation with contaminated water, fertilization with fresh animal manure or by infected food handlers. Cryptosporidium spp. are fecal-oral protozoan parasites, known to be highly persistent in the environment, which facilitate the transmission of the infectious oocysts.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
  7. An outbreak of cryptosporidiosis associated with drinking water in north-eastern Italy, August 2019: microbiological and environmental investigations

    • Fri, 09/02/2022 - 04:00
    • Eurosurveillance
    • is a leading global cause of waterborne disease, with many reported outbreaks related to main water supplies. In August 2019, an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis involving 80 cases occurred among 114 vacationers in a small municipality located in the Tuscan-Emilian Apennines, north-eastern Italy. After excluding a potential food-borne outbreak, the epidemiological investigation focussed on the hypothesis of a waterborne outbreak.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
  8. Occidiofungin: Actin Binding as a Novel Mechanism of Action in an Antifungal Agent

    • Wed, 08/24/2022 - 04:00
    • Antibiotics
    • The identification and development of natural products into novel antimicrobial agents is crucial to combat the rise of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Clinical fungal isolates have been identified, which have shown resistance to all current clinical antifungals, highlighting a significant need to develop a novel antifungal agent. One of the natural products produced by the bacterium Burkholderia contaminans MS14 is the glycolipopeptide occidiofungin.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
  9. Effects of selected condensed tannins on Cryptosporidium parvum growth and proliferation in HCT-8 cell cultures

    • Tue, 08/23/2022 - 04:00
    • Experimental Parasitology
    • Infections with Cryptosporidium spp. Constitute a substantial public health burden and are responsible for widespread production losses in cattle herds. Reducing disease and shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts is an important One Health goal. There are very few therapeutic options available to treat cryptosporidiosis.

      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Parasites
  10. Divergent Cryptosporidium species and host-adapted Cryptosporidium canis subtypes in farmed minks, raccoon dogs and foxes in Shandong, China

    • Tue, 08/23/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
    • Cryptosporidium spp. are common parasitic pathogens causing diarrhea in humans and various animals. Fur animals are widely farmed in Shandong Province, China, but the prevalence and genetic identity of Cryptosporidium spp. in them are unclear. In this study, 1,211 fecal samples were collected from 602 minks, 310 raccoon dogs and 299 foxes on two farms in Shandong and analyzed for Cryptosporidium spp. by nested PCR and sequence analyses of the small subunit rRNA gene.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
  11. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in Canadian post-weaned calves and adult dairy cattle

    • Thu, 08/18/2022 - 04:00
    • Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports
    • Cryptosporidium is a zoonotic protozoan parasite that is distributed globally and impacts both human and animal health. There are over 40 species of Cryptosporidium described to date, of which four (C. parvumC. bovisC. ryanae and C. andersoni) are routinely reported in cattle.

      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Parasites
  12. Survey of the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in green leafy vegetables marketed in the city of Valencia (Spain)

    • Sun, 07/24/2022 - 04:00
    • International Journal of Food Microbiology
    • The role of vegetables usually consumed without prior culinary treatment is known to contribute to the prevalence of foodborne diseases. Cysts and oocysts can contaminate food, which can then be the source of infection in humans. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp.

      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Parasites
      • Giardia lamblia
  13. Risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection in small ruminants in northern Greece

    • Sun, 07/24/2022 - 04:00
    • Veterinary Parasitology
    • The knowledge of risk factors for Cryptosporidium spp. infection in small ruminants is based on limited data. Therefore, the current research aimed to describe the prevalence and risk factors associated with the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in sheep and goat herds in northern Greece.

      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Parasites
  14. Comparative Transcriptomics and Gene Knockout Reveal Virulence Factors of Neofusicoccum parvum in Walnut

    • Fri, 07/15/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • Neofusicoccum parvum can cause stem and branch blight of walnut (Juglans spp.), resulting in great economic losses and ecological damage. A total of two strains of N. parvum were subjected to RNA-sequencing after being fed on different substrates, sterile water (K1/K2), and walnut (T1/T2), and the function of ABC1 was verified by gene knockout. There were 1,834, 338, and 878 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the K1 vs. K2, T1 vs. K1, and T2 vs. K2 comparison groups, respectively.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
  15. Molecular detection and genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium in kindergarten children in Southern Xinjiang, China

    • Fri, 07/15/2022 - 04:00
    • Infection, Genetics and Evolution
    • Cryptosporidium is a common cause of diarrhea in children globally. However, there is limited information on the prevalence and genetic characteristics of Cryptosporidium in children in Xinjiang, China. This study aimed to assess the genetic characteristics and epidemiological status of Cryptosporidium in kindergarten children in Southern Xinjiang, China.

      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Parasites
  16. First Characterization and Zoonotic Potential of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis in Pigs in Hubei Province of China

    • Mon, 07/11/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
    • The zoonotic protozoa parasites Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis infect a wide range of hosts, including humans. Pigs are reservoir hosts for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis, which can transmit cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis to humans and other animals. The current study sought to investigate the infection rates and species/genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis in pigs in Hubei of China.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Giardia lamblia
  17. Decline in Cryptosporidium Infection in Free-Ranging Rhesus Monkeys in a Park After Public Health Interventions

    • Thu, 07/07/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
    • Nonhuman primates (NHPs) are considered an important source of parasitic zoonoses. A study in 2010 revealed high prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in free-ranging rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in a public park in Guiyang, southwestern China, which called for the control of disease in animals and long-term epidemiological tracking of Cryptosporidium spp.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
  18. Humans and Hoofed Livestock Are the Main Sources of Fecal Contamination of Rivers Used for Crop Irrigation: A Microbial Source Tracking Approach

    • Thu, 06/30/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Microbiology
    • Freshwater bodies receive waste, feces, and fecal microorganisms from agricultural, urban, and natural activities. In this study, the probable sources of fecal contamination were determined. Also, antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) were detected in the two main rivers of central Chile. Surface water samples were collected from 12 sampling sites in the Maipo (n = 8) and Maule Rivers (n = 4) every 3 months, from August 2017 until April 2019.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Giardia lamblia
  19. Immunosuppression Profile of CFZ533 (Iscalimab), a Non-Depleting Anti-CD40 Antibody, and the Presence of Opportunistic Infections in a Rhesus Monkey Toxicology Study

    • Thu, 06/23/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxicologic Pathology
    • CFZ533 (iscalimab) is a nondepleting anti-CD40 antibody intended for inhibition of transplant organ rejection and treatment of autoimmune diseases. In a safety assessment in rhesus monkeys, CFZ533 was administered for 13 weeks up to 150 mg/kg/week subcutaneously. CFZ533 was shown previously to completely inhibit primary and secondary T-cell-dependent antibody responses.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
  20. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species from domestic ruminants and wild reptiles in Cyprus

    • Wed, 06/15/2022 - 04:00
    • Parasitology Research
    • The presence of Cryptosporidium species in faecal samples of 32 sheep (Aries bovis), 10 goats (Capra circus), 1 blunt nose viper (Macrovipera lebetina lebetina), 3 Kotschy’s geckos (Mediodactylus kotschyi) and 6 wild stellagamas (Stellagama stellio cypriaca) in Cyprus were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
  21. Outbreak of Cryptosporidium hominis in northern Sweden: persisting symptoms in a 5-year follow-up

    • Wed, 06/15/2022 - 04:00
    • Parasitology Research
    • In 2010–2011, a waterborne outbreak of the parasite, Cryptosporidium hominis, affected approximately 27,000 inhabitants in the city of Östersund, Sweden. Previous research suggested that post-infectious symptoms, such as gastrointestinal symptoms and joint pain, could persist for up to 2 years after the initial infection. In this study, we investigated whether the parasite caused post-infectious sequelae for up to 5 years after the outbreak. Prospective cohort study.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
  22. Paving the Way: Contributions of Big Data to Apicomplexan and Kinetoplastid Research

    • Mon, 06/06/2022 - 04:00
    • Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
    • In the age of big data an important question is how to ensure we make the most out of the resources we generate. In this review, we discuss the major methods used in Apicomplexan and Kinetoplastid research to produce big datasets and advance our understanding of Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania biology.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Toxoplasma gondii
  23. RNA-Based Therapy for Cryptosporidium parvum Infection: Proof-of-Concept Studies

    • Sat, 06/04/2022 - 04:00
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Infection and Immunity, Ahead of Print. Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in children, which is one of the major causes of death in children under 5 years old. Nitazoxanide is the only FDA-approved treatment for cryptosporidiosis. However, it has limited efficacy in immunosuppressed patients and malnourished children. Therefore, it is urgent to develop novel therapies against this parasite.

      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Parasites
  24. Isolation and identification of sporozoite membrane protein of Cryptosporidium parvum and evaluation of calmodulin‐like protein immune protection

    • Sat, 06/04/2022 - 04:00
    • Parasite Immunology
    • Parasite Immunology, Accepted Article. Until now, no completely effective parasite-specific drugs or vaccines have been approved for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis. Through the separation and identification of the sporozoite membrane protein of Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum), 20 related proteins were obtained.

      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Parasites
  25. Mobilome of Apicomplexa Parasites

    • Tue, 05/17/2022 - 04:00
    • Genes
    • Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements found in the majority of eukaryotic genomes. Genomic studies of protozoan parasites from the phylum Apicomplexa have only reported a handful of TEs in some species and a complete absence in others.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium