An official website of the United States government.

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Food Safety Publications

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 201

  1. Astilbin attenuates apoptosis induced by cadmium through oxidative stress in carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) head kidney lymphocyte

    • Sun, 05/15/2022 - 04:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • As a kind of environmental pollutant, heavy metal Cadmium (Cd) exists widely in the environment. It is well known that Cd can accumulate and cause damage in liver, kidney and other organs. However, there are few studies on the immune cytotoxicity of Cd to fish. In particular, there are few studies on the toxicity of Cd to the head kidney lymphocytes of common carp. In order to further explore these mechanisms, we established an Cd exposure model in vitro.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Heavy Metals
  2. The arachidonic acid and its metabolism pathway play important roles for Apostichopus japonicus infected by Vibrio splendens

    • Thu, 05/12/2022 - 04:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • Improving the immune ability and guiding healthy culture for sea cucumber by purposefully screening the significant differential metabolites when Apostichopus japonicus (A. japonicus) is infected by pathogens is important. In this study, 35 types of significant differential metabolites appeared when A.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  3. Integrative omics analysis highlights the immunomodulatory effects of the parasitic dinoflagellate hhematodinium on crustacean hemocytes

    • Sat, 05/07/2022 - 04:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • Parasitic dinoflagellates in genus Hematodinium have caused substantial economic losses to multiple commercially valuable marine crustaceans around the world. Recent efforts to better understand the life cycle and biology of the parasite have improved our understanding of the disease ecology.

      • Natural toxins
      • Shellfish toxins
  4. Characterization of a novel activating protein-1 (AP-1) gene and the association of its single nucleotide polymorphisms with vibrio resistance in Tegillarca granosa

    • Thu, 04/28/2022 - 04:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • The blood clam Tegillarca granosa is a commercial marine bivalve of economic value, accounting for approximately 50% of clam production in China. In recent years, the yield of blood clams has been threatened by bacterial infections caused by marine Vibrio species that thrive under a rising sea temperature. The transcription factor activating protein-1 (AP-1) is emerging as an important player in the innate immunity of marine bivalves against viral or bacterial infections.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  5. Transcriptome profiling based on larvae at different time points after hatching provides a core set of gene resource for understanding the immune response mechanisms of the egg-protecting behavior against Vibrio anguillarum infection in Amphi...

    • Tue, 04/26/2022 - 04:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • Mollusks have recently received increasing attention because of their unique immune systems. Mollusks such as Amphioctopus fangsiao are economically important cephalopods, and the effects of their egg-protecting behavior on the larval immune response are unclear.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  6. Src kinase mediates coelomocytes phagocytosis via interacting with focal adhesion kinase in Vibrio splendidus challenged Apostichopus japonicus

    • Sat, 04/23/2022 - 04:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • Immune cells have many efficient ways to participate in the host immunity, including phagocytosis, which is an important pathway to eliminate pathogens. Only β-integrin-mediated phagocytosis pathways have been confirmed in Apostichopus japonicus. The Src family kinases (SFKs), a class of non-receptor tyrosine kinases plays an important role in the regulation of phagocytic signals in invertebrates. However, the SFK-mediated phagocytic mechanism is largely unknown in A.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  7. Dietary supplementation of Bacillus velezensis improves Vibrio anguillarum clearance in European sea bass by activating essential innate immune mechanisms

    • Wed, 04/13/2022 - 04:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • Bacillus spp. supplementation as probiotics in cultured fish diets has a long history of safe and effective use. Specifically, B.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  8. Combined administration routes of marine yeasts enhanced immune-related genes and protection of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) against Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    • Fri, 04/08/2022 - 04:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • Antibiotic usage to control infectious diseases in shrimp aquaculture has led to serious problems on antimicrobial resistance.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  9. The potential role of eyestalk in the immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection II. From the perspective of long non-coding RNA

    • Fri, 04/08/2022 - 04:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been linked to immunological modulation. Unfortunately, little is known about the processes of immune control in shrimp.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  10. Protective effects of the biofloc system in Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) culture against pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection

    • Sat, 04/02/2022 - 04:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • The mitigation of vibriosis in shrimp culture could be accomplished by reducing the virulence of the pathogen or by increasing the immune response of the shrimp. This study aims to evaluate the application of a biofloc system in protecting Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) from pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  11. Listeria monocytogenes isolates from Cornu aspersum snails: Whole genome-based characterization and host-pathogen interactions in a snail infection model

    • Mon, 03/28/2022 - 04:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • Even though Listeria monocytogenes is an extensive-studied foodborne pathogen, genome analysis of isolates from snails that may represent a reservoir of Lmonocytogenes are still scarce. Here, we use whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to assess the genomic diversity of hypervirulent, virulent and non-virulent phenotypes of 15 L.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Listeria monocytogenes
  12. Transcriptome analysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) hepatopancreas challenged by Vibrio alginolyticus reveals lipid metabolic disturbance

    • Fri, 03/11/2022 - 12:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • Vibrio alginolyticus is a devastating bacterial pathogen of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), which often causes acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS) and early mortality syndrome (EMS). Elucidation of molecular mechanisms of L. vannamei in responding to infection is essential for controlling the epidemic. In the present study, transcriptomic profiles of L. vannamei hepatopancreas were explored by injecting with PBS or V.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  13. Bioaccumulation of arsenic and immunotoxic effect in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) exposed to trivalent arsenic

    • Thu, 02/17/2022 - 18:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • Trivalent arsenic (As (III)) contamination in the marine environment can produce adverse effects in crustaceans. The present study investigated the chronic toxicity of As (III) in white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) by analyzing the tissue bioaccumulation and non-specific immune responses. Shrimps were exposed to 0 (control), 50, 500, and 2500 μg/L of As (III) for 21 days. The results showed that the hepatopancreas was the main tissue of arsenic accumulation in white shrimp.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Heavy Metals
  14. Toxic effects of waterborne cadmium exposure on hematological parameters, oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, and heat shock protein 70 in juvenile olive flounder, Paralichthys olicaceus

    • Wed, 02/16/2022 - 06:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • Cadmium-induced toxicity can affect fish embryo development, ion homeostasis regulation, energy metabolism, maturation and growth, stress response, and immunity. However, studies on the toxic effects of cadmium exposure to aquatic animals, particularly olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), are limited. In this study, juvenile P. olivaceus (mean length, 12.9 ± 1.3 cm; mean weight, 23.1 ± 3.2 g) was exposed to waterborne cadmium (0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/L) for 10 d.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Heavy Metals
  15. An integrin alpha 4 (ChIntα 4) from oyster Crassostrea hongkongensis mediates the hemocytes phagocytosis towards Vibrio alginolyticus

    • Sat, 02/12/2022 - 12:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • Integrins, a family of cell adhesion transmembrane receptors, mediate cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, and phagocytosis. In the present study, an integrin ChIntα 4 from Crassostrea hongkongensis was characterized to investigate its role in defensing against pathogenic bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  16. Transcriptome analysis reveals potential key immune genes of Hong Kong oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection

    • Fri, 02/04/2022 - 06:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • Hong Kong oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) is one of the main species of economic shellfish cultivated in the coastal areas of southern China. The cultivation of this shellfish may be adversely impacted by Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a harmful pathogenic bacterium for many mariculture species, as it usually exists on the surface of Hong Kong oysters.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  17. Interleukin-1β enhances the expression of two antimicrobial peptides in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) against Vibrio mimicus via activating NF-κB pathway

    • Sun, 01/30/2022 - 12:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • Vibrio mimicus (V. mimicus) is a pathogen causing serious vibriosis in aquatic animals. Hepcidin and β-Defensin1 are two important antibacterial peptides (AMPs) with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity in fish. In mammals, some evidences demonstrated that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) primarily promote AMPs expression via activating classical NF-κB pathway, but it still remains unclear in fish.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  18. Effects of microbial community and disease resistance against Vibrio splendidus of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) fed supplementary diets of tussah immunoreactive substances and antimicrobial peptides

    • Sun, 01/23/2022 - 06:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of tussah immunoreactive substances (TIS) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) on microbial community and resistance against 

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  19. Intestinal morphology and microflora to Vibrio alginolyticus in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    • Fri, 01/21/2022 - 12:00
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
    • In recent years, the shrimp farming industry encountered significant economic losses induced by Vibrio alginolyticus. In this study, the influence of Vibrio alginolyticus on intestinal histomorphology and microbiome composition in Litopenaeus vannamei were studied.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  20. The flagellin of Vibrio parahaemolyticus induces the inflammatory response of Tetraodon nigroviridis through TLR5M

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  21. Cadmium regulates FKBP5 through miR-9-5p and induces carp lymphocyte apoptosis

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
      • Chemical contaminants
      • Heavy Metals
  22. Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) plays a positive role during WSSV and Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  23. Process optimization for fermented siwu decoction by multi-index-response surface method and exploration of the effects of fermented siwu decoction on the growth, immune response and resistance to Vibrio harveyi of Pacific white shrimp (Litop

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  24. Identification and characterization of mkk genes and their expression profiles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) symptomatically or asymptomatically infected with Vibrio anguillarum

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  25. Transcriptome analysis of Neocaridina denticulate sinensis challenged by Vibrio parahemolyticus

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Fish & Shellfish Immunology
      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio