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Food Safety Publications

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 176

  1. Occurrence of Norovirus, Rotavirus, Hepatitis a Virus, and Enterovirus in Berries in Argentina

    • Tue, 03/22/2022 - 09:15
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Berries have been implicated as the probable vehicle of infection in multiple outbreaks of norovirus and hepatitis A virus (HAV). These foods often receive minimal or no processing and may be exposed to virus contamination at each stage of production. In an increasingly globalized world, berries have a wide distribution and can give rise to the spread of diseases in distant parts of the world.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  2. Detection of Norovirus and Hepatitis A Virus in Strawberry and Green Leafy Vegetables by Using RT-qPCR in Egypt

    • Sat, 03/05/2022 - 12:00
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • There is an upward trend of consumption of organic fresh vegetables due to consumer demand for healthy foods without chemical additives. On the other hand, the number of food borne outbreaks associated with contaminated fresh produce has raised, being human norovirus genogroup I (GI), GII and hepatitis A virus (HAV) the most commonly reported causative agents.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  3. Detection of Enteric Viruses from Wastewater and River Water in Botswana

    • Sun, 02/13/2022 - 12:00
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Waterborne diseases remain a public health concern in developing countries where many lack access to safe water. Water testing mainly uses bacterial indicators to assess water quality, which may not fully indicate the threat from other non-bacterial pathogens like enteric viruses. This study was done to ascertain and establish the viral load, the temporal and spatial distribution of rotavirus A and norovirus (GI and GII) in sewage and river water samples.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  4. Updating a New Semi-nested PCR Primer Pair for the Specific Detection of GII Norovirus in Oysters

    • Wed, 02/02/2022 - 06:00
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Oysters are major transmission vectors of noroviruses (NoVs) in the environment. Outbreaks of NoVs are often associated with the consumption of NoV-contaminated oysters. Laboratory confirmation of suspected oyster samples is a critical step in the surveillance and control of NoVs. Because of non-specific amplification, false-positive results are frequently obtained by semi-nested RT-PCR with the presently widely used primer set (G2SKF/G2SKR).

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  5. Stability of Hepatitis E Virus After Drying on Different Surfaces

    • Fri, 01/28/2022 - 06:00
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • The hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes acute and chronic hepatitis in humans. The zoonotic HEV genotype 3 is mainly transmitted by consumption of contaminated food produced from infected animals. However, transmission via contaminated surfaces has also to be considered. Here, the genotype 3c strain 47832c was dried on steel, wood, plastics and ceramics, stored at 23 °C or 3 °C for up to 8 weeks and remaining infectivity was titrated on cell culture.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  6. Detection of Norovirus Recombinant GII.2[P16] Strains in Oysters in Thailand

    • Tue, 01/25/2022 - 12:00
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Human norovirus causes sporadic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis worldwide, and the predominant strains are genotype GII.4 variants. Recently, a novel GII.17[P17] and a recombinant GII.2[P16] strain have been reported as the causes of gastroenteritis outbreaks. Outbreaks of norovirus are frequently associated with foodborne illness.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  7. Detection and Sequencing of Multiple Human Norovirus Genotypes from Imported Frozen Raspberries Linked to Outbreaks in the Province of Quebec, Canada, in 2017

    • Mon, 01/24/2022 - 06:00
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Human noroviruses are among the main causes of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Frozen raspberries have been linked to several norovirus food-related outbreaks. However, the extraction of norovirus RNA from frozen raspberries remains challenging. Recovery yields are low and PCR inhibitors limit the sensitivity of the detection methodologies.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  8. Acute Hepatitis A Virus Infection in Tobruk, Eastern Libya: Increasing Trends After 2017

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Acute hepatitis A is a self-limited liver inflammation caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection. The infection is transmitted by direct contact from person to person via fecal–oral routes, or through consuming contaminated food and water. This study aims to estimate the frequency of HAV infection from medical records of Tobruk Medical Center, eastern Libya and its distribution during 6 years.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  9. Detection of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus in Different Food Categories: A 6-Year Survey in Italy

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • To observe the prevalence of contamination by hepatitis A virus (HAV) and norovirus (NoV) in different food types, 9242 samples were analyzed over a 6-year period (January 2014–December 2019). Samples were from routine official activities by Competent Authorities (CAs) and Food Business Operators, according to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points plans. Analyses were performed in accordance with European and Italian regulations.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
      • Norovirus
  10. A State-of-the-Art Scoping Review on SARS-CoV-2 in Sewage Focusing on the Potential of Wastewater Surveillance for the Monitoring of the COVID-19 Pandemic

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • The outbreak of coronavirus infectious disease-2019 (COVID-19), caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has rapidly spread throughout the world. Several studies have shown that detecting SARS-CoV-2 in untreated wastewater can be a useful tool to identify new outbreaks, establish outbreak trends, and assess the prevalence of infections.

      • Viruses
      • COVID-19
  11. Applications of Bacteriophage Cocktails to Reduce Salmonella Contamination in Poultry Farms

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Salmonella contamination is a critical problem in poultry farms, with serious consequences for both animals and food products. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of phage cocktails to reduce Salmonella contamination in poultry farms. Within the scope of the study, Salmonella phages were isolated from chicken stool.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  12. Development of a Specific Anti-capsid Antibody- and Magnetic Bead-Based Immunoassay to Detect Human Norovirus Particles in Stool Samples and Spiked Mussels via Flow Cytometry

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Human noroviruses impose a considerable health burden globally. Here, a flow cytometry approach designed for their detection in biological waste and food samples was developed using antibody-coated magnetic beads. Antipeptide antibodies against murine norovirus and various human norovirus genotypes were generated for capture and coated onto magnetic beads.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  13. Assessment of Microbiological Quality of Fresh Vegetables and Oysters Produced in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Fresh vegetables and shellfish are prone to microbial contamination through irrigation or breeding with sewage-polluted waters, as well as by infected food handlers. In this work, we studied the presence of human and bovine polyomaviruses and human norovirus in fresh lettuces, strawberries and oysters produced in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. In oysters, we also investigated F-specific RNA bacteriophages, indicator Escherichia coli (E.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
      • Vibrio
      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  14. Assessment of Viral Contamination of Five Brazilian Artisanal Cheese Produced from Raw Milk: a Randomized Survey

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Enteric viruses have been described as important contaminants in fresh and ready-to-eat foods such as sandwiches, deli meat and dairy products. This is a cross-sectional randomized survey to estimate the prevalence of norovirus and human adenovirus (HAdV) from 100 Brazilian artisanal raw milk cheese samples (Minas and Coalho) obtained from different agroindustries in four producing regions in the states of Minas Gerais and one in Piauí, respectively.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  15. RT-LAMP: A Cheaper, Simpler and Faster Alternative for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Wastewater

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has the potential to become a cheaper and faster option for monitoring COVID-19 infections through wastewater-based epidemiology. However, its application in COVID-19 surveillance has been limited to clinical testing only.

      • Viruses
      • COVID-19
  16. Identification of Workers at Increased Risk of Infection During a COVID-19 Outbreak in a Meat Processing Plant, France, May 2020

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • On 13 May 2020, a COVID-19 cluster was detected in a French processing plant. Infected workers were described. The associations between the SARS-CoV-2 infection and the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics were assessed in order to implement risk management measures targeting workers at increased risk of contamination. Workers were tested by RT-PCR from samples taken during screening campaigns. Workers who tested positive were isolated and their contacts were quarantined.

      • Viruses
      • COVID-19
  17. Inactivation of Murine Norovirus Suspended in Organic Matter Simulating Actual Conditions of Viral Contamination

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Foodborne viral illnesses are frequent worldwide and costly for the society. Human norovirus is one of the most common causal agents. Although some norovirus genotypes can now be cultured, surrogates are still used for inactivation studies.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  18. Optimizing Human Intestinal Enteroids for Environmental Monitoring of Human Norovirus

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Human noroviruses (HuNoV) are the leading cause of gastrointestinal illness and environmental monitoring is crucial to prevent HuNoV outbreaks. The recent development of a HuNoV cell culture assay in human intestinal enteroids (HIEs) has enabled detection of infectious HuNoV. However, this complex approach requires adaptation of HIEs to facilitate HuNoV replication from environmental matrixes.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  19. Norovirus Foodborne Outbreak Associated With the Consumption of Ice Pop, Southern Brazil, 2020

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Norovirus is a major cause of foodborne-associated acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks worldwide. Usually, food products are contaminated either during harvesting or preparation, and the most common products associated to norovirus outbreaks are raw or undercooked bivalve shellfish, fruits (frozen berries) and ready-to-eat produce. In the present study, we investigated an AGE outbreak caused by norovirus associated with the consumption of ice pops in southern Brazil.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  20. Murine Norovirus Interaction with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm in a Dynamic Bioreactor

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Biofilms can constitute permanent threats to food safety and public health. Bacteria and viruses lodged in biofilm can escape cleaning and sanitizing agents. The aim of this study was to compare Pseudomonas aeruginosa developing and mature biofilms produced on agri-food surfaces in terms of interaction with murine norovirus.

      • Viruses
      • Norovirus
  21. Environmental Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in Wastewater and Groundwater in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    • Wed, 01/12/2022 - 22:17
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • The presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in wastewater has been reported as a result of fecal shedding of infected individuals. In this study, the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was explored in primary-treated wastewater from two municipal wastewater treatment plants in Quintana Roo, Mexico, along with groundwater from sinkholes, a household well, and submarine groundwater discharges.

      • Viruses
      • COVID-19
  22. Estimation of Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Environments of Live Poultry Markets in Changsha, China, 2014 to 2018

    • Sun, 01/09/2022 - 02:01
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • In routine surveillance for avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in the environments of live poultry markets (LPMs), certain samples were positive for AIVs type A while negative for subtypes (e.g., H5, H7, and H9). However, little attention has been paid to these unsubtyped AIVs samples.

      • Viruses
  23. Detection of Rotavirus Strains in Freshwater Clams in Japan

    • Wed, 01/05/2022 - 02:01
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Bivalve molluscan shellfish like clams and oysters, etc., are capable to bioaccumulate surrounding contaminants from waters into their digestive systems and posing serious threats of food poisoning. Detection of rotaviruses (RVs) in shellfish is of particular importance because RVs are prone to genome reassortment resulting in the emergence of new RV variants that may compromise vaccine safety.

  24. Applications of Bacteriophage Cocktails to Reduce Salmonella Contamination in Poultry Farms

    • Mon, 11/15/2021 - 02:01
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • Salmonella contamination is a critical problem in poultry farms, with serious consequences for both animals and food products. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of phage cocktails to reduce Salmonella contamination in poultry farms. Within the scope of the study, Salmonella phages were isolated from chicken stool.

      • Salmonella
      • Bacterial pathogens
  25. Detection of Hepatitis A Virus and Norovirus in Different Food Categories: A 6-Year Survey in Italy

    • Wed, 10/27/2021 - 02:01
    • Food and Environmental Virology
    • To observe the prevalence of contamination by hepatitis A virus (HAV) and norovirus (NoV) in different food types, 9242 samples were analyzed over a 6-year period (January 2014–December 2019). Samples were from routine official activities by Competent Authorities (CAs) and Food Business Operators, according to Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points plans. Analyses were performed in accordance with European and Italian regulations.

      • Norovirus
      • Hepatitis
      • Viruses