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Food Safety Publications

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 120

  1. Mobilome of Apicomplexa Parasites

    • Tue, 05/17/2022 - 04:00
    • Genes
    • Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements found in the majority of eukaryotic genomes. Genomic studies of protozoan parasites from the phylum Apicomplexa have only reported a handful of TEs in some species and a complete absence in others.

      • Parasites
      • Cryptosporidium parvium
  2. Vibrio cholerae Chromosome Partitioning without Polar Anchoring by HubP

    • Sat, 05/14/2022 - 04:00
    • Genes
    • Partition systems are widespread among bacterial chromosomes. They are composed of two effectors, ParA and ParB, and cis acting sites, parS, located close to the replication origin of the chromosome (oriC). ParABS participate in chromosome segregation, at least in part because they serve to properly position sister copies of oriC. A fourth element, located at cell poles, is also involved in some cases, such as HubP for the ParABS1 system of Vibrio cholerae chromosome 1 (ch1).

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Vibrio
  3. Whole-Genome Sequencing Reveals Lignin-Degrading Capacity of a Ligninolytic Bacterium (Bacillus cereus) from Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Rumen

    • Mon, 05/09/2022 - 04:00
    • Genes
    • The buffalo is an amazing ruminant. Its ability to degrade lignin, which has been recently reported, is most likely due to unique rumen microorganisms with lignin-degradation potential. Our goal was to explore the lignin-degradation potential of ruminal microorganisms, in which ligninolytic enzyme encoding genes were involved to provide ideas for revealing the mechanism of lignin degradation by buffalo.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Bacillus cereus
  4. Transcriptomic Analysis of the Spleen of Different Chicken Breeds Revealed the Differential Resistance of Salmonella Typhimurium

    • Tue, 05/03/2022 - 04:00
    • Genes
    • Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) is a foodborne pathogen that adversely affects the health of both animals and humans. Since poultry is a common source and carrier of the disease, controlling ST infection in chickens will have a protective impact on human health.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  5. Impacts of Life-Time Exposure of Arsenic, Cadmium and Fluoranthene on the Earthworms’ L. rubellus Global DNA Methylation as Detected by msAFLP

    • Wed, 04/27/2022 - 04:00
    • Genes
    • This study reports on the effects of long-term exposure to the metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluoranthene on the survival, growth, development and DNA methylation status of the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Exposures to the three chemicals were conducted over their whole juvenile developmental period from egg to adult. Significant effects on one or more measured endpoints were found for all three chemicals.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Heavy Metals
  6. Pleiotropic Effects of Common and Rare GCKR Exonic Mutations on Cardiometabolic Traits

    • Fri, 03/11/2022 - 12:00
    • Genes
    • The common non-synonymous mutation of the glucokinase regulator (GCKR) gene, namely rs1260326, is widely reported to have pleiotropic effects on cardio-metabolic traits and hematological parameters. Objective: This study aimed to identify whether other GCKR variants may have pleiotropic effects independent of the rs1260326 genotypes.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Heavy Metals
  7. Rapidly Progressing to ESRD in an Individual with Coexisting ADPKD and Masked Klinefelter and Gitelman Syndromes

    • Wed, 02/23/2022 - 06:00
    • Genes
    • Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most common monogenetic hereditary renal disease, promoting end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a consequence of an extra copy of the X chromosome in males. Main symptoms in KS include hypogonadism, tall stature, azoospermia, and a risk of cardiovascular diseases, among others.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Heavy Metals
  8. Successful Silencing of the Mycotoxin Synthesis Gene TRI5 in Fusarium culmorum and Observation of Reduced Virulence in VIGS and SIGS Experiments

    • Wed, 02/23/2022 - 06:00
    • Genes
    • Crops constantly experience various biotic stresses during their life cycle, and Fusarium spp. remain one of the most serious groups of pathogens affecting plants. The ability to manipulate the expression of certain microorganism genes via RNAi creates the opportunity for new-generation dsRNA-based preparations to control a large number of diseases.

      • Natural toxins
      • Mycotoxins
  9. Increase in Ribosomal Fidelity Benefits Salmonella upon Bile Salt Exposure

    • Sat, 01/22/2022 - 12:00
    • Genes
    • Translational fidelity is maintained by multiple quality control steps in all three domains of life. Increased translational errors (mistranslation) occur due to genetic mutations and external stresses. Severe mistranslation is generally harmful, but moderate levels of mistranslation may be favored under certain conditions. To date, little is known about the link between translational fidelity and host–pathogen interactions.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  10. Identifying Cancer Subtypes Using a Residual Graph Convolution Model on a Sample Similarity Network

    • Tue, 12/28/2021 - 00:00
    • Genes
    • Cancer subtype classification helps us to understand the pathogenesis of cancer and develop new cancer drugs, treatment from which patients would benefit most. Most previous studies detect cancer subtypes by extracting features from individual samples, ignoring their associations with others. We believe that the interactions of cancer samples can help identify cancer subtypes.

  11. Who Packed the Drugs? Application of Bayesian Networks to Address Questions of DNA Transfer, Persistence, and Recovery from Plastic Bags and Tape

    • Thu, 12/23/2021 - 00:00
    • Genes
    • When DNA from a suspect is detected in a sample collected at a crime scene, there can be alternative explanations about the activity that may have led to the transfer, persistence and recovery of his/her DNA. Previous studies have shown that DNA can be indirectly transferred via intermediate surfaces and that DNA on a previously used object can persist after subsequent use of another individual.

  12. Small Molecule Drugs Targeting Non-Coding RNAs as Treatments for Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Dementias

    • Sat, 12/18/2021 - 00:00
    • Genes
    • Despite the enormous burden of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD) on patients, caregivers, and society, only a few treatments with limited efficacy are currently available. While drug development conventionally focuses on disease-associated proteins, RNA has recently been shown to be druggable for therapeutic purposes as well.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Heavy Metals
  13. In Silico Analysis of Pathogenic CRB1 Single Nucleotide Variants and Their Amenability to Base Editing as a Potential Lead for Therapeutic Intervention

    • Sun, 11/28/2021 - 00:00
    • Genes
    • Mutations in the Crumbs homolog 1 (CRB1) gene cause both autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Since three separate CRB1 isoforms are expressed at meaningful levels in the human retina, base editing shows promise as a therapeutic approach. This retrospective analysis aims to summarise the reported pathogenic CRB1 variants and investigate their amenability to treatment with currently available DNA base editors.

      • Heavy Metals
      • Chemical contaminants
  14. Bioinformatic Analysis Identified Hub Genes Associated with Heterocyclic Amines Induced Cytotoxicity of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    • Fri, 11/26/2021 - 00:00
    • Genes
    • Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are a set of food contaminants that may exert a cytotoxic effect on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). However, the genetic mechanism underlying the cytotoxicity of HCAs on PBMC has not been investigated. In the study, bioinformatic analysis on gene dataset GSE19078 was performed.

  15. Transcriptomic Markers of Recombinant Human Erythropoietin Micro-Dosing in Thoroughbred Horses

    • Thu, 11/25/2021 - 00:00
    • Genes
    • Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is a well-known performance enhancing drug in human athletes, and there is anecdotal evidence of it being used in horse racing for the same purpose. rHuEPO, like endogenous EPO, increases arterial oxygen content and thus aerobic power. Micro-doping, or injecting smaller doses over a longer period of time, has become an important concern in both human and equine athletics since it is more difficult to detect.

  16. Identification of the EdcR Estrogen-Dependent Repressor in Caenibius tardaugens NBRC 16725: Construction of a Cellular Estradiol Biosensor

    • Wed, 11/24/2021 - 00:01
    • Genes
    • In this work, Caenibius tardaugens NBRC 16725 (strain ARI-1) (formerly Novosphingobium tardaugens) was isolated due to its capacity to mineralize estrogenic endocrine disruptors. Its genome encodes the edc genes cluster responsible for the degradation of 17β-estradiol, consisting of two putative operons (OpA and OpB) encoding the enzymes of the upper degradation pathway. Inside the edc cluster, we identified the edcR gene encoding a TetR-like protein.

      • Bacterial pathogens
  17. Genetic Approaches to Enhance Multiple Stress Tolerance in Maize

    • Fri, 11/05/2021 - 00:00
    • Genes
    • The multiple-stress effects on plant physiology and gene expression are being intensively studied lately, primarily in model plants such as Arabidopsis, where the effects of six stressors have simultaneously been documented. In maize, double and triple stress responses are obtaining more attention, such as simultaneous drought and heat or heavy metal exposure, or drought in combination with insect and fungal infestation.

  18. The Methods of Digging for “Gold” within the Salt: Characterization of Halophilic Prokaryotes and Identification of Their Valuable Biological Products Using Sequencing and Genome Mining Tools

    • Tue, 11/02/2021 - 00:00
    • Genes
    • Halophiles, the salt-loving organisms, have been investigated for at least a hundred years. They are found in all three domains of life, namely Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, and occur in saline and hypersaline environments worldwide. They are already a valuable source of various biomolecules for biotechnological, pharmaceutical, cosmetological and industrial applications.

  19. The Staphylococcus aureus CC398 Lineage: An Evolution Driven by the Acquisition of Prophages and Other Mobile Genetic Elements

    • Sun, 10/31/2021 - 00:00
    • Genes
    • Among clinically relevant lineages of Staphylococcus aureus, the lineage or clonal complex 398 (CC398) is of particular interest. Strains from this lineage were only described as livestock colonizers until 2007. Progressively, cases of infection were reported in humans in contact with farm animals, and now, CC398 isolates are increasingly identified as the cause of severe infections even in patients without any contact with animals.

      • Staphylococcus aureus
      • Bacterial pathogens
  20. Reproductive Stage Drought Tolerance in Wheat: Importance of Stomatal Conductance and Plant Growth Regulators

    • Sat, 10/30/2021 - 00:00
    • Genes
    • Drought stress requires plants to adjust their water balance to maintain tissue water levels. Isohydric plants (‘water-savers’) typically achieve this through stomatal closure, while anisohydric plants (‘water-wasters’) use osmotic adjustment and maintain stomatal conductance. Isohydry or anisohydry allows plant species to adapt to different environments. In this paper we show that both mechanisms occur in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

      • Produce Safety
      • Ethylene Sensitive
  21. Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Stress-Related dnaK, hrcA, and ctsR Expression Patterns in Selected Lactobacilli Strains

    • Fri, 10/29/2021 - 00:00
    • Genes
    • Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the natural environment meet multiple stressors such as pH and temperature variations, increased nutrition and metabolite concentrations, harmful chemicals, acidic/oxidative conditions, osmotic pressure, and starvation. However, LAB strains are not subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) which currently is the most common non-thermal decontamination technology in the food industry.

  22. Ultrasound-Based Method for the Identification of Novel MicroRNA Biomarkers in Prostate Cancer

    • Fri, 10/29/2021 - 00:00
    • Genes
    • The detection of circulating microRNA (miRNA)-based biomarkers represents an innovative, non-invasive method for the early detection of cancer. However, the low concentration of miRNAs released in body fluids and the difficult identification of the tumor site have limited their clinical use as effective cancer biomarkers.

  23. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Gene Polymorphism May be a Modifier for Cadmium Kidney Toxicity

    • Wed, 10/13/2021 - 00:00
    • Genes
    • The results of many studies indicate that cadmium (Cd) exposure is harmful to humans, with the proximal tubule of the kidney being the main target of Cd accumulation and toxicity. Studies have also shown that Cd has the effect of activating the pathway of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling and cell growth. The EGFR is a family of transmembrane receptors, which are widely expressed in the human kidney.

      • Heavy Metals
      • Chemical contaminants
  24. Genome-Wide Association Study on Adiponectin-Mediated Suppression of HDL-C Levels in Taiwanese Individuals Identifies Functional Haplotypes in CDH13

    • Wed, 10/13/2021 - 00:00
    • Genes
    • CDH13 encodes T-cadherin, which is expressed in the vasculature and cardiac myocytes and is the receptor for hexameric and high-molecular-weight adiponectin. The CDH13 region is the most pivotal locus associated with adiponectin level. Mediation analysis is a method to explore the effect of a third variable, it is assumed that the magnitude of the relationship between the independent and dependent variables will be reduced by statistical adjustment for a third variable.

      • Heavy Metals
      • Chemical contaminants
  25. Antibacterial Peptides Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: Various Mechanisms and the Association with Pathogenicity

    • Wed, 09/29/2021 - 00:00
    • Genes
    • Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterium that mainly colonizes the nasal cavity and skin. To colonize the host, it is necessary for S. aureus to resist many antibacterial factors derived from human and commensal bacteria. Among them are the bacteria-derived antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) called bacteriocins. It was reported that some two-component systems (TCSs), which are signal transduction systems specific to bacteria, are involved in the resistance to several bacteriocins in S. aureus.

      • Staphylococcus aureus
      • Bacterial pathogens