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Research Publications (Food Safety)

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 253

  1. Chronic Leptin Deficiency Improves Tolerance of Physiological Damage and Host-Pathogen Cooperation during Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infection

    • Fri, 08/05/2022 - 04:00
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Infection and Immunity, Ahead of Print. To combat infections, hosts employ a combination of antagonistic and cooperative defense strategies. The former refers to pathogen killing mediated by resistance mechanisms, while the latter refers to physiological defense mechanisms that promote host health during infection independent of pathogen killing, leading to an apparent cooperation between the host and the pathogen.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Yersinia
  2. A Role for Basigin in Toxoplasma gondii Infection

    • Tue, 08/02/2022 - 04:00
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Infection and Immunity, Ahead of Print. The role of specific host cell surface receptors during Toxoplasma gondii invasion of host cells is poorly defined. Here, we interrogated the role of the well-known malarial invasion receptor, basigin, in T. gondii infection of astrocytes. We found that primary astrocytes express two members of the BASIGIN (BSG) immunoglobulin family, basigin and embigin, but did not express neuroplastin.

      • Parasites
      • Toxoplasma gondii
  3. Protection Induced by Oral Vaccination with a Recombinant Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Delivering Yersinia pestis LcrV and F1 Antigens in Mice and Rats against Pneumonic Plague

    • Sat, 07/30/2022 - 04:00
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Infection and Immunity, Ahead of Print. A newly attenuated Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strain (designated Yptb1) with triple mutation Δasd ΔyopK ΔyopJ and chromosomal insertion of the Y. pestis caf1R-caf1M-caf1A-caf1 operon was constructed as a live vaccine platform. Yptb1 tailored with an Asd+ plasmid (pYA5199) (designated Yptb1[pYA5199]) simultaneously delivers Y. pestis LcrV and F1.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Yersinia
  4. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Induces NAIP/NLRC4- and NLRP3/ASC-Independent, Caspase-4-Dependent Inflammasome Activation in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    • Fri, 06/10/2022 - 04:00
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Infection and Immunity, Ahead of Print. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes diseases ranging from gastroenteritis to systemic infection and sepsis. Salmonella uses type III secretion systems (T3SS) to inject effectors into host cells. While these effectors are necessary for bacterial invasion and intracellular survival, intracellular delivery of T3SS products also enables detection of translocated Salmonella ligands by cytosolic immune sensors.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  5. Toxoplasma gondii Infection Decreases Intestinal 5-Lipoxygenase Expression, while Exogenous LTB4 Controls Parasite Growth

    • Tue, 06/07/2022 - 04:00
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Infection and Immunity, Ahead of Print. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) is an enzyme required for the production of leukotrienes and lipoxins and interferes with parasitic infections. In vitro, Toxoplasma gondii inhibits leukotriene B4 (LTB4) production, and mice deficient in 5-LO are highly susceptible to infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the pharmacological inhibition of the 5-LO pathway and exogenous LTB4 supplementation during experimental toxoplasmosis.

      • Parasites
      • Toxoplasma gondii
  6. Ferrous Iron Uptake Is Required for Salmonella to Persist within Vacuoles of Host Cells

    • Sat, 06/04/2022 - 04:00
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Infection and Immunity, Ahead of Print. Iron is an essential oligoelement that incorporates into proteins as a biocatalyst or electron carrier. The intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) takes iron as free reduced ferrous cation or as oxidized ferric cation complexed to siderophores or ferrichromes.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  7. Macrophage Cell Lines and Murine Infection by Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi L-Form Bacteria

    • Sat, 06/04/2022 - 04:00
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Infection and Immunity, Ahead of Print. Antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria has emerged as a major threat to public health worldwide. While stable resistance due to the acquisition of genomic mutations or plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes is well established, much less is known about the temporary and reversible resistance induced by antibiotic treatment, such as that due to treatment with bacterial cell wall-inhibiting antibiotics such as ampicillin.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  8. Essential Role of NLRP3 Inflammasome in Mediating IL-1β Production and the Pathobiology of Staphylococcus aureus Endophthalmitis

    • Sat, 06/04/2022 - 04:00
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Infection and Immunity, Volume 90, Issue 5, May 2022. Staphylococcal endophthalmitis is one of the leading causes of blindness following ocular surgery and trauma. Dysregulated inflammation during bacterial endophthalmitis causes host-induced inflammatory damage and vision loss if it remains unchecked. Emerging evidence indicates that inflammasome plays a critical role in regulating innate immunity in various infectious and inflammatory diseases.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Staphylococcus aureus
  9. Fatty Acid Homeostasis Tunes Flagellar Motility by Activating Phase 2 Flagellin Expression, Contributing to Salmonella Gut Colonization

    • Sat, 06/04/2022 - 04:00
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Infection and Immunity, Ahead of Print. Long-chain-fatty-acid (LCFA) metabolism is a fundamental cellular process in bacteria that is involved in lipid homeostasis, energy production, and infection. However, the role of LCFA metabolism in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Tm) gut infection remains unclear. Here, using a murine gastroenteritis infection model, we demonstrate involvement of LCFA metabolism in S. Tm gut colonization.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  10. Transcytosis of IgA Attenuates Salmonella Invasion in Human Enteroids and Intestinal Organoids

    • Sat, 06/04/2022 - 04:00
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Infection and Immunity, Ahead of Print. Secretory IgA (SIgA) is the most abundant antibody type in intestinal secretions where it contributes to safeguarding the epithelium from invasive pathogens like the Gram-negative bacterium, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STm).

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  11. RNA-Based Therapy for Cryptosporidium parvum Infection: Proof-of-Concept Studies

    • Sat, 06/04/2022 - 04:00
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Infection and Immunity, Ahead of Print. Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in children, which is one of the major causes of death in children under 5 years old. Nitazoxanide is the only FDA-approved treatment for cryptosporidiosis. However, it has limited efficacy in immunosuppressed patients and malnourished children. Therefore, it is urgent to develop novel therapies against this parasite.

      • Cryptosporidium parvium
      • Parasites
  12. Increased Pulmonary Pneumococcal Clearance after Resolution of H9N2 Avian Influenza Virus Infection in Mice

    • Tue, 05/18/2021 - 10:02
    • Infection and Immunity
    • H9N2 avian influenza virus has been continuously circulating among poultry and can infect mammals, indicating that this virus is a potential pandemic strain. During influenza pandemics, secondary bacterial (particularly pneumococcal) pneumonia usually contributes to excessive mortality. In the present study, we observed the dynamic effect of H9N2 virus infection on host defense against secondary pneumococcal infection in mice.

      • Viruses
  13. Brucella ovis Cysteine Biosynthesis Contributes to Peroxide Stress Survival and Fitness in the Intracellular Niche

    • Tue, 05/18/2021 - 10:01
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Brucella ovis is an ovine intracellular pathogen with tropism for the male genital tract. To establish and maintain infection, B. ovis must survive stressful conditions inside host cells, including low pH, nutrient limitation, and reactive oxygen species. The same conditions are often encountered in axenic cultures during stationary phase.

      • Bacterial pathogens
  14. Sulfate Import in Salmonella Typhimurium Impacts Bacterial Aggregation and the Respiratory Burst in Human Neutrophils

    • Tue, 05/18/2021 - 10:01
    • Infection and Immunity
    • During enteric salmonellosis, neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen species alter the gut microenvironment, favoring survival of Salmonella Typhimurium. While type 3 secretion system 1 (T3SS-1) and flagellar motility are potent Salmonella Typhimurium agonists of the neutrophil respiratory burst in vitro, neither of these pathways alone is responsible for stimulation of a maximal respiratory burst.

      • Salmonella
      • Bacterial pathogens
  15. Host Genome-Wide Association Study of Infant Susceptibility to Shigella-Associated Diarrhea

    • Tue, 05/18/2021 - 10:01
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Shigella is a leading cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhea globally and the causative agent of shigellosis and bacillary dysentery. Associated with 80 to 165 million cases of diarrhea and >13% of diarrheal deaths, in many regions, Shigella exposure is ubiquitous while infection is heterogenous.

      • Shigella
      • Bacterial pathogens
  16. Staphylococcus aureus Tet38 Efflux Pump Structural Modeling and Roles of Essential Residues in Drug Efflux and Host Cell Internalization

    • Sat, 04/17/2021 - 10:02
    • Infection and Immunity
    • The Staphylococcus aureus Tet38 membrane protein has distinct functions, including drug efflux and host cell attachment and internalization mediated by interaction with host cell CD36. Using structural modeling and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified key amino acids involved in different functions. Tet38, a member of the major facilitator superfamily, is predicted to have 14 transmembrane segments (TMS), 6 cytoplasmic loops, and 7 external loops.

      • Antibiotic residues
      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Staphylococcus aureus
      • Chemical contaminants
  17. Listeria monocytogenes MenI Encodes a DHNA-CoA Thioesterase Necessary for Menaquinone Biosynthesis, Cytosolic Survival, and Virulence

    • Sat, 04/17/2021 - 10:02
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, intracellular pathogen that is highly adapted to invade and replicate in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells. Intermediate metabolites in the menaquinone biosynthesis pathway are essential for the cytosolic survival and virulence of L. monocytogenes, independent of the production of menaquinone (MK) and aerobic respiration.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Listeria monocytogenes
  18. Contribution of Noncanonical Antigens to Virulence and Adaptive Immunity in Human Infection with Enterotoxigenic E. coli

    • Sat, 04/17/2021 - 10:01
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) contributes significantly to the substantial burden of infectious diarrhea among children living in low- and middle-income countries. In the absence of a vaccine for ETEC, children succumb to acute dehydration as well as nondiarrheal sequelae related to these infections, including malnutrition.

      • Bacterial pathogens
  19. Differential Outcome between BALB/c and C57BL/6 Mice after Escherichia coli O157:H7 Infection Is Associated with a Dissimilar Tolerance Mechanism

    • Sat, 04/17/2021 - 10:01
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections can result in a wide range of clinical presentations despite that EHEC strains belong to the O157:H7 serotype, one of the most pathogenic forms. Although pathogen virulence influences disease outcome, we emphasize the concept of host-pathogen interactions, which involve resistance or tolerance mechanisms in the host that determine total host fitness and bacterial virulence.

      • Escherichia coli O157:H7
      • Bacterial pathogens
  20. Purinergic P2X7 Receptor Mediates the Elimination of Trichinella spiralis by Activating NF-{kappa}B/NLRP3/IL-1{beta} Pathway in Macrophages

    • Sat, 04/17/2021 - 10:01
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Trichinellosis is one of most neglected foodborne zoonoses worldwide. During Trichinella spiralis infection, the intestinal immune response is the first line of defense and plays a vital role in the host’s resistance. Previous studies indicate that purinergic P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome are involved in the intestinal immune response in T. spiralis infection.

  21. Response of Leucine-Rich Repeat Domain-Containing Protein in Haemaphysalis longicornis to Babesia microti Infection and Its Ligand Identification

    • Sat, 04/17/2021 - 10:01
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Haemaphysalis longicornis is a blood-feeding hard tick known for transmitting a variety of pathogens, including Babesia. How the parasites in the imbibed blood become anchored in the midgut of ticks is still unknown. Leucine-rich repeat domain (LRR)-containing protein, which is associated with the innate immune reaction and conserved in many species, has been detected in H. longicornis and has previously been indicated in inhibiting the growth of Babesia gibsoni.

  22. A SNP in the Cache 1 Signaling Domain of Diguanylate Cyclase STM1987 Leads to Increased In Vivo Fitness of Invasive Salmonella Strains

    • Thu, 03/18/2021 - 10:02
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) strains are associated with gastroenteritis worldwide but are also the leading cause of bacterial bloodstream infections in sub-Saharan Africa. The invasive NTS (iNTS) strains that cause bloodstream infections differ from standard gastroenteritis-causing strains by >700 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  23. Spatiotemporal Variations in Growth Rate and Virulence Plasmid Copy Number during Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infection

    • Thu, 03/18/2021 - 10:02
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Pathogenic Yersinia spp. depend on the activity of a potent virulence plasmid-encoded ysc/yop type 3 secretion system (T3SS) to colonize hosts and cause disease. It was recently shown that Yersinia pseudotuberculosis upregulates the virulence plasmid copy number (PCN) during infection and that the resulting elevated gene dose of plasmid-encoded T3SS genes is essential for virulence.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Yersinia
  24. Elevated Extracellular cGMP Produced after Exposure to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Stable Toxin Induces Epithelial IL-33 Release and Alters Intestinal Immunity

    • Thu, 03/18/2021 - 10:02
    • Infection and Immunity
    • Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major diarrheal pathogen in children in low- to middle-income countries. Previous studies identified heat-stable enterotoxin (ST)-producing ETEC as a prevalent diarrheal pathogen in children younger than 5 years. While many studies have evaluated the interaction of ETEC heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) with host epithelium and immunity, few investigations have attempted similar studies with ST.

      • Bacterial pathogens
  25. Identification of Listeria monocytogenes Genes Contributing to Oxidative Stress Resistance under Conditions Relevant to Host Infection

    • Thu, 03/18/2021 - 10:02
    • Infection and Immunity
    • The Gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes survives in environments ranging from the soil to the cytosol of infected host cells. Key to L. monocytogenes intracellular survival is the activation of PrfA, a transcriptional regulator that is required for the expression of multiple bacterial virulence factors. Mutations that constitutively activate prfA (prfA* mutations) result in high-level expression of multiple bacterial virulence factors as well as the physiological adaptation of L.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Listeria monocytogenes