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Research Publications (Food Safety)

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 509

  1. Antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects of tannic acid supplementation in broilers infected with Salmonella Typhimurium

    • Fri, 08/05/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  2. Intra-cluster correlations for ceca Salmonella prevalence and enumeration from 40 experimental floor pen trials in broiler chickens using a seeder bird challenge model

    • Thu, 08/04/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • Floor pen trials are an efficient way to evaluate the effectiveness of potential Salmonella control interventions in broiler chickens. When treatments are allocated at the pen level, and outcomes are measured at the individual bird level, floor pen studies are considered to be cluster randomized trials.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  3. Research Note: Longitudinal fecal shedding patterns and characterization of Salmonella enterica and mcr-positive Escherichia coli in meat-type ducks raised in an open-house system

    • Wed, 08/03/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • This longitudinal study aimed to determine the fecal shedding pattern and characterize Salmonella enterica and mcr-positive Escherichia coli from meat-type ducks raised in an open-house system in Thailand. Fecal samples (n = 1,475) were collected from ducks over a 6-month period. Overall, the detection rate of S. enterica was 5.4% and the highest fecal shedding rate was noted in 4-day old ducklings (28.8%). Then, S.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  4. A mixture of organic acids and thymol protects primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells from Clostridium perfringens infection in vitro

    • Wed, 08/03/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • Necrotic enteritis causes economic losses estimated to be up to 6 billion US dollars per year. Clinical and sub-clinical infections in poultry are also both correlated with decreased growth and feed efficiency. Moreover, in a context of increased antibiotic resistance, feed additives with enhanced antimicrobial properties are a useful and increasingly needed strategy.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium perfringens
  5. Research Note: Internal Organ Colonization by Salmonella Enteritidis in Experimentally Infected Layer Pullets Reared at Different Stocking Densities in Indoor Cage-Free Housing

    • Wed, 08/03/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • Contamination of eggs by Salmonella has often been identified as a source of food-borne human illness. S. Enteritidis is deposited inside developing eggs when invasive infections of laying hens reach the reproductive organs. The susceptibility of hens in cage-based housing systems to S. Enteritidis has been associated with their stocking density, but the applicability of this information to extensive (cage-free) systems is uncertain.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  6. Research Note: The prevalence and vertical transmission of avian hepatitis E virus novel genotypes in Tai'an city, China

    • Wed, 08/03/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • To investigate the prevalence of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) in chickens and gather evidence of viral vertical transmission, we collected 288 cloacal swabs and 288 yolks samples from 12 farms with clinically healthy chickens in 4 different areas in Tai'an City, Shandong Province, China (i.e., Daiyue District, Xintai City, Feicheng City, and Ningyang County).

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  7. Effects of Clostridium butyricum on intestinal environment and gut microbiome under Salmonella infection

    • Sun, 07/31/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • Salmonellosis causes massive economic losses globally every year. Especially in poultry, numerous drug-resistant bacteria have emerged; thus, it is imperative to find alternatives to antibiotics. As a probiotic, Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) provides the latest strategy for inhibiting the proliferation of Salmonella. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of C.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  8. Clonal distribution and antimicrobial resistance of methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from broiler farms, slaughterhouses, and retail chicken meat

    • Fri, 07/29/2022 - 09:23
    • Poultry Science
    • Colonization of food-producing animals by antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, especially methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), has become a serious public health problem worldwide. In the current study, clonal diversities of livestock-associated S. aureus isolates collected from broiler farms, slaughterhouses, and retail chicken meat were examined. Two-hundred S. aureus isolates (43 MRSA and 157 methicillin-susceptible S.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Staphylococcus aureus
  9. High resolution parallel sequencing reveals multi-strain Campylobacter in broiler chicken flocks testing ‘negative’ by conventional culture methods: implications for control of Campylobacter infection.

    • Sun, 07/10/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • Contaminated chicken meat is a major source of human Campylobacteriosis and rates of infection remain high, despite efforts to limit the colonisation of broiler (meat) chicken flocks on farms. Using conventional testing methods of culture or qPCR, Campylobacter is typically detected amongst broiler flocks from 3 weeks of age, leading to the assumption that infection is introduced horizontally into chicken rearing houses at this time.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Campylobacter
  10. A proposed disease classification system for duck viral hepatitis

    • Sun, 07/03/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • The nomenclature of duck viral hepatitis (DVH) was historically not a problem. However, fourteen hepatotropic viruses among ten different genera are associated with the same disease name, DVH. Therefore, the disease name increasingly lacks clarity and may no longer fit the scientific description of the disease. Because one disease should not be attributed to ten genera of viruses, this almost certainly causes misunderstanding regarding the disease-virus relationship.

      • Viruses
      • Hepatitis
  11. Research note: The effect of a probiotic E. faecium 669 mitigating Salmonella Enteritidis colonization of broiler chickens by improved gut integrity

    • Tue, 06/28/2022 - 10:00
    • Poultry Science
    • In this study, we investigate the effect of the probiotic E. faecium 669 strain on the gut integrity of broilers and the effect on intestinal colonization with Salmonella Enteritidis. In the in vivo experiment, 120 day-old broilers (Ross 308) were divided into four equally sized groups. Group A received the probiotic as a single dose by spray at day 18 of incubation and group B received the probiotic in the drinking water daily throughout the experiment.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  12. Research Note: In-feed Bacteriophage does not impact efficacy of Live Salmonella Vaccine

    • Tue, 06/14/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • Dietary bacteriophages potentially can serve as a step to reduce Salmonella contamination of feed through direct lysis of the bacteria. However, poultry producers commonly vaccinate with live Salmonella vaccines, which could potentially be lysed by dietary bacteriophages. The objective of this study was to evaluate if dietary bacteriophages impacted the colonization of a live Salmonella vaccine.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  13. Research Note: Effect of a phlorotannin extract of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum as a potential control strategy against Campylobacter in broilers

    • Fri, 06/10/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • Poultry is generally recognized as the main source of human campylobacteriosis and Campylobacter is highly prevalent at the farm level. To reduce the relative risk of human campylobacteriosis attributable to broiler meat, it is necessary to reduce Campylobacter loads in broiler ceca but to date, no effective, reliable and practical strategy is available. The marine environment is a rich source of original natural compounds exhibiting different biological activities.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Campylobacter
  14. Prevalence and whole-genome sequencing analysis of Salmonella reveal its spread along the duck production chain

    • Mon, 06/06/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • Salmonella is the most important foodborne pathogen in poultry production systems and can infect humans via consumption of contaminated food. Ducks, an important waterfowl widely raised in China, are also a vehicle that transmits Salmonella through the food supply chain.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  15. Multiplex PCR assay based on the citE2 gene and intergenic sequence for the rapid detection of Salmonella Pullorum in chickens

    • Sun, 06/05/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • Salmonella is one of the most common Gram-negative pathogens and seriously threatens chicken farms and food safety. This study aimed to establish a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach for the identification of different Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica. The citE2 gene and interval sequence of SPS4_00301–SPS4_00311 existed in all S. enterica subsp. enterica serovars by genomic comparison.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  16. Research Note: Effect of corn silage and alfalfa meal as alternative induced molt methods to improving Salmonella Enteritidis resistance in laying hens

    • Sat, 06/04/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • This experiment was conducted to evaluate diets containing a high level of corn silage and alfalfa meal in inducing molt and reducing susceptibility to Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) colonization in laying hens.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  17. Research Note: IsomiRs of chicken miR-146b-5p are activated upon Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection

    • Sat, 05/28/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • In order to enrich the knowledge of chicken transcriptomic response to Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis infection, 2-day-old chicks were orally inoculated with this bacteria (1.0 × 108 cfu/mL), and then the cecum tissues of 3 days post-inoculation were utilized for RNA sequencing (six replicates each for treatment group and control group). After analysis, we found a variety of inflammatory genes were triggered at the mRNA level upon infection.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  18. Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium and the surrogate Enterococcus faecium in Mash Broiler Feed in A Laboratory Scale Circulated Thermal Bath

    • Fri, 05/27/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • This study compares kinetic parameters of Salmonella and the surrogate Enterococcus faecium in mash broiler feed during thermal inactivation. Two-gram samples of mash broiler feed were added into a filtered sample bag and inoculated with nalidixic acid (NaL, 200 ppm) resistant S. Typhimurium or E. faecium, followed by vacuum-packaging and heating in a circulated thermal water bath at 75°, 85°, and 95°C for 0 to 180 s.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  19. Research Note: Persistent Salmonella problems in slaughterhouses related to clones linked to poultry companies

    • Sun, 05/22/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • Salmonellosis remains one of the main foodborne zoonoses in Europe, with poultry products as the main source of human infections. The slaughterhouse has been identified as a potential source for Salmonella contamination of poultry meat. Despite the mandatory programme of the EU, there are companies with persistent Salmonella that are unable to remove the bacteria from their processing environment, compromising the entire production line.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  20. Epidemiological investigation on drug resistance of Salmonella isolates from duck breeding farms in Shandong Province and surrounding areas, China

    • Sat, 05/14/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • Duck salmonellosis is a common acute septic infectious disease that spreads rapidly, with serious harm to the duck breeding industry and public health. To date, there are few reports about the epidemiological characteristics of drug resistance in Salmonella from ducks. In this study, an epidemiological investigation was conducted on drug resistance of 110 Salmonella strains isolated from multiple duck farms in Shandong Province and surrounding areas, China.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  21. Assessing Salmonella Prevalence and Complexity Through Processing Using Different Culture Methods

    • Wed, 05/11/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • Conventional Salmonella surveillance requires a week for isolation, confirmation, and subsequent serotyping. We previously showed that this could be reduced by 24 hours by combining the pre-enrichment and enrichment steps into a single selective pre-enrichment step and was tested on directly after picking.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  22. Safety of bivalent live attenuated Salmonella vaccine and its protection against bacterial shedding and tissue invasion in layers challenged with Salmonella

    • Thu, 05/05/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • Non-typhoidal Salmonella infection was one of the predominant foodborne illnesses in humans. The medical burden and antimicrobial resistance of salmonellosis gained importance in public health and requested the poultry industry to seek effective measures to control the disease.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  23. Research Note: Virulence gene downregulation and reduced intestinal colonization of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium PHL2020 isolate in broilers by a natural antimicrobial (NeutraPath™)

    • Wed, 04/13/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • The reduction in antibiotic growth promoter use in poultry, due to antibiotic resistance concerns, has created a need for natural solutions that control enteric pathogens like Salmonella.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Salmonella
  24. Comparison of transport crates contamination with Campylobacter spp. before and after the cleaning and disinfection procedure in broiler slaughterhouses

    • Sun, 04/10/2022 - 04:00
    • Poultry Science
    • Campylobacteriosis is one of the most common types of bacterial gastroenteritis affecting humans, and poultry is considered a major source of the causative organism, Campylobacter spp. Broilers may arrive contaminated at slaughterhouses, and transport crates could be considered a potential source of contamination. Thus, cleaning and disinfection procedures are crucial to avoid cross-contamination among flocks.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Campylobacter
  25. Effects of embryonic cadmium exposure on erythrocyte indices and morphology in newly hatched Gallus gallus domesticus chicks

    • Sat, 03/19/2022 - 12:00
    • Poultry Science
    • The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of embryonic exposure to cadmium on basic and derived erythrocyte indices, the morphology and morphometric properties of erythrocytes, as well as erythrocyte spectrin distribution in newly hatched Gallus gallus domesticus chicks. The eggs were injected with cadmium (Cd) at a dose of 2 µg, 4 µg, 6 µg or 8 µg per egg on the 6th day of incubation. Blood samples were collected on the first day after hatching.

      • Chemical contaminants
      • Heavy Metals