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Research Publications (Food Safety)

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 1922

  1. Genotypes of Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates Are Associated with Phenol-Soluble Modulin (PSM) Production

    • Tue, 08/16/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are important S. aureus virulence factors that cause cytolysis, mast cell degranulation, and stimulate inflammatory responses. In this study, PSM production by S. aureus clinical isolates was measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and correlated with staphylococcal protein A (spa) type and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type. Of 106 S. aureus clinical isolates, 50 (47.2%) corresponded to methicillin-susceptible S.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Staphylococcus aureus
  2. Spaceflight Changes the Production and Bioactivity of Secondary Metabolites in Beauveria bassiana

    • Tue, 08/16/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Studies on microorganism response spaceflight date back to 1960. However, nothing conclusive is known concerning the effects of spaceflight on virulence and environmental tolerance of entomopathogenic fungi; thus, this area of research remains open to further exploration.

      • Natural toxins
      • Mycotoxins
  3. Microcalorimetric Investigations of Reversible Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Unfolding

    • Tue, 08/16/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP) is a common food-borne illness often associated with contamination during food handling. The genes for Staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) isoforms SEA and SEB are frequently detected in human nasal Staphylococcus aureus isolates and these toxins are commonly associated with SFP. Past studies described the resistance of preformed SE proteins to heat inactivation and their reactivation upon cooling in foods.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Staphylococcus aureus
  4. Effects of Dietary Lanthanum Chloride on Growth Performance, Hematology and Serum Biochemistry of Juvenile Clarias gariepinus Catfish Fed Diets Amended with Mixtures of Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1

    • Mon, 08/15/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • This study aimed to determine the effects of dietary lanthanum chloride on the growth and health performance of juvenile Clarias gariepinus when fed diets experimentally contaminated with mixtures of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1.

      • Natural toxins
      • Aflatoxins
      • Mycotoxins
  5. Mycotoxins in Cattle Feed and Feed Ingredients in Brazil: A Five-Year Survey

    • Mon, 08/15/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by a variety of fungi, which when ingested can cause several deleterious effects to the health of humans and animals.

      • Natural toxins
      • Aflatoxins
      • Mycotoxins
  6. Modification of Deoxynivalenol by a Fungal Laccase Paired with Redox Mediator TEMPO

    • Fri, 08/12/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol introduce a health risk to the food supply and are costly to manage or avoid. Technologies for reducing or eliminating the toxicity of deoxynivalenol could be useful in a variety of processes, such as in preserving the value as animal feed of byproducts of ethanol production.

      • Natural toxins
      • Mycotoxins
  7. Development of a Hydrazine-Based Solid-Phase Extraction and Clean-Up Method for Highly Selective Quantification of Zearalenone in Edible Vegetable Oils by HPLC-FLD

    • Fri, 08/12/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Rapid, cost-efficient, and eco-friendly methods are desired today for routine analysis of the Fusarium mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) in edible vegetable oils. Liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) is commonly used to reliably control the specified ZEN maximum levels, which requires efficient sample clean-up to avoid matrix interferences.

      • Natural toxins
      • Mycotoxins
  8. Insights into the Underlying Mechanism of Ochratoxin A Production in Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88 Using Different Carbon Sources

    • Fri, 08/12/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Aspergillus niger produces carcinogenic ochratoxin A (OTA), a serious food safety and human health concern. Here, the ability of A. niger CBS 513.88 to produce OTA using different carbon sources was investigated and the underlying regulatory mechanism was elucidated. The results indicated that 6% sucrose, glucose, and arabinose could trigger OTA biosynthesis and that 1586 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) overlapped compared to a non-inducing nutritional source, peptone.

      • Natural toxins
      • Mycotoxins
  9. Risk Assessment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Aflatoxin B1 Exposure in Edible Oils

    • Thu, 08/11/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Contamination of edible oils with aflatoxins (AFs) is a universal issue due to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins on human health and the fact that edible oils are a major source of fungal growth, particularly storage fungi (Aspergillus sp.).

      • Natural toxins
      • Aflatoxins
      • Mycotoxins
  10. Application of Aspergillus niger Fumonisin Amine Oxidase (AnFAO) to Detoxify Fumonisin-Contaminated Maize

    • Wed, 08/10/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Fumonisin mycotoxins are a family of secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium verticillioides and related species, as well as some strains of Aspergillus niger. Fumonisin contamination of maize is a concern when grown under hot, dry conditions. When present above regulatory levels, there can be effects on animal health. New tools to reduce the toxicity of maize and maize products with high concentrations of fumonisin are needed.

      • Natural toxins
      • Mycotoxins
  11. Application of an In Vitro Digestion Model for Wheat and Red Beetroot Bread to Assess the Bioaccessibility of Aflatoxin B1, Ochratoxin A and Zearalenone and Betalains

    • Tue, 08/09/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Nowadays, the bakery industry includes different bioactive ingredients to enrich the nutritional properties of its products, such as betalains from red beetroot (Beta vulgaris). However, cereal products are considered a major route of exposure to many mycotoxins, both individually and in combination, due to their daily consumption, if the cereals used contain these toxins.

      • Natural toxins
      • Aflatoxins
      • Mycotoxins
  12. Toxigenicity of F. graminearum Residing on Host Plants Alternative to Wheat as Influenced by Environmental Conditions

    • Tue, 08/09/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen that causes Fusarium head blight (FHB) in several cereal crops worldwide. The potential of this pathogen to contaminate cereals with trichothecene mycotoxins presents a health risk for both humans and animals. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of different trichothecene genotypes of F. graminearum isolated from an alternative host plant to produce mycotoxins under different spring wheat grain incubation conditions. Fourteen F.

      • Natural toxins
      • Mycotoxins
  13. Deoxynivalenol Degradation by Various Microbial Communities and Its Impacts on Different Bacterial Flora

    • Sat, 08/06/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Deoxynivalenol, a mycotoxin that may present in almost all cereal products, can cause huge economic losses in the agriculture industry and seriously endanger food safety and human health. Microbial detoxifications using microbial consortia may provide a safe and effective strategy for DON mitigation.

      • Natural toxins
      • Mycotoxins
  14. Growth and Toxigenicity of A. flavus on Resistant and Susceptible Peanut Genotypes

    • Fri, 08/05/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Aflatoxin contamination poses serious health concerns to consumers of peanut and peanut products. This study aimed at investigating the response of peanuts to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. Isolates of A. flavus were characterised either as aflatoxigenic or non-aflatoxigenic using multiple cultural techniques. The selected isolates were used in an in vitro seed colonisation (IVSC) experiment on two A. flavus-resistant and susceptible peanut genotypes.

      • Natural toxins
      • Aflatoxins
      • Mycotoxins
  15. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibody against Deoxynivalenol and Development of Immunoassays

    • Thu, 08/04/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Fusarium toxins are the largest group of mycotoxins, which contain more than 140 known secondary metabolites of fungi. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most important compounds of this class due to its high toxicity and its potential to harm mankind and animals and a widespread contaminant of agricultural commodities, such as wheat, corn, barley, oats, bread, and biscuits.

      • Natural toxins
      • Mycotoxins
  16. Origin of Ciguateric Fish: Quantitative Modelling of the Flow of Ciguatoxin through a Marine Food Chain

    • Thu, 08/04/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • To begin to understand the impact of food chain dynamics on ciguatera risk, we used published data to model the transfer of ciguatoxins across four trophic levels of a marine food chain in Platypus Bay, Australia. The data to support this first attempt to conceptualize the scale of each trophic transfer step was limited, resulting in broad estimates.

      • Natural toxins
      • Shellfish toxins
  17. Pooled Analysis of Real-World Evidence Supports Anti-CGRP mAbs and OnabotulinumtoxinA Combined Trial in Chronic Migraine

    • Tue, 08/02/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • OnabotulinumtoxinA, targeting the CGRP machinery, has been approved for the last two decades for chronic migraine prevention. The recently approved monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed towards the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) pathway open a new age for chronic migraine control. However, some 40% patients suffering from chronic migraine is still resistant to treatment.

      • Bacterial pathogens
      • Clostridium botulinum
  18. Nivalenol Mycotoxin Concerns in Foods: An Overview on Occurrence, Impact on Human and Animal Health and Its Detection and Management Strategies

    • Mon, 08/01/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi that infect a wide range of foods worldwide. Nivalenol (NIV), a type B trichothecene produced by numerous Fusarium species, has the ability to infect a variety of foods both in the field and during post-harvest handling and management. NIV is frequently found in cereal and cereal-based goods, and its strong cytotoxicity poses major concerns for both human and animal health.

      • Natural toxins
      • Mycotoxins
      • Produce Safety
      • Post Harvest
  19. Measurement of Fumonisins in Maize Using a Portable Mass Spectrometer

    • Sun, 07/31/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins that routinely contaminate maize. Their presence is monitored at multiple stages from harvest to final product. Immunoassays are routinely used to screen commodities in the field while laboratory-based methods, such as mass spectrometry (MS), are used for confirmation. The use of a portable mass spectrometer unlocks the potential to conduct confirmatory analyses outside of traditional laboratories.

      • Natural toxins
      • Mycotoxins
  20. Isolation and Aflatoxin B1-degradation Characteristics of a Microbacterium proteolyticum B204 Strain from Bovine Faeces

    • Sun, 07/31/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is one of the most harmful mycotoxins, raising serious global health and economic problems. Searching for biological approaches for effective and safe AFB1 degradation is imminent. In our study, Microbacterium proteolyticum B204 isolated from bovine faeces degraded 77% of AFB1 after 24 hour, becoming the first reported bacteria from the Microbacterium family to possess AFB1 degradation characteristics.

      • Natural toxins
      • Aflatoxins
      • Mycotoxins
  21. Production of Satratoxin G and H Is Tightly Linked to Sporulation in Stachybotrys chartarum

    • Sat, 07/30/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Stachybotrys chartarum is a toxigenic fungus that is frequently isolated from damp building materials or improperly stored forage. Macrocyclic trichothecenes and in particular satratoxins are the most potent mycotoxins known to be produced by this fungus. Exposure of humans or animals to these secondary metabolites can be associated with severe health problems. To assess the pathogenic potential of S.

      • Natural toxins
      • Mycotoxins
  22. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals MAPK/AMPK as a Key Regulator of the Inflammatory Response in PST Detoxification in Mytilus galloprovincialis and Argopecten irradians

    • Sat, 07/30/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are an increasingly important source of pollution. Bivalves, as the main transmission medium, accumulate and metabolize PSTs while protecting themselves from damage. At present, the resistance mechanism of bivalves to PSTs is unclear. In this study, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Argopecten irradians were used as experimental shellfish species for in situ monitoring.

      • Natural toxins
      • Shellfish toxins
  23. Impact of Mycotoxin Contaminations on Aquatic Organisms: Toxic Effect of Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 Mixture

    • Sat, 07/30/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • (1) Multiple contaminations of several mycotoxins have been detected in human and veterinary food and feed worldwide. To date, a number of studies on the combined effects of mycotoxins have been conducted on cell and animal models, but very limited studies have been done on aquatic organisms. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the combined toxic effects of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Fumonisin B1 (FB1) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos.

      • Natural toxins
      • Aflatoxins
      • Mycotoxins
  24. Multi-Mycotoxin Long-Term Monitoring Survey on North-Italian Maize over an 11-Year Period (2011–2021): The Co-Occurrence of Regulated, Masked and Emerging Mycotoxins and Fungal Metabolites

    • Sat, 07/30/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Maize is considered one of the most susceptible crops to mycotoxin-producing fungi throughout the world, mainly belonging to the Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus spp. Maize is mainly used as animal feeds in Italy, as well as for human consumption, being essential for all the protected designation of origin (DOP) products.

      • Natural toxins
      • Aflatoxins
      • Mycotoxins
  25. Natural Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Maize in North China

    • Sat, 07/30/2022 - 04:00
    • Toxins
    • Mycotoxins seriously threaten the quality of maize seriously around the world. A total of 426 samples of maize kernel from northeast and northwest China were analyzed in this study. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) was performed to analyze the mycotoxin contamination of maize samples. The results showed that it was contaminated by mycotoxins in maize.

      • Natural toxins
      • Aflatoxins
      • Mycotoxins