An official website of the United States government.

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Food Safety Publications

The Food Safety Publications tracks research that is published across national and international peer-reviewed journals. Recent articles are available ahead of print and searchable by Journal, Article Title, and Category. The research publications are tracked across six categories: Bacterial Pathogens, Chemical Contaminants, Natural Toxins, Parasites, Produce Safety, and Viruses. Articles produced by USDA Grant Funding Agencies and FDA Grant Funding Agencies are also tracked.

Displaying 1 - 25 of 117

  1. Foreword – special issue Mycotoxins in Latin America

    • Thu, 09/16/2021 - 04:02
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • Latin America with its considerable North-South extent is subject to climate that varies from tropical, subtropical and warm temperate to temperate. Different agricultural products are produced in the area including cereals, oilseeds, beans, fruits and nuts together with animal production including cattle for beef and milk, pigs, poultry and fish. The heterogeneity of agriculture in Latin America is reflected in the diversity of the region’s farm structures.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Mycotoxins
      • Natural toxins
  2. Smartphone-based technology for nanomolecular detection of aflatoxin B1 by aptamer-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles

    • Tue, 09/14/2021 - 04:02
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • The need for a healthy market in the rapid and accurate screening of a variety of pathogenic agents and toxins in the environment and food has led to an increase in the development of new biosensors, which have ideal characteristics, such as high sensitivity and specificity with rapid detection and simple preparation of the sample.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Natural toxins
  3. Antibody conjugated magnetic nanoparticle based colorimetric assay for the detection and quantification of aflatoxin B1 in wheat grains

    • Tue, 09/14/2021 - 04:02
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a most potent carcinogenic secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus flavus. As a food safety concern, development of a rapid, cost effective, sensitive and easy to use method for the detection of aflatoxin is of prime requirement. In this study, AFB1 was conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA), and AFB1-BSA conjugate was purified by HPLC. Purification was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Natural toxins
      • Produce Safety
  4. Decision support system for integrated management of mycotoxins in feed and food supply chains

    • Tue, 09/14/2021 - 04:02
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • Mycotoxins present a global food safety threat of our feed and food. Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites of certain fungi in agricultural products that are harmful to animal and human health. The presence of mycotoxins in these products depends on a variety of management and environmental factors in the field, during storage and/or processing of feed and food commodities. To date, information on mycotoxin management is available, but is not easy to access by supply chain actors.

      • Produce Safety
      • Post Harvest
  5. The potential for aflatoxin predictive risk modelling in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    • Wed, 09/01/2021 - 04:02
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • This review presents the current state of aflatoxin risk prediction models and their potential for value actors throughout the food chain in sub-Saharan Africa, with a specific focus on improving smallholder farmer management practices.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Natural toxins
  6. Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in bovine milk and associated risk factors among dairy farms of Punjab, India

    • Wed, 09/01/2021 - 04:02
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in milk and milk products may pose a major public health concern. The present cross-sectional study was aimed to estimate the prevalence of AFM1 in bovine milk across all districts of Punjab, India and to identify the associated animal and farm level risk factors. A total of 402 milk samples (266 cow milk and 136 buffalo milk) were analysed using commercial ELISA and representative samples were confirmed using HPLC-FLD.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Natural toxins
  7. Occurrence and concentration of mycotoxins in maize dried distillers’ grains produced in Brazil

    • Fri, 08/06/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • The presence of mycotoxins in dried distillers’ grains with solubles (DDGS), a by-product of bioethanol production from maize, has been a matter of concern due to the increasing global utilisation of this ingredient in animal feed. In this study, 186 samples of maize DDGS produced in Brazil were analysed for the presence of major mycotoxins: aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2), fumonisins (B1 and B2), zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA).

      • Aflatoxins
      • Mycotoxins
      • Natural toxins
  8. Aflatoxin B1 contamination of feedstuff on a dairy farm in Northern Peru and aflatoxin M1 concentrations in raw milk

    • Fri, 07/30/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • Research regarding aflatoxin contamination levels in Peru is limited, although aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) require surveillance because of their toxicity. European regulations state that the harmonised maximum level (ML) is 5 μg/kg for AFB1 in feedstuffs and 0.05 μg/kg for AFM1 in milk. Our study aimed to determine the annual variation levels of AFB1 in ingredients used in feedstuffs for dairy cows and those of AFM1 in milk at a typical intensive dairy farm in Northern Peru.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Natural toxins
  9. Analysis of aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and cheese produced in Mexico: a review

    • Fri, 07/30/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • Due to the carcinogenic character of aflatoxins when present in foods, these compounds are considered a risk to human health. This systematic review aimed at compiling the available research data on detection and quantification of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk and common types of cheese produced in Mexico in the past two decades. A limited number of studies were found that matched the purpose of our review.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Natural toxins
  10. Aflatoxin contamination in maize: occurrence and health implications in Latin America

    • Fri, 07/30/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation, mycotoxicoses constitute the second most pressing food safety problem worldwide, with most cases occurring in developing countries. Maize (Zea mays L.), the main staple for many Latin Americans, is one of the best suitable substrates for mycotoxigenic Aspergillus fungi. Aflatoxins (AFs) produced primarily by Aspergillus flavus, are of significant concern, especially in developing countries.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Natural toxins
      • Produce Safety
  11. Effects of dietary aflatoxin on biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver in Matrinxã (Brycon cephalus) and Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) fish

    • Fri, 07/30/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • The objective of this study was to evaluate biochemical parameters and histopathology of liver in Matrinxã (Brycon cephalus) and Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) fish chronically exposed to dietary aflatoxins. Fish feed was artificially contaminated with aflatoxins and the treatments were: Control – feed without toxin; Treatment A – feed + 10 μg aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)/kg; Treatment B – feed + 20 μg AFB1/kg; and Treatment C – feed + 50 μg AFB1/kg.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Natural toxins
  12. Biomonitoring aflatoxin B1 exposure of residents from the Amazon region: a pilot study

    • Sat, 07/24/2021 - 04:02
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • The present study was a pilot study that aimed to evaluate the occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) in the human diets and its presence in human urine as a metabolite (aflatoxin M1; AFM1). Volunteers from the Amazon region were evaluated before and after the consumption of 2 Brazil nuts/day for thirty days. At the end of 30 days (t=30) without the consumption of Brazil nuts, 9 samples (30%) were positive for AFM1.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Natural toxins
  13. Development of patulin certified reference material using mass balance and quantitative NMR

    • Fri, 06/25/2021 - 04:02
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • The certified reference materials (CRMs) are necessary for accurate quantification and insurance of comparability and traceability of results. Patulin is a typical mycotoxin in a variety of food commodities. Here, patulin CRM GBW(E)100673 was characterised and its purity was assessed by two independent orthogonal approaches including mass balance (MB) and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (qNMR) methods.

      • Mycotoxins
      • Natural toxins
  14. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins of 1- and 2-year-old children from a Dutch Total Diet Study

    • Fri, 06/25/2021 - 04:02
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • In 2017, a Total Diet Study was conducted in the Netherlands in which mycotoxins were analysed in foods and beverages consumed by 1- and 2-year-old children. These mycotoxins were aflatoxins, Alternaria toxins, citrinin, ergot alkaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, sterigmatocystin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Long-term exposure was calculated by combining concentrations in foods and beverages with consumed amounts of these products.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Mycotoxins
      • Natural toxins
  15. Validation of an analytical method based on QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS to quantify nine mycotoxins in plant-based milk

    • Tue, 05/25/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • Plant-based beverages (popularly known as vegetable milk) have become increasingly important in recent years. However, the nonexistence of information on mycotoxin contamination is noticeable.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Mycotoxins
      • Natural toxins
  16. Exploratory real-time kinetic analysis of the cytotoxicity induced by maize silage mycotoxins in a calf intestinal epithelial cell line

    • Tue, 05/25/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • In a temperate climate, the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), enniatin B (ENN B), mycophenolic acid (MPA), roquefortine C (ROC) and zearalenone (ZEN) are often found in maize silage. Although rumen microbiota are able to degrade some mycotoxins (e.g. DON), others are known to stay mainly intact (e.g. ROC). In addition, mycotoxin degradation can be hampered by a low ruminal pH or decrease in rumen microbial activity.

      • Mycotoxins
      • Natural toxins
  17. Multi-mycotoxin profiling in maize reveals prevalence of Fusarium mycotoxins in South and West Ethiopia

    • Tue, 05/25/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • Multi-mycotoxin exposure data are missing to guide risk assessment and legislation in Ethiopia. This study therefore aimed to determine mycotoxin contamination levels in maize samples from 176 randomly selected household storages in three agro ecological zones of South (Sidama zone) and West (Jimma zone) Ethiopia, and to examine the post-harvest practices and household processing. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to quantify 23 mycotoxins.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Mycotoxins
      • Natural toxins
  18. Detection of aflatoxin B1 adducts in Mexican women with cervical lesions

    • Tue, 05/25/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • Cervical cancer (CC) is one of the most serious threats to the lives of women; co-factors in addition to oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may be important in causing CC. Women in Mexico are exposed to dietary aflatoxin B1, a potent carcinogen, which may act as a co-factor, in inducing progression to CC.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Natural toxins
  19. Long-term exposure of Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) fish to dietary aflatoxin B1: residues in tissues and performance

    • Tue, 05/18/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • The objective of this work was to evaluate the aflatoxins residues on tissues of Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) fish chronically exposed to dietary aflatoxins, also evaluating the effects on fish performance. Aflatoxins were incorporated into the extruded fish feed and the concentrations were confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).

      • Aflatoxins
      • Natural toxins
  20. Some Indian herbs have protective effects against deleterious effects of ochratoxin A in broiler chicks

    • Tue, 05/18/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • A protective effect of two herbs, Glycyrrhiza glabra and Tinospora cordifolia, given as feed additives was observed against the growth inhibitory effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) and associated immunosuppression and biochemical or pathomorphological changes. The feed levels of 3 mg/kg OTA and fine powder of one of both herbs were given during a period of 32 days to female broiler chicks divided into 3 experimental and 1 control groups (14 chicks per group).

      • Mycotoxins
      • Natural toxins
  21. Current postharvest practices and aflatoxin contamination awareness amongst maize producers in Jimma Zone, Southwest of Ethiopia

    • Tue, 05/18/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • Grain contamination by mycotoxins can cause significantly negative health and economic impact in areas where poor agricultural practices and food insecurity is prevalent. This study was conducted to investigate the current postharvest practices and aflatoxin contamination awareness level amongst maize producers in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Natural toxins
  22. Antiaflatoxigenic potential of essential oils of spices – a review

    • Tue, 05/18/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • Mycotoxins are important food contaminants posing a significant threat to food and feed safety and public health. Among the mycotoxins, aflatoxins are deemed to be a more significant contaminant due to their potent carcinogenic, and hepatotoxic effects, and their levels are highly regulated in the international food trade. Phytochemicals are considered a major source of natural antifungal agents.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Natural toxins
  23. Probiotic gut-borne Saccharomyces cerevisiae reduces liver toxicity caused by aflatoxins in weanling piglets

    • Tue, 05/18/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • The present study was conducted to investigate the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) liver toxicity and gut histomorphometry after gut borne-Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation to AFB1-contaminated piglet diets. Thirty-two male mixed-breed piglets (weaned at 21 days old) were housed in individual pens and allowed to acclimate for 7 days. Animals were randomly assigned to four treatments of 22 days: T1 – low AFB1 levels diet (L, 31.6 μg/kg); T2 – L + S.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Natural toxins
  24. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae addition to feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 on the health and performance indices of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) fingerlings

    • Tue, 05/18/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the performance and health of tambaqui fingerlings.

      • Aflatoxins
      • Natural toxins
  25. Preparation of highly sensitive monoclonal antibody against α-zearalanol based on the similar antigen determinant structure to zearalanone

    • Tue, 05/18/2021 - 04:03
    • World Mycotoxin Journal
    • In this study, we report a new method to prepare highly sensitive monoclonal antibody against α-zearalanol (ZAL) based on a similar antigen determinant structure. Zearalanone (ZAN), structural analogs of ZAL, was modified by oximation to obtain ZAN-O. ZAN-O was then coupled with bovine serum albumin using 1-ethyl-3- (3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) to synthesise the artificial complete antigen ZAN-O-BSA. ZAN-O-BSA was used to immunise the BALB/c mice.

      • Mycotoxins
      • Natural toxins