Labor Practices

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"Hired farmworkers make up less than 1 percent of all U.S. wage and salary workers, but they play an essential role in U.S. agriculture. In 2016...hired farm wages and salaries represented roughly 14 percent of total cash expenses for all farms, and about 39 percent of expenses for farms specializing in labor-intensive fruit/vegetables and nursery production." Source: Economic Research Service. Find out more about farm labor and its role in sustainable food systems.

Vermont Law School, Center for Agriculture and Food Systems (CAFS). USDA.

"This white paper provides an overview of federal and Vermont State laws establishing housing and employment protections for agricultural workers—including dairy workers—on non-exempt farms. This paper first outlines the basic federal requirements for agricultural housing and employment in the Fair Labor Standards Act, Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act, and Occupational Safety and Health Act, and highlights the exemptions provided for family farms and small farms."

USDA. Economic Research Service.

ERS data and analysis on numbers and demographics for hired farmworkers in the U.S. employed in both metro and nonmetro areas.

U.S. Department of Labor. Employment and Training Administration.

The survey "is an employment-based, random survey of the demographic, employment, and health characteristics of the U.S. crop labor force." Reports and data are based on Interviews are conducted during the growing seasons.

California Institute for Rural Studies.

"Work within this program area includes best practices manuals, toolkits for organizing, case studies, and research into farmworker communities. Specific topics include farmworker housing and transportation, fair labor practices on farms, indigenous population studies and farm labor management."