Alternatives (3Rs)


DHHS. National Library of Medicine.

The intent of the bibliography is to assist in identifying methods and procedures helpful in supporting the development, testing, application, and validation of alternatives to the use of vertebrates in biomedical research and toxicology testing. Contents are a subset of MEDLINE records.

Years of coverage: 1980 - present
Content types: journal articles
Access: free online

Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR). Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (ZEBET).

ZEBET is scientific institution that aims to bring about the replacement of legally prescribed animal experiments with alternative test methods, to reduce the number of test animals to the absolutely necessary level and to alleviate the pain and suffering of animals used in experiments. ZEBET is responsible for documenting alternatives to animal experiment, for assessing them, for recommending their use both nationally and internationally. They are also involved in research of their own to develop alternative methods.

Years of coverage: 2002 - present
Content types: books; journals; monographs; laws; regulations; directions; guidelines; recommendations; pharmacopoeia; dissertations; congress papers; proceedings of meetings; conferences; symposia
Access: free online

Bibliographic databases on refinement of housing systems and handling practices and environmental enrichment for animals kept as laboratory animals, covering species such as nonhuman primates, rodents, rabbits, cats, dogs, ferrets, farm animals, horses, fishes, amphibians and reptiles.

Types of content: articles, abstracts, book chapters, books, slide sets, videotapes and web pages.
Access: free online

European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM).

The EURL ECVAM is an international center for coordinating the validation of alternative methods, providing advice on theoretical and practical aspects of the validation of new tests, and the current state of validation of alternative methods for use in toxicology and the biosciences in general. DB-ALM (formerly called the Scientific Information Service -SIS) is a database on advanced alternative methods in biomedical sciences, providing factual and evaluated (therefore ready-to-use) informative data sheets on advanced non-animal test development and validation for toxicology assessments.

Access: free online

Humane Society Veterinary Medical Association.

Online searchable database of alternatives to harming or killing nonhuman animals used in education. Use this database to search for all types of alternatives to the use animals in education, such as CDs, videos, computer simulations, models, and classroom activities for all ages.

Content types: computer software; audiovisuals; journal articles; mannequins; models; simulators; skills training device; news articles
Access: free online


A freely searchable database of alternatives in education products. Search by discipline, medium, or keyword.

Content types: models; mannequins; simulators; software; video; world wide web
Access: free online

Norwegian Reference Centre for Laboratory Animal Science and Alternatives.

An English-language database containing information on over 3,900 audiovisual aids that may be used as alternatives or supplements to the use of animals in teaching and training, including dissection alternatives, for all levels of education. Most products include contact information for purchasing or borrowing.

Years of coverage: 1991 - present
Content types: journal articles, books, videos, powerpoint slides, film, DVD, models, simulators, reviews, websites
Access: free online