Alternatives in Education: Veterinary Medicine - Overview
Alternatives in Education: Veterinary Medicine   3Rs Alternatives: Technologies, and Approaches

Alternatives in veterinary medicine education are humane educational aids and beneficial teaching methods for veterinary students that avoid harming animals. These resources and teaching methods can emphasize animal welfare.  The topics of 3Rs alternatives and animal welfare have gathered speed in both the veterinary and public community alike, and thus knowledge of animal welfare is becoming more essential to veterinary professionals in the United States and across the globe. (1)

It is difficult to determine if the ideal replacement alternative in veterinary education will ever be non-animal due to the experience with animal handling and animal tissue required of veterinary students. However, it is safe to say that a veterinary student’s required experience with animals can and should be achieved via neutral and/or beneficial animal work instead of conventional animal experimentation or other harmful procedures whenever possible. (2)


Alternatives in veterinary education are bona fide teaching methods and resources that replace intensive uses of animals and equally/effectively impart the essential knowledge, skills, and abilities that students need to succeed(3). 

(1) http://jvme.utpjournals.press/doi/pdf/10.3138/jvme.32.4.497(link is external)(2) https://jvme.utpjournals.press/doi/pdf/10.3138/jvme.32.4.454 (3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16421831(link is external)