Biomarkers in Toxicology - Chapter 7 – Alternative animal toxicity testing and biomarkers


Edited by:Ramesh C. Gupta

ISBN: 978-0-12-404630-6

Published in 2014 by Elsevier Inc

Eckhard von Keutz, Bayer HealthCare, Germany.

European Refinement Initiative

Refinement of animal studies - In the interest of animal welfare and in the interest of our ambition to develop innovative drugs

Steigenberger Inselhotel Konstanz, Germany, October 26, 2012.

Reproductive Toxicology 34(2):180-5 · May 2012 

Article discusses how biomarkers could be used to screen developmental toxicity of chemicals and drugs, comparing molecules of the same chemical class or activity, and using in vitro tests, in order to reduce the use of experimental animals.