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Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide: Lemurs, Lorises and Tarsiers

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Lemurs, Lorises and Tarsiers

Abels, J. (2004). Black and white ruffed lemur nest box. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 43(1): 15. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Descriptors: Varecia variegata variegata, black and white ruffed lemurs, nest box description, answer to list-serv question, nesting material, number of nest boxes offered.

Ablard, K. (2006). Behaviour of the northern Ceylon slender loris (Loris lydykkerianus nordicus) and the red slender loris (Loris tardigradus tardigradus) as a result of olfactory, visual, and auditory enrichment. Ratel 33(1): 3-6. ISSN: 0305-1218.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5R37
Descriptors: Loris lydykkerianus nordicus, Loris tardigradus tardigradus, Ceylon slender loris, red slender loris, captive animals, environmental enrichment, animal behavior, social behavior.

Brown, M., T. Morere, L. Anderson, and J. Steil (2012). Part II - Lemur Island enrichment. Enrichment effects on lemur behavior and exhibit visibility Lemur catta and Eulemur fulvus rufus. Animal Keepers' Forum 39(2): 81-88. ISSN: 0164-9531.
Descriptors: lemurs, care in captivity, activity budget, environmental enrichment techniques.

Caltran, E., D. Grassi, R. Perbellini, E. Baistrocchi, and M. Turchetto (2002). Effects of structural enrichment on the activity of a group of captive red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra). Advances in Ethology 37: 28. ISSN: 0931-4202.
Descriptors: Varecia variegata rubra, red ruffed lemus, abnormal behavior, captivity, feeding, providing enhancement of enclosure space, well-being, zoos, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 4th International Symposium on Physiology and Behaviour of Wild and Zoo Animals, Berlin, Germany; September 29-October 2, 2002.

Campbell, J.L., K.M. Glenn, B. Grossi, and J.H. Eisemann (2001). Use of local North Carolina browse species to supplement the diet of a captive colony of folivorous primates (Propithecus sp.). Zoo Biology 20(6): 447-461. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: lemurs, Propithecus sp., browse plants, chemical composition of plants, fiber content, nitrogen content, voluntary intake, dry matter, laboratory animals, seasonal variation in availability of browse.

Clarke, E. (2008). Abnormal behaviours in red-ruffed (Varecia rubra) and ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) housed in a mixed-species group at Drusillas Park. Ratel 35(1): 13-17. ISSN: 0305-1218.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.R37
Descriptors: colony management, stereotypical behavior, zoos, animal behavior, Great Britain.

Dishman, D.L., D.M. Thomson, and N.J. Karnovsky (2009). Does simple feeding enrichment raise activity levels of captive ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta)? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 116(1): 88-95. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2008.06.012
Descriptors: feeding enrichment, natural behavior, captivity, environmental enrichment, feeding behavior, food pirating, lemurs, food presentation, spatial separation of food boxes.

Fitch Snyder, H. and H. Schulze (Editors) (2001). Management of Lorises in Captivity: A Husbandry Manual for Asian Lorisines (Nycticebus and Loris Ssp.), Center for Reproduction of Endangered Species (CRES), Zoological Society of San Diego: 104 p. [Online]
Abstract: This manual is intended to provide basic husbandry guidelines for loris managers, caretakers and veterinarians. There are chapters containing information on taxonomy, behavior, reproduction, nutrition, infant care, health, and habitat design. Information on enrichment is found in the chapter on habitat design. A list of references is also provided.
Descriptors: pygmy loris, taxonomy, environmental enrichment, habitat design, captive management, species survival plan (SSP).

Frederick, C. and D. Fernandes (1996). Behavioral changes in pottos (Perodicticus potto): Effects of naturalizing an exhibit. International Journal of Primatology 17(3): 389-399. ISSN: 0164-0291.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9I54
Descriptors: Perodicticus potto, pottos, zoo exhibit design, animal behavior, environmental enrichment, animal housing.

Fuller, G., C.W. Kuhar, P.M. Dennis, and K.E. Lukas (2012). A survey of husbandry practices for Lorisid primates in North American zoos and related facilities. Zoo Biology 00: 1-13. ISSN: 0733-3188.
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.21049
Descriptors: housing in captivity, environmental enrichment, nocturnal animals, Loris tardigradus, Nycticebus coucang, Nycticebus bengalensis, Nycticebus pygmaeus, Perodicticus potto, potto, pygmy loris, slender loris, slow loris.

Grams, K. and J. Roletto (2001). Fabricated trees. Animal Keepers' Forum 28(2): 58-60. ISSN: 0164-9531.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: parrots, small primates, lemurs, artificial trees in animal exhibits, tools, building enrichment items for captive animals.

Hanbury, D.B., M.B. Fontenot, L.E. Highfill, W. Bingham, D. Bunch, and S.L. Watson (2009). Efficacy of auditory enrichment in a prosimian primate (Otolemur garnettii). Lab Animal 38(4): 122-125. ISSN: 0093-7355.
DOI: 10.1038/laban0409-122
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Descriptors: Garnett's bushbaby, Otolemur garnettii, abnormal behavior, auditory enrichment, music, Mozart concerto, effect on stereotypic behaviors.

Highfill, L. (2009). The use of personality assessments in designing environmental enrichment for Garnett's bushbabies (Otolemur garnettii). Dissertation Abstracts International B69(9): online.
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, Garnett's bushbabies, Otolemur garnettii, personality assessment.

Huber, H.F. and K.P. Lewis (2011-). An assessment of gum-based environmental enrichment for captive gummivorous primates. Zoo Biology 30(1): 71-78. ISSN: 1098-2361.
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20321
Descriptors: callitrichids, galagos, cercopithecines, environmental enrichment, gummivory, gum feeding in captivity.

Hutchings, K. and H. Mitchell (2003). A preliminary investigation of olfactory enrichment for captive ruffed lemurs. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Symposium on Zoo Research,July 7, 2003-July 8, 2003, Marwell Zoological Park, Federation of Zoological Gardens of Great Britain and Ireland: London, England, p. 288.
Descriptors: Varecia variegata variegata, ruffed lemurs, role of olfaction in social interactions, olfactory enrichment, animal behavior, scent-marked objects, novel scents, Marwell Zoological Park, United Kingdom.

Kerridge, F.J. (1998). Behavioral enrichment for ruffed lemurs, Varecia variegata, by using a more naturalistic method of food presentation. Folia Primatologica 69(Suppl. 1): 397. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: Varecia variegata, ruffed lemurs, activity budgets, behavioral enrichment, food presentation method, foraging behavior, zoo husbandry, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: International Conference on the Biology and Conservation of Prosimians, The North England Zoological Society, United Kingdom; September 13-15, 1995.

Kerridge, F.J. (2005). Environmental enrichment to address behavioral differences between wild and captive black-and-white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata). American Journal of Primatology 66(1): 71-84. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: I compared the behaviors of wild Varecia variegata living in a Malagasy rain forest with those of caged groups living in zoos in the United Kingdom in order to design environmental enrichment to encourage more natural behaviors. Comparisons were made between wild and captive animals in terms of activity budgets (instantaneously sampled at 1-min intervals) and social and solitary behaviors, which were continuously recorded for focal individuals. I followed the same sampling protocol during behavioral enrichment experiments, with additional monitoring of the amount and type of food consumed, and with more detailed observations of feeding behavior. No significant differences were found in resting or moving between wild and captive V. variegata. However, captive V. variegata spent more time on self-grooming and social behaviors, and less time feeding than wild V. variegata. There was also a lack of manual manipulation of food items. Behavioral enrichment experiments were carried out in which whole rather than chopped fruit was provided and presented in a more naturalistic manner. With this method of dietary presentation, manual manipulation of dietary items increased. Time spent feeding also increased significantly. Captive conservation breeding programs should not be wholly concerned with maintaining a diverse gene pool-they should also be concerned with conserving species-typical behaviors, especially if they are to produce behaviorally intact captive animals that can be reintroduced to the wild with minimal training, financial resources, and loss of individuals.
Descriptors: motor activity, feeding behavior, behavioral enrichment, activity budget differences between wild and captive animals, more time spent self-grooming and social behavior in captive animals, conserving species-typical behavior for reintroductions, zoo environments compared to the wild, Varecia variegata, ruffed lemurs, Madagascar.

MacKenzie, A.E. (2013). Evaluating the effectiveness of the behavioural enrichment plan for 2.2 ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Toronto Zoo. Animal Keepers' Forum 40(2): 76-82. ISSN: 0164-9531.
Descriptors: ring-tailed lemurs, zoos, species-typical behavior, activity time budgets, use of enrichment devices.

Maloney, M.A., S.T. Meiers, J. White, and M.A. Romano (2006). Effects of three food enrichment Items on the behavior of black lemurs (Eulemur macaco macaco) and ringtail lemurs (Lemur catta) at the Henson Robinson Zoo, Springfield, Illinois. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 9(2): 111-127. ISSN: 1088-8705.
DOI: 10.1207/s15327604jaws0902_2
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: This study tested 3 food enrichment items mentioned in a laboratory primate newsletter with 6 adult Eulemur macaco and 3 adult Lemur catta to examine whether the items would affect the behavior of the lemurs. The results suggest that Food Enrichment Item 3 (a wire box filled with whole grapes, apples, or both hidden in straw hung from a branch within the enclosure) caused a significant decrease in the incidence of resting and a significant increase in the incidences of playing and grooming, with no significant effect on the incidence of feeding or foraging. The lemurs' behavior appeared to be most affected by the food enrichment item that required the most manipulation, closely followed by an enrichment that required a moderate amount of manipulation. The order of the exposure to the food enrichment items and the day of the week appear to have an attenuation effect on these behaviors and did affect the incidence of 3 stereotypic behaviors exhibited by a male L. catta such that 3 behaviors declined in occurrence as the study progressed.
Descriptors: black lemurs, Eulemur macaco macaco, ringtail lemurs, Lemur catta, feeding enrichment, behavioral studies.

Patterson, A.L. (2011). Assessment of three lemur species' ability to solve a puzzle feeder. Dissertation, Western Illinois University: Illinois.
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, Eulemur macaco, feeding enrichment devices, Lemur catta, prosimians, zoos.

Perbellini, R., D. Grassi, E. Caltran, E. Baistrocchi, and M. Turchetto (2002). Effects of nutrition enrichment on the activity of a group of red ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegata rubra). Advances in Ethology 37: 62. ISSN: 0931-4202.
Descriptors: Varecia variegata rubra, red ruffed lemurs, captive management, nutrition and feeding enrichment, aggressive behavior, dominance hierarchy, grooming, social interaction, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 4th International Symposium on Physiology and Behaviour of Wild and Zoo Animals, Berlin, Germany; September 29-October 2, 2002.

Schaefer, M.S. and L.T. Nash (2004). Cage enrichment for galagos: A cautionary tale. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 43(1): 1-4. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Descriptors: Galago senegalensis braccatus, galagos, increasing cage complexity, housing techniques, empirically testing enrichment programs, increasing space and substrates does not increase activity levels, enrichment leading to reduction in social contact.

Schulze, H. (1998). A checklist of possible items for prosimian husbandry manuals and research. Folia Primatologica 69(Suppl. 1): 152-170. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: ideas for improvements of captive conditions, welfare guidelines, captive breeding, husbandry research areas, Loris tardigradus, animal care and well-being.
Notes: Meeting Information: International Conference on the Biology and Conservation of Prosimians, The North England Zoological Society, United Kingdom; September 13-16, 1995.

Sha, J.C.M. and C. Agoramoorthy (2004). Husbandry and enrichment of spectral tarsiers (Tarsius spectrum) in captivity. Folia Primatologica 75(Suppl. 1): 213. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: Tarsius spectrum, spectral tarsiers, habitat destruction leading to increased captive breeding efforts, husbandry techniques, incorporating enrichment into exhibit design, animal welfare, environmental enrichment, Night Safari, Singapore, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 20th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Torino, Italy; August 22-28, 2004.

Sommerfeld, R., M. Bauert, E. Hillmann, and M. Stauffacher (2006). Feeding enrichment by self-operated food boxes for white-fronted lemurs (Eulemur fulvus albifrons) in the Masoala exhibit of the Zurich Zoo. Zoo Biology 25(2): 145-154. ISSN: 0733-3188.
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20082
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: Eulemur fulvus albifrons, white-fronted lemurs, Hapalemur griseus alaotrensis, Alaotran gentle lemur, feeding enrichment, self-operated food boxes, arboreal behavior, activity levels, mixed species zoo exhibit, Zurich Zoo, Switzerland.

Tarou, L.R., M.A. Bloomsmith, and T.L. Maple (2005). Survey of stereotypic behavior in prosimians. American Journal of Primatology 65(2): 181-196. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: Captive animals have been observed to perform a variety of stereotypic behaviors. However, little is known about stereotypic behavior in prosimians. We sent surveys to 96 AZA-accredited institutions to examine stereotypic behavior in these primates. Forty-eight surveys were returned, providing information on 440 individuals of 10 genera. According to the responses, 13.2% of the prosimians surveyed exhibited some form of stereotypic behavior. Pacing was the most common behavior. A logistic regression was used to examine intrinsic characteristics that might influence the performance of stereotypic behavior. The genus of the prosimian was a significant predictor of stereotypic behavior. Individuals of the genus Varecia and Microcebus were more likely to engage in stereotypic behavior than members of the other genera. Rearing history, age, and sex were not significant predictors of stereotypic behavior. To examine the influence of extrinsic variables on stereotypic behavior, we transformed the data into the percentage of individuals within the enclosure that were reported to exhibit stereotypic behavior, and analyzed them at the enclosure level using a general linear model (GLM) analysis of variance (ANOVA). The only environmental variable that significantly predicted stereotypic behavior was the frequency with which enrichment was provided. Frequent enrichment was provided to those exhibits with a higher percentage of prosimians that engaged in stereotypic behavior. The results of this survey suggest that stereotypic behavior in prosimians may be associated with intrinsic factors (i.e., individual or genus differences) in addition to extrinsic factors related to housing. This knowledge may be helpful in identifying the causes of and effective treatments for stereotypic behavior in prosimians.
Descriptors: survey study, effects of enrichment, abnormal behavior, pacing, stereotypies, Varecia sp., Microcebus sp., intrinsic and extrinsic factors, zoo animals, genus differences, housing and individual effects on stereotypic behavior, captive prosimians.

Vasey, N. (2005). New developments in the behavioral ecology and conservation of ruffed lemurs (Varecia sp.). American Journal of Primatology 66(1): 1-6. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: The papers in this issue were presented at a symposium during the 25th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists held in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, in June 2002. This symposium brought together many of the scientists who have contributed to our knowledge of ruffed lemur ecology, behavior, and conservation in the past decade. One objective was to share and compare key findings about ruffed lemurs (Varecia) resulting from long-term field studies at various sites in Madagascar. A second objective was to cross-fertilize work being done in the wild with that being done in captivity, with the aim of advancing a common conservation mission for this critically endangered genus. Varecia is a prime candidate for synthetic assessments such as these because it has now been studied in both the northern and southern reaches of its geographic range, and has also been the focus of a captive-to-wild reinforcement project. The papers in this issue contribute to 1) the establishment of reference ranges for a suite of physiological parameters in healthy wild Varecia populations; 2) environmental enrichment aimed at preserving species-typical behaviors in captivity; 3) an understanding of how forest structure, floristic composition, and fruiting phenology in areas with differing disturbance histories correlate with the natural occurrence and abundance of Varecia; 4) primary knowledge concerning dominance relations between the sexes and group leadership in wild Varecia; and 5) primary knowledge concerning how wild Varecia, with their unusual reproductive pattern and heavy reliance on fruit, modulate their activity budgets seasonally and in tandem with reproductive stages.
Descriptors: introductory paper to journal issue, wild populations, captive wild animals, environmental enrichment use to preserve species-typical behaviors, forest structure, dominance relations between lemurs, ruffed lemurs, Varecia sp., conservation of natural resources, understanding natural ecosystems, Madagascar.

Watson, S., A. Gray, E. Taylor, B. Johnson, B. Fahm, a. Mcgee, W. Bingham, and P. Banks (2002). Efficacy of environmental enrichment for Garnett's bushbaby (Otolemur garnettii). American Journal of Primatology 57(Suppl. 1): 38-39. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: manipulanda, vertical space, enriched environment, animal behavior, U.S. Animal Welfare Act, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 25th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA; June 1-4, 2002.

Zimmermann, A. and A.T. Feistner (1996). Effects of feeding enrichment on ruffed lemurs Varecia variegata variegata and Varecia v. rubra. Dodo 32: 67-75. ISSN: 0265-5640.
Descriptors: diet in captivity, feeding enrichment strategies, behavioral response, feeding behavior, aggressive behavior, feeding enrichment strategies effects, captive observations.