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Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide: Macaques

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Abney, D.M. and J.L. Weed (2006). Methods for successfully pair housing adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 68(Suppl. 1): 59. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20270
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: animal behavior, socialization, same sex pairing, pair housing, macaques, Macaca mulatta.
Notes: Meeting Information: 29th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, San Antonio, TX, USA; August 16 -19, 2006.

Abt, K. (2011). Individual enrichment assessments: Catering to the preferences of 2.1 Sulawesi macaques (Macaca nigra). Animal Keepers' Forum 38(5): 205-211.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: zoos and wildlife parks, housing, environmental enrichment assessments, interaction with enrichment items, Smithsonian National Zoo.

Alexander, S. and M. Fontenot (2003). Isosexual social group formation for environmental enrichment in adult male Macaca mulatta. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(4): 122. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, alternative to single housing, self-injurious behavior (SIB), behavioral observations, group formation, rhesus macaques, meeting abstract.

Asvestas, C. and M. Reiniger (1999). Forming a bachelor group of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Laboratory Primate Newsletter 38(3): 14-15. ISSN: 0023-6861.
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: process of socialization, formation of all-male group, reduction in stereotypic behavior, description of group introduction, lip-smacking, establishment of hierarchy, trees, outside habitat, cynomologus macaques.

Augustsson, H. and J. Hau (1999). A simple ethological monitoring system to assess social stress in group-housed laboratory rhesus macaques. Journal of Medical Primatology 28(2): 84-90. ISSN: 0047-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9J66
Abstract: The increasing awareness of the importance of social housing of laboratory primates results in the establishment of group housing in many facilities. Our aim was to develop a set of manageable tools to allow continuous monitoring of social relations within groups and to establish an objective, scientific ground on which changes in group composition could be based. We studied 38 adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) grouped as five one-male/multi-female groups using focal sampling. We recorded the occurrence and direction of aggressive and non-aggressive social interactions as well as time spent inactive in proportion to social contacts, feeding and other activities. The present analysis clearly identified low-ranking animals with none or few affiliative contacts and who also spent much time inactive and separated from other low-ranking animals. This suggests that the present approach results in useful information concerning compatibility between group members and enables identification of animals experiencing high social stress.
Descriptors: primates as laboratory animals, adult rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, social behavior, mixed sex groups, monitoring of social relations in group housed animals, levels of aggression, assessing compatibility for social housing, social hierarchy ranking, animal welfare, social isolation.

Badihi, I. (2000). Effect of environmental enrichment on the welfare of long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis) infants separated from their mothers. Israel Journal of Zoology 46(2): 156-157. ISSN: 0021-2210.
Descriptors: cynomologus macaques, Macaca fascicularis, animal welfare, effects of enriched environments on weaned animals, parental separation, behavioral development, rearing environment.

Baker, K., M. Bloomsmith, C. Griffis, and M. Gierhart (2003). Self injurious behavior and response to human interaction as enrichment in rhesus macaques. American Journal of Primatology 60 (Suppl. 1): 94-95. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), abnormal behavior, vocalizations, human interaction as environmental enrichment, Macaca mulatta, rhesus macaques, stress.

Baker, K.C., M. Bloomsmith, K. Neu, C. Griffis, B. Oettinger, V. Schoof, A. Clay, and M. Maloney (2008). Benefits of isosexual pairing of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) vary with sex and are limited by protected contact but not by frequent separation. American Journal of Primatology 70(Suppl. 1): 44. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20556
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: In the issue: Program and Abstracts of the 31st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists June 18-21, 2008 Guest Editor: Matthew F.S.X. Novak
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, colony management, group housing, environmental enrichment, meeting abstract.

Baker, K.C., M.A. Bloomsmith, B. Oettinger, K. Neu, C. Griffis, V. Schoof, and M. Maloney (2012). Benefits of pair housing are consistent across a diverse population of rhesus macaques. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 137(3-4): 148-156. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.09.010
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: pair housing, laboratory-housed rhesus macaques, Tulane National Primate Research Center, social behavior, animal welfare, social housing benefits.

Baker, K.C., C.M. Crockett, G.H. Lee, B.C. Oettinger, V. Schoof, and J.P. Thom (2012). Pair housing for female longtailed and rhesus macaques in the laboratory: Behavior in protected contact versus full contact. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 15(2): 126-143. ISSN: 1088-8705.
DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2012.658330
Descriptors: pair housing, laboratory animals, longtailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, protected contact housing, full contact housing, adult females.

Beisner, B.A. and L.A. Isbell (2008). Ground substrate affects activity budgets and hair loss in outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 70(12): 1160-1168. ISSN: 1098-2345.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20615
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: macaques, captive environments, foraging behavior, grooming, colony management, animal welfare.

Bennett, A.J., C.A. Corcoran, V.A. Hardy, L.R. Miller, and P.J. Pierre (2010). Multidimensional cost-benefit analysis to guide evidence-based environmental enrichment: Providing bedding and foraging substrate to pen-housed monkeys. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 49(5): 571-577. ISSN: 1559-6109.
Descriptors: cost analysis, husbandry, engineering and facilities considerations, wood shavings, pen-housed monkeys, laboratory animals, animal welfare benefits, decreased husbandry costs.

Bethell, E.J., A. Holmes, A. MacLarnon, and S. Semple (2012). Evidence that emotion mediates social attention in rhesus macaques. PLoS ONE 7(8) ISSN: 1932-6203.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044387
Descriptors: emotionality, environmental enrichment, social attention, social housing, rhesus macaques, behavioral indicators of anxiety and stress, emotion-attention interactions, social behavior.

Blaszkiewitz, B. (2004). Die neue anlage fur japanmakaken (Macaca fuscata) im tierpark berlin-friedrichsfelde. [The new enclosure for Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) at Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde]. Zoologische Garten 74(2): 77-80. ISSN: 0044-5169.
NAL Call Number: 410 Z724
Descriptors: Japanese macaques, primates in zoo settings, environmental enrichment, inclusion of rocks, trees and pond in new enclosure, replacement of cages with naturalistic exhibits, Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde, Germany.
Language of Text: German; Summary in English.

Bloomsmith, M., K. Baker, C. Griffis, M. Maloney, K. Neu, V. Schoof, M. Martinez, K. Bakee, and V. Schoop (2005). Comparing training to human interaction as enrichment for captive rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 6(Suppl.): 178-179. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: interactions with human caregivers, environmental enrichment, positive reinforcement training, comparison study, Macaca mulatta, singly-housed, rhesus monkeys.
Notes: Meeting Information: Twenty-Eighth Annual Meeting, The American Society of Primatologists, Portland, OR, USA, August 17-20, 2005.

Bloomsmith, M., K. Baker, C. Griffis, B. Oettinger, V. Schoof, A. Clay, and M. Maloney (2008). Behavioral benefits of pair housing in adult rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) do not depend on age, previous duration of single housing, or naturalistic rearing. American Journal of Primatology 70(Suppl. 1): 44. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20556
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, environmental enrichment, social housing, colony management, single versus group cage, meeting abstract.
Notes: In the issue: Program and Abstracts of the 31st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists June 18-21, 2008 Guest Editor: Matthew F.S.X. Novak.

Blount, J.D. (1998). Redevelopment of a disused enclosure for housing Sulawesi crested macaques Macaca nigra at Newquay Zoo. International Zoo Yearbook 36: 56-63. ISSN: 0074-9664.
NAL Call Number: QL76.I5
Descriptors: Sulawesi macaques, Macaca nigra, group housing, foraging enrichment, climbing apparatus, puzzle feeder, spatial complexity, aggression in social groups, Newquay Zoo, UK.

Boccia, M.L. and A.S. Hijazi (1998). A foraging task reduces agonistic and stereotypic behaviors in pigtail macaque social groups. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 37(3): 1-5. ISSN: 0023-6861.
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: Macaca nemestrina, pigtailed macaques, effect of enrichment on behavior in social groups, foraging tasks to address stereotypic behavior, social groups, abnormal behavior.

Brannon, E., M. Andrews, and L. Rosenblum (2004). Effectiveness of video of conspecifics as a reward for socially housed bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata). Perceptual and Motor Skills 98(3-1): 849-858. ISSN: 0031-5125.
Descriptors: type of reward in cognitive task, reward value of video, video of novel versus familiar social group, response rates, individual differences, socially housed macaques, bonnet macaques, Macaca radiata.

Cannon, Tessa H., Michael Heistermann, Shala J. Hankison, Kimberley J. Hockings, and Matthew R. McLennan (2016). Tailored Enrichment Strategies and Stereotypic Behavior in Captive Individually Housed Macaques (Macaca Spp.). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 0, no. 0 (February 16, 2016): 1-12.
DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2015.1126786

Capitanio, J.P. (1998). Social experience and immune system measures in laboratory-housed macaques: Implications for management and research. ILAR Journal 39(1): 12-20. ISSN: 1084-2020.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1I43
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, rhesus macaques, primates as laboratory animals, immune responses, social housing, group size, animal welfare, stress.

Capitanio, J.P. and N.W. Lerche (1998). Social separation, housing relocation, and survival in simian AIDs: A retrospective analysis. Psychosomatic Medicine 60(3): 235-244. ISSN: 0033-3174.
Descriptors: social housing, socialization, simian immunodeficiency virus, rhesus monkeys, environmental enrichment, cage size, behavioral responses, survival rates.

Carey, M.C., A.M. West, B. Diaz, W.L. Wagner, and J.M. Erwin (2013). Enrichment object preferences in laboratory rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 75(Suppl. 1: Program and Abstracts of the 36th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists June 19–22, 2013): 1-106. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.22188

Crockett, C.M., M. Shimoji, and D.M. Bowden (2000). Behavior, appetite, and urinary cortisol responses by adult female pigtailed macaques to cage size, cage level, room change, and ketamine sedation. American Journal of Primatology 52(2): 63-80. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: Pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) and longtailed macaques (M. fascicularis) show behavioral, ecological, and possible temperament differences, and their responses to the laboratory environment might therefore be quite different. We tested pigtailed macaques under the same conditions that were investigated in a previous study with longtailed macaques, using the same comprehensive set of physiological and behavioral measures of stress. First, eight adult females' adaptation to a new room in regulation-size cages was monitored, and in the third week their responses to ketamine sedation were measured. Then they spent two weeks singly housed in each of four cage sizes (USDA regulation size, one size larger, one size smaller, and a very small cage). Half of the subjects were in upper-level cages and the remainder in lower-level cages for the entire study. Cage size, ranging from 20% to 148% of USDA regulation floor area, was not significantly related to abnormal behavior, self-grooming, manipulating the environment, eating/drinking, activity cycle, cortisol excretion, or biscuit consumption. Locomotion and frequency of behavior change were significantly reduced in the smallest cage, but did not differ in cage sizes ranging from 77% to 148% of regulation size. The only manipulation to produce an unequivocal stress response, as measured by cortisol elevation and appetite suppression, was ketamine sedation. Room change and cage changes were associated with minimal cortisol elevation and appetite suppression. Wild-born females showed more appetite suppression after room change than captive-born females. No differences were related to cage level. Pigtailed macaques strongly resembled longtailed macaques except they showed weaker responses to the new room and cage change, probably because the pigtails had spent more time in captivity. These findings support the conclusion that increasing cage size to the next regulation size category would not have measurable positive effects on the psychological well-being of two species of laboratory macaques.
Descriptors: effects of increased cage size, time in captivity, species comparison, cortisol elevation, feeding suppression, Macaca fasicularis, long-tailed macaques, Macaca nemestrina, pigtailed macaques, anesthetics, animal behavior, laboratory animal housing, circadian rhythm.

Crockett, C.M., R.U. Bellanca, D.R. Koberstein, and D. Shaw (2002). A protective "puzzle ball loader" for safe provisioning. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 41(1): 1-3. ISSN: 0023-6861.
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: personnel safety risks, macaques, foraging devices, environmental enrichment item safety, storage receptacle, protective device, parts and assembly, puzzle ball loading.

DiVincenti Jr, L. and J.D. Wyatt (2011). Pair housing of macaques in research facilities: A science-based review of benefits and risks. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 50(6): 856-863.
Abstract: Despite the enactment in the early 1990s of regulations requiring social housing of nonhuman primates (NHP), single housing is still prevalent in American research facilities. The publication of the 2011 edition of The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has increased emphasis on the implementation of social housing as the default housing method for NHP. Overestimation of the risks inherent in social housing coupled with underestimation of both the benefits of social housing and the risks inherent in long-term single housing has prevented large-scale transitions to social housing. Available caging and housing space often requires research facilities to use isosexual pairs to accomplish social housing. Pair housing presents unique challenges but can be used safely with a thorough understanding of macaque ethology. Here we review literature on the risks and benefits of pair housing macaques in research facilities and provide a concise best-practice approach to pair housing.
Descriptors: pair housing, macaques, laboratory animal research.

DiVincenti, L., A. Rehrig, and J. Wyatt (2012). Interspecies pair housing of macaques in a research facility. Laboratory Animals: 1-3. ISSN: 1758-1117.
DOI: 10.1258/la.2011.011134
Descriptors: social housing, nonhuman primates, pair housing, mixed species, cynomolgus macaque, rhesus macaque.

Doane, C.J., K. Andrews, L.J. Schaefer, N. Morelli, S. McAllister, and K. Coleman (2013). Dry bedding provides cost-effective enrichment for group-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 52(3): 247-252. ISSN: 1559-6109.
PMID: PMC3690445
Abstract: Dry bedding has been shown to be an effective enrichment strategy for small groups of captive nonhuman primates housed in cages or in small enclosures with concrete flooring. However, dry bedding is used infrequently for large groups because of the perception that its use is time- and resource-intensive. We investigated the cost-effectiveness of this enrichment strategy in large groups (30 to 50 subjects) of rhesus macaques. Macaques were housed under 3 comparison conditions for 4 wk: pine shavings (n = 4), aspen and pine shaving mixture (n = 4), and nonbedded control (n = 4). As measures of resource consumption, husbandry tasks were documented by using time-in-motion methodology, and water usage was determined. In addition, groups underwent behavioral observations to assess the effect of dry bedding. The time required to care for units did not differ between bedded and nonbedded units. However, significantly less water was used for sanitization of bedded compared with nonbedded units. Monkeys housed in bedded units showed more foraging (13.8% +/- 1.6% of time in bedded compared with 4.0% +/- 0.3% of time in nonbedded units) and less aggression and self-grooming. Dry bedding benefited the macaques, reduced water usage and costs, and did not affect human resources.
Descriptors: dry bedding, group housing, rhesus macaques, husbandry tasks.

Doyle, L.A., K.C. Baker, and L.D. Cox (2008). Physiological and behavioral effects of social introduction on adult male rhesus macaques. American Journal of Primatology 70(6): 542-550. ISSN: 1098-2345.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20526
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: rhesus monkeys, pair housing, process of social introductions, effects on behavior, stress, biotelemetry devices, heart rate, fecal cortisol, adult males.

Fante, F., A. Taglioni, M. Boldrin, A. Dedja, L. Lideo, L. Polito, L. Ravarotto, D. Bernardini, E. Cozzi, F. Cancellotti, and E. Ancona (2002). Aspects of welfare in Macaca fascicularis used in xenotransplantation research: Results of a preliminary study. [Aspetti del welfare in Macaca fascicularis usati nella ricerca sullo xenotrapianto: risultati di uno studio preliminare.]. Folia Primatologica 73(6): 327-328. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, animal experimentation, housing differences, pair housing, macaques.
Notes: In the Special Issue: 15th Meeting of the Italian Primatological Society, Rome, May 30-June 1, 2002.

Flint, W.W., S. Chen, K.E. Iba, E.B. Davis, S.J. Suomi, and J.D. Higley (2006). Concurrent environmental enrichment and ethanol consumption in socially-housed rhesus macaques. American Journal of Primatology 68(Suppl. 1): 77-78. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20270
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: animal behavior, environmental enrichment, ethanol consumption, rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta.
Notes: Meeting Information: 29th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, San Antonio, TX, USA; August 16 -19, 2006.

Florence, G. and L. Riondet (2000). Effets d'une mangeoire en forme de labyrinthe sur le comportement du macaque rhesus: Phase d'apprentissage. [Influence of a puzzle feeder on rhesus macaque behaviour: learning phase]. Folia Primatologica 71(4): 256-257. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: foraging devices, puzzle feeders, effect of puzzle feeders on stereotypic and saluting behaviors, environmental enrichment, singly-housed monkeys, rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, self-injurious behavior, meeting abstract.
Language of Text: French; Summary in English.
Notes: Meeting Information: 11th Annual Meeting of the Societe Francophone de Primatologie, Paris, France; September 29-October 2, 1999.

Friscino, B., C. Gai, A. Kulick, M. Donnelly, R. Rokar, L. Anderson, and S. Iliff (2003). Positive reinforcement training as a refinement of a macaque biliary diversion model. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(4): 80. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: macaques, refinement techniques, bile duct diversion, animal models, positive reinforcement training, blood and bile collection, jacket-training, biliary cannula system, pouch presentation, time taken to train animals, effect on stress, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 2003 AALAS National Meeting, Seattle, Washington, USA; October 12-16, 2003.

Gilbert, M.H. and K.C. Baker (2011-). Social buffering in adult male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): Effects of stressful events in single vs. pair housing. Journal of Medical Primatology 40(2): 71-78. ISSN: 1600-0684.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0684.2010.00447.x
Descriptors: long-term pair housing effects, stress and anxiety, rhesus macaques.

Gottlieb, D.H., K. Coleman, and B. McCowan (2013). The effects of predictability in daily husbandry routines on captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 143(2-4): 117-127. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2012.10.010
Descriptors: rhesus macaques, laboratory animals, effects of husbandry events, stress behavior, predictability of feeding time.

Gottlieb, D.H., S. Ghirardo, D.E. Minier, N. Sharpe, L. Tatum, and B. McCowan (2011). Efficacy of 3 types of foraging enrichment for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 50(6): 888-894.
Descriptors: foraging enrichment devices, puzzle balls, macaques, shakers, sterotypic behavior, supertubes, positive and negative effects of enrichment.

Gottlieb, D.H., A. Maier, and K. Coleman (2013). The relationship between environmental enrichment, temperament, and stereotypy in captive rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 75(Suppl. 1:): 91.
Descriptors: meeting abstract.

Gottlieb, D., L. Tatum, S. Ghirardo, A. Cameron, and B. McCowan (2009). Assessment of efficacy of three types of foraging enrichment in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 71(Suppl. 1): 33. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: macaques, colony management, feeding enrichment, foraging behavior, meeting abstract.

Graves, L.M. (2011). The effect of auditory enrichment on abnormal, affiliative, and aggressive behaviors in laboratory-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Thesis, Texas State University-San Marcos, Dept. of Anthropology, Paper 30.
Descriptors: auditory enrichment, white noise, designer music, Oregon National Primate Research Center, behavior observations.

Graves, L. and K.L. Graham (2011). The effect of auditory enrichment on the expression of abnormal behaviors in laboratory-housed infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 144(Suppl. 52): 72-319. ISSN: 0002-9483.
DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.21502
Descriptors: behavioral change, white noise, abnormal behavior, auditory enrichment, designer music, meeting abstract.

Griffis, C.M., A.L. Martin, J.E. Perlman, and M.A. Bloomsmith (2013). Play caging benefits the behavior of singly housed laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 52(5): 534-540. ISSN: 1559-6109.
Abstract: This study addresses a recommendation in The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals to provide singly housed nonhuman primates with intermittent access to large, enriched (play) caging. Research on the potential benefits of this type of caging is limited. The present study examines the effects of play caging on behavior, activity, and enrichment use. Singly housed, adult male, rhesus macaques (n = 10) underwent a baseline phase in their home cages, a 2-wk treatment phase with housing in play cages, and a posttreatment phase after returning to their home cages. Each subject underwent focal behavioral observations (n = 10; duration 30 min each) during each study phase, for a total of 150 h of data collection. Results showed increases in locomotion and enrichment use and a trend toward decreased abnormal behavior while subjects were in the play cage, with the durations of these behaviors returning to baseline levels after treatment. Anxiety-related behaviors decreased between the treatment and posttreatment phases but not between baseline and treatment, suggesting that outside factors may have influenced the decline. During the treatment phase, subjects spent more time in the upper quadrants of the play caging and preferred a mirror and forage boards as forms of enrichment. The greatest behavioral improvement occurred during the first week in the play cage. This study provides evidence to support the benefits of play caging for singly housed rhesus macaques.
Descriptors: play cages, adult, male, rhesus macaques, singly housed animals.

Hahn, N.E., D. Lau, K. Eckert, and H. Markowitz (2000). Environmental enrichment related injury in a macaque (Macaca fascicularis): intestinal linear foreign body. Comparative Medicine 50(5): 556-558. ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call Number: SF77 .C65
Abstract: A three-year old male cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) presented with clinical signs of anorexia and depression that decreased over a 48-hour period. Results of abdominal radiography abdominocentesis, blood biochemical analysis and CBC suggested septic peritonitis. Exploratory laparotomy revealed multiple perforations along the mesenteric border of the small intestine. Necropsy revealed masses of fibrous material in the stomach and cecum. Multiple mucosal ulcerations, as well as linear fibrous material, were found in the small intestine. The ulceration, perforations, and septic peritonitis were attributed to the ingestion of rope that had been attached to the animal's cage as an environmental-enrichment device.
Descriptors: long-tailed macaque, Macaca fascicularis, clinical signs of anorexia and depression, fatal outcome after ingestion of rope, septic peritonitis, perforation of small intestine, rope as environmental enrichment.

Hannibal, Darcy L., Eliza Bliss-Moreau, Jessica Vandeleest, Brenda McCowan, and John Capitanio (2016). Laboratory Rhesus Macaque Social Housing and Social Changes: Implications for ResearchAmerican Journal of Primatology, February 1, 2016, n/a – n/a. DOI:10.1002/ajp.22528.

Harris, L.D., E.J. Briand, R. Orth, and G. Galbicka (1999). Assessing the value of television as environmental enrichment for individually housed rhesus monkeys: a behavioral economic approach. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 38(2): 48-53. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: The goal of this study was to evaluate television as a source of environmental enrichment for individually housed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by using the concepts of behavioral economics. Phase I entailed the use of operant conditioning to assess the behavior of eight rhesus monkeys given the opportunity to control their environment through lever activation of a television (TV). Success in shaping was variable, and only two animals successfully acquired lever pressing. Phase II used an alternating reinforcement/ extinction procedure as a control method to determine the degree to which lever pressing depended on TV presentation. Both animals responded with more lever pressing on the days when lever pressing produced TV. The first animal, tested with the alternating reinforcement/extinction procedure for 12 weeks yielded a mean significant difference of 3.85 (p = 0.036); the second assessed for 9 weeks was associated with a mean significant difference of 6.0 (p = 0.018). Therefore, TV (and not lever pressing itself) was positively reinforcing. The final phase of the study progressively increased the fixed ratio (FR) from 1 to 8. Linear regression of the data points, plotted as the log of price (or FR) vs the consumption of TV, revealed a significantly negative slope (-2.179, p, 0.05) and accounted for 89% of the variance. The negative demand curve suggested that TV is not a valued commodity and is highly elastic. TV provided to individually housed rhesus monkeys appears to be a weakly positive reinforcer for some animals, which may contribute to overall environmental enrichment.
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, rhesus macaque, operant conditioning, animal control of television viewing, shaping behavior, positive reinforcement training, singly housed monkeys, television as an enrichment tool.

Hartner, M., J. Hall, J. Penderghest, and L.P. Clark (2001). Group housing subadult male cynomolgus macaques in a pharmaceutical environment. Lab Animal 30(8): 53-57. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Abstract: The authors describe the preliminary results of a program to group-house male cynomolgus monkeys. Using a unique cage design, they were able to achieve environmental enhancement and enrichment that led to easier handling of the animals used in protocols for pharmacological research.
Descriptors: group housing, social environment, Macaca fascicularis, male long-tailed macaques, cage design to facilitate animal handling, environmental enrichment, pharmocological research protocol, animal well-being.

Honess, P., J. Gimpel, S. Wolfensohn, and G. Mason (2005). Alopecia scoring: The quantitative assessment of hair loss in captive macaques. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 33(3): 193-206. ISSN: 0261-1929.
NAL Call Number: Z7994.L3A5
Abstract: Many captive animals show forms of pelage loss that are absent in wild or free-living conspecifics, which result from grooming or plucking behaviours directed at themselves or at other individuals. For instance, dorsal hair loss in primates such as rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in research facilities, results from excessive hair-pulling or over-grooming by cage-mates. This behaviour appears to be associated with stress, and is controllable to some extent with environmental enrichment. Quantifying alopecia in primates (as in many species) is therefore potentially useful for welfare assessment. A simple system for scoring alopecia was developed and its reliability was tested. Study 1 showed high interobserver reliability between two independent scorers in assessing the state of monkeys coats from photographs. Study 2 showed that there were no significant differences between the scores derived from photographs and from direct observations. Thus, where hair loss due to hair pulling exists in captive primates, this scoring system provides an easy, rapid, and validated quantitative method, for use in assessing the success of attempts to reduce it via improved husbandry. In the future, such scoring systems might also prove useful for quantifying barbering in laboratory rodents.
Descriptors: rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, grooming or plucking behaviors, primates in captive environments, quantifying hair loss (alopecia), welfare assessment using hair loss measurements, development of alopecia scoring system.

Honess, P. and L. Fernandez (2011-). Environmental enrichment for captive and wild-born macaques. The Enrichment Record(9)
Descriptors: birth origin, housing context, providing enrichment to wild or captive born animals, stress.

Honess, P.E., P.J. Johnson, and S.E. Wolfensohn (2004). A study of behavioural responses of non-human primates to air transport and re-housing. Laboratory Animals 38(2): 119-132. ISSN: 0023-6772.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L3
Abstract: More long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) than any other primate are imported into the UK for research, and journey times may be of up to 58 h. Whilst a number of studies have examined the stress associated with transport, these have typically involved laboratory rodents and livestock, and little is known of its effect on non-human primates. This paper reports the results of a study of behavioural changes in a group of long-tailed macaques transported by air from standard breeding conditions and then re-housed in standard laboratory primate conditions. The animals were studied prior to their departure, immediately after their arrival, and 3 weeks after that. Data were collected on individual time budgets using focal animal sampling and on hierarchy using a feeding trial. The data were analysed for changes in behavioural repertoires and for social perturbation that would be reflected in hierarchical changes. Changes in behaviour occurred which reflected heightened levels of stress in the study group. It was also clear that although there was some adjustment of behaviour, after an initial change on arrival at the new establishment, there was no return to levels observed at the breeding facility within the first month. This study demonstrates that, as a whole, the process of international air transport and re-housing in laboratory conditions may result in the compromising of the welfare of the study animals.
Descriptors: male cynomologus macaques, Macaca fascicularis, United Kingdom, transportation stress, behavioral time budgets, housing changes, laboratory conditions, international air transport, animal welfare.

Hotchkiss, C.E. and M.G. Paule (2003). Effect of pair-housing on operant behavior task performance by rhesus monkeys. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(4): 38-41. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: This study evaluated the effects of pair-housing on several operant (trained) behaviors in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Sixteen young, male, individually housed rhesus monkeys (age, 2.5 to 5.5 years) performed a battery of behaviors consisting of motivation (progressive ratio, PR), short-term memory and attention (delayed matching-to-sample, DMTS), color and position discrimination (conditioned position responding, CPR), and learning (incremental repeated acquisition, IRA) tasks. Behavioral assessments occurred 5 days/week, with the PR, IRA, and CPR tasks presented on one test day, and the DMTS task presented on the next test day. Thus, each task was performed two or three days/week. Eight subjects then were pair-housed, while eight age-matched controls remained individually housed. Pair-housed monkeys were separated for behavior testing and feeding but allowed access to each other approximately 20 h/day. The performance of the two groups of monkeys were compared for the 2 months prior to pairing, for a 2-month transition period as the pairs adjusted to the new housing situation, and for a 2-month period after the pairs had been established. Performance of the CPR and IRA tasks did not change over time in either group. For the PR and DMTS tasks, the number of trials completed increased over the course of the study in the controls but not in the pair-housed monkeys. In conclusion, pair-housing monkeys is feasible for studies involving operant behavior testing as a model for a variety of complex brain functions. However, housing condition may affect some test parameters, and this must be taken into consideration during experimental design.
Descriptors: juvenile male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, effects of single housing versus pair housing on tasks, operant conditioning, learning, short-term memory, experimental design for studies of operant behavior.

Hsu, M.J. (2004). Importance of welfare and enrichment strategies for managing captive Formosan macaques in zoos in Taiwan. Folia Primatologica 75(Suppl. 1): 212-214. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: Macaca cyclopsis, Formosan macaques, captive management, display of abnormal behavior resulting from sub-standard conditions, provision of enrichment to promote animal welfare, importance of welfare standards, Taiwan.
Notes: Meeting Information: 20th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Torino, Italy; August 22-28, 2004.

Jaman, M.F. and M.A. Huffman (2008). Enclosure environment affects the activity budgets of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). American Journal of Primatology 70(12): 1133-1144. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20612
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: activity budgets, Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, captive environment, age-sex differences, vegetated enclosures.

Jaman, M.F., M.A. Huffman, and H. Takemoto (2010). The foraging behavior of Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata in a forested enclosure: Effects of nutrient composition, energy and its seasonal variation on the consumption of natural plant foods. Current Zoology 56(2): 198-208. ISSN: 0001-7302.
Descriptors: nonhuman primates, captive environment, environmental enrichment, foraging enrichment, nutrition, foraging behavior, Japanese macaques.

Jaman, M.F. and M.A. Huffman (2011). Age class differences in the feeding behavior of captive Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscataia) in the forested and nonvegetated enclosure groups. Zoo Biology 30(3): 260-274. ISSN: 0733-3188.
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20324
Descriptors: effect of environmental enrichment, age class differences in feeding behavior, captive macaques.

Jebavy, L., P. Kubece, M. Kuncova, and L. Libichova (2008). Environmental enrichment and the welfare of laboratory macaques. Folia Primatologica 79(5): 343-344. ISSN: 0015-5713.
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, animal welfare, social environment, species-specific behavior, macaques, laboratory animals.
Notes: Meeting Information: 2nd Congress of the European Federation for Primatology, Prague, Czech Republic; September 3-7, 2007.

Kaplan, J., M. Ayers, M. Phillips, C. Mitchell, C. Wilmoth, D. Cairnes, and M. Adams (2003). The effect of non-nutritive environmental enrichment on the social behavior of group-housed cynomologus macaques (Macaca fasicularis). Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(4): 117. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: long-tailed macaques, Macaca fasicularis, mirrors, rubber toys, chains, group housing, behavioral observations, aggression, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 2003 AALAS National Meeting, Seattle, Washington, USA; October 12-16, 2003.

Kiyama, A., A.J. Taylor, J.L. McCarty, and F.A.W. Wilson (2003). A video-display approach to environmental enrichment for macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 42(3): 1-3. ISSN: 0023-6861.
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: bar press, video as environmental enrichment, images, novel visual stimuli, animal behavior, macaques.

Lee, J.I., C.W. Lee, H.S. Kwon, Y.T. Kim, C.G. Park, S.J. Kim, and B.C. Kang (2008). Changes in food intake and abnormal behavior using a puzzle feeder in newly acquired sub-adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): A short term study. Experimental Animals 57(5): 433-437. ISSN: 1881-7122.
DOI: 10.1538/expanim.57.433
NAL Call Number: QL55.J55
Descriptors: puzzle feeder, abnormal behavior, stereotypic behavior, rhesus monkeys, adaptation abnormalities, food intake.

Lee, G.H., J.P. Thom, K.L. Chu, and C.M. Crockett (2012). Comparing the relative benefits of grooming-contact and full-contact pairing for laboratory-housed adult female Macaca fascicularis. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 137(3-4): 157-165. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.08.013
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, environmental enrichment, laboratory-housed macaques, pair housing, social housing, long-tailed macaques, grooming bars

Lee, G.H., M.J. Yi, and C.M. Crockett (2011). Assessing video presentation as enrichment for captive male pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina). Laboratory Primate Newsletter 50(4): 7-9.
Descriptors: pigtailed macaques, video as environmental enrichment, Washington National Primate Research Center.

Leland, S.P., A.M. West, J.M. Erwin, R.A. Byrum, A. Dodson, S. Harbaugh, L. Matthias, W.L. Wagner, and M.C. St. Claire (2007). Incorporation of enrichment objects in threat displays by laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 69(Suppl. 1): 50-51. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20448
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: rhesus macaques, animal behavior, environmental enrichment objects, threat display.
Notes: Meeting Information: 30th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; June 20 -23, 2007.

Leland, S.P., A.M. West, Z.L. Pippin, A.T. Dodson, W.L. Wagner, A.L. Cook, and J.M. Erwin (2008). Effects of familiarity and novelty on rates of environmental enrichment object manipulation by laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 70(Suppl. 1): 30. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20556
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, familiar objects, object manipulation, toys, rhesus monkeys.
Notes: Meeting Information: 31st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, West Palm Beach, FL, USA; June 18 -21, 2008.

Mallapur, A., A. Sinha, and N. Waran (2007). A world survey of husbandry practices for Lion-tailed macaques Macaca silenus in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook 41(1): 166-175. ISSN: 0074-9664.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-1090.2007.00004.x
NAL Call Number: QL76.I5
Abstract: A questionnaire survey was conducted to compare husbandry and management protocols for Lion-tailed macaques Macaca silenus in 42 zoos in various parts of the world. A relatively higher number of zoos outside India compared with those in India reported foraging behaviour in their individuals, whereas abnormal behaviour was rare. The reproductive success of macaques in these zoos was also significantly higher than that in Indian zoos. The results of this study suggest that group composition, enclosure design, dietary preparation and nutrition, as well as visitor-animal interaction influence the welfare and breeding success of Lion-tailed macaques in Indian zoos. Also, poor management is a problem in the Indian-zoo scenario. Hence, we emphasize the need for good zoo management through proper record-keeping, regularized behaviour monitoring and administration of environmental enrichment, and a well-established marking/tagging method to identify individual animals.
Descriptors: Lion-tailed macaque, Macaca silenus, abnormal behaviour, enclosure design, India, questionnaire, reproductive success, management in zoos, captivity, internet resource.

Mallapur, A., N. Waran, and A. Sinha (2007). A note on enrichment for captive lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 108(1-2): 191-195. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2006.11.020
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: enrichment techniques, social enrichment, structural enrichment, animal welfare, natural behavior, abnormal behaviour, India, zoos.

Mallapur, A., N. Waran, and A. Sinha (2005). Use of enclosure space by captive lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) housed in Indian zoos. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 8(3): 175-185. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: zoo animals, human animal relations, visitors , cage design, environmental enrichment, animal behavior, animal housing, India.

McCowan, B. and I. Rommeck (2006). Bioacoustic monitoring of aggression in group-housed rhesus macaques. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 9(4): 261-268. ISSN: 1088-8705.
DOI: 10.1207/s15327604jaws0904_1
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Abstract: Many captive primate facilities house rhesus macaques in multimale-multifemale social groups in large enclosures that simulate the natural social and environmental features characteristic of the species, enhancing their reproductive performance as well as their psychological well-being, yet one of the most difficult management problems in socially housed macaques is their propensity for exhibiting spontaneous bouts of deleterious aggression. To address this management problem, an automated bioacoustic monitoring system might be developed that is capable of detecting and forecasting problematic patterns of contact aggression. To evaluate the utility of this approach, this study examined the magnitude of aggression and the co-occurrence of certain vocalization types and aggression in 10 groups of rhesus macaques. The data confirmed aggression as a significant problem in rhesus groups and indicated that certain patterns of vocalizations are indicative of the type or level of aggression. The detection and classification of these vocalization types need further research to eventually design and implement an efficacious bioacoustic system for monitoring aggression in rhesus macaques.
Descriptors: rhesus macaques, social housing, aggressive behavior, captive management techniques, automated bioacoustic monitoring system, vocalizations.

McGuffey, L.H., C.L. McCully, B.J. Bernacky, and S.M. Blaney (2002). Incorporation of an enrichment program into a study protocol involving long term restraint in macaques. Lab Animal 31(10): 37-39. ISSN: 0093-7355.
NAL Call Number: QL55.A1L33
Abstract: Nonhuman primates might experience stress during periods of restraint associated with research procedures. In an attempt to minimize such stress, the authors describe an enrichment program they designed for use with restrained adult male rhesus macaques.
Descriptors: husbandry methods, animal behavior, stress reduction program, protocols involving physical restraint, adult male rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, environmental enrichment.

Melfi, V.A. and A.T.C. Feistner (2002). A comparison of the activity budgets of wild and captive Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra). Animal Welfare 11(2): 213-222. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: Macaca nigra, Sulawesi macaques, captive wild animals, comparison study, endangered species, animal welfare, zoo animals, physical activity, social behavior, feeding behavior.

Merrill, D.A., E. Maslian, J.A. Roberts, L.C. Cork, D.L. Price, J. Kordower, E.J. Mufsion, and M.H. Tuszynski (2000). Environmental deprivation causes accelerated amyloid plaque formation and reduction in synapse number in the aged primate brain. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 26(1-2): Abstract No. 181.12. ISSN: 0190-5295.
NAL Call Number: QP351.S6
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, social environment, single housing, cage size, social and manipulanda deprived environment, brain development, neurogenesis, aging, Macaca mulatta.

Michopoulos, V., M. Higgins, D. Toufexis, and M.E. Wilson (2012). Social subordination produces distinct stress-related phenotypes in female rhesus monkeys. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37: 1071-1085. ISSN: 0306-4530.
DOI: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.12.004
Descriptors: animal models, social subordination, stress-induced psychological illness.

Morgan, D., K.A. Grant, O.A. Prioleau, S.H. Nader, J.R. Kaplan, and M.A. Nader (2000). Predictors of social status in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) after group formation. American Journal of Primatology 52(3): 115-131. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to determine whether various behavioral and hormonal markers obtained in individually housed monkeys would be predictive of social rank following group housing. Body weight, serum cortisol and testosterone levels, and locomotor activity in an open-field apparatus were examined in 20 experimentally naive male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) while they were individually housed. It was hypothesized that eventual subordinate monkeys would have higher cortisol levels and increased locomotor activity scores. These monkeys were then placed in social groups of four (five pens of four monkeys), and social rank was determined based on outcomes of dyadic agonistic encounters. Body weight correlated significantly with eventual social rank. In general, the heavier the monkey the higher the social rank. Locomotor activity in an open-field apparatus following administration of a low dose of cocaine (0.01 mg/kg, i.v.), which has been shown to increase CNS dopamine, correlated with eventual social rank such that individually housed monkeys with high levels of locomotion were more likely to become subordinate. Serum cortisol and testosterone levels failed to correlate with eventual social rank. Hypothalamic-pituitary feedback sensitivity and adrenal responsiveness were examined by measuring cortisol levels after administration of dexamethasone and following ACTH challenge. Cortisol responses in these tests were not associated with eventual social rank. These results suggest that, in addition to body weight, the level of reactivity in a novel environment after administration of a low dose of cocaine is a potential trait marker for social rank. This trait is apparently not associated with hormone levels, but may involve other CNS mechanisms.
Descriptors: social rank predicted by behavioral and hormonal markers, male long-tailed macaques, Macaca fasicularis, single housing into small social groups, cortisol levels, locomotor activity scores, effect of body weight on social rank, level of reactivity to novel environments, cocaine administration, aggression, hypothalamic-pituitary feedback sensitivity, adrenal responsiveness.

Niehoff, M.O., M. Bergmann, and G.F. Weinbauer (2010). Effects of social housing of sexually mature male cynomolgus monkeys during general and reproductive toxicity evaluation. Reproductive Toxicology 29(1): 57-67. ISSN: 1873-1708 (Electronic). 0890-6238 (Linking).
DOI: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2009.09.007
Descriptors: social housing, reproductive parameters, body weight, testicular volumes, toxicity studies.

Novak, M.A., J.H. Kinsey, M.J. Jorgensen, and T.J. Hazen (1998). Effects of puzzle feeders on pathological behavior in individually housed rhesus monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 46(3): 213-227. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), wounding, effects of puzzle difficulty on behavior, manipulation, foraging enrichment, lack of success of behavioral treatment, rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, puzzle feeders.

Novak, M.F.S.X., C. Kenney, S.J. Suomi, and G.C. Ruppenthal (2007). Use of animal-operated folding perches by rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 46(6): 35-43. ISSN: 1559-6109.
NAL Call Number: SF405.3.A23
Abstract: Providing captive or laboratory animals with the best possible living conditions has led to many ideas about how caging environments can be enhanced and the animals' lives can be enriched. This study focused primarily on 2 issues: more efficient use of existing caging and providing animals with a measure of control over their environments. We designed a new springloaded folding perching apparatus that, when modified for size, could be added to almost any caging system. Experiment 1 measured usage by animals in standard laboratory caging for rhesus macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Experiment 2 measured usage by this same species in social groups in a 5-acre outdoor-indoor field setting, where several other forms of enrichment were available to the animals. Results indicated that the folding perches were used in both environments. Animals quickly learned to fold down the devices to use as a place to perch, even in the presence of permanent fixed perches. The folding perches did not significantly affect existing behavioral repertoires, but they altered how the animal used the cage. Increased animal presence near folding perches during experiment 2 suggests that these devices actually were preferred. The preference results can only partially be explained by novelty. The folding perches afforded animals a measure of control over their immediate environment without interfering in research or animal care efforts. Including at least 1 folding perch per cage satisfies both the letter and the spirit of regulations on environmental enhancement for captive primates.
Descriptors: animal housing, Macaca mulatta, rhesus monkeys, male, social behavior, folding perches, preference testing, control over environment.

Ogura, T. and T. Matsuzawa (2012). Video preference assessment and behavioral management of single-caged Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) by movie presentation. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 15(2): 101-112. ISSN: 1088-8705.
DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2012.624887
Descriptors: movie presentation, enrichment techniques, video preferences, abnormal behavior, Japanese macaques, singly-housed monkeys.

O'Neill-Wagner, P. (2003). Social display, feeding, exploration, and program attentiveness rates for rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) exposed to audio-visual programs. American Journal of Primatology 60 (Suppl. 1): 119. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: environmental enrichment, single housing for veterinary care, animal behavior, attentiveness to videos, play and exploration, gender effects, age effects, retrospective analysis, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 26th Annual Meeting The American Society of Primatologists, Alberta, Canada; July 30 to August 2, 2003.

Rawlins, J.M., S. Poerstel, and K. Coleman (2003). Utilization of toy devices by rhesus macaques. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(4): 123. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: rotation of enrichment toys, foraging manipulanda, focal observations, Macaca mulatta, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 2003 AALAS National Meeting, Seattle, Washington, USA; October 12-16, 2003.

Rehrig, A., L. DiVincenti, and L.A. Schery (2014). Social housing of non-human primates in a research facility: Socialisation across macaque species and sexes. Animal Welfare 23: 387-389. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: cynomolgus macaques, rhesus macaques, interspecies housing, research animals.

Reinhardt, V. (2005). Implementing housing refinements in a rhesus macaque colony. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 44(3): 76,78,80. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: laboratory animals, animal use refinement, cage design, group housing, animal stress, training (animals), animal care, restraint of animals, blood sampling.

Reinhardt, V. (2003). Legal loophole for sub-minimal floor area for caged macaques. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6(1): 53-56. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: animal welfare legislation, reduced floor area in cages, laboratory animal housing, Macaca sp., United States.

Reinhardt, V. (1999). Pair-housing overcomes self-biting behavior in macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 38(1): 4-5. ISSN: 0023-6861.
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: abnormal behavior, self-biting, compatible social housing, effect of prolonged single-housing, reduction in self-injurious behavior (SIB), macaques.

Reinhardt, V. and M. Garza Schmidt (2000). Daily feeding enrichment for laboratory macaques: inexpensive options. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 39(2): 8-11. ISSN: 0023-6861.
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: foraging behavior, ceiling food puzzle, food puzzles, animal behavior, cost and labor savings, cage structure, Macaca sp.

Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt (2001). Environmental Enrichment for Caged Rhesus Macaques: A Photographic Documentation and Literature Review, 2nd edition, Animal Welfare Institute: Washington, DC, 77 p.
NAL Call Number: HV4737.R45 2001
Descriptors: primates as laboratory animals, rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta, environmental enrichment techniques, photographs, housing and handling methods, social housing, wood sticks.

Rice, T.R., H. Harvey, R. Kayheart, and C. Torres (1999). Effective strategy for evaluating tactile enrichment devices for singly caged macaques. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 38(5): 24-26. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: Since the mandate for providing environmental enrichment for nonhuman primates was included in the Animal Welfare Act, numerous articles and suggestions have been put forth covering tactile devices and creative cage arrangements. For larger primate facilities and research programs environmental enrichment evaluation is usually accomplished by enrichment technicians or behaviorists. However, for the smaller facilities or programs, the ability to formulate and document an enrichment program can be very difficult due to budget or personnel constraints. We present a simple, yet effective, tactile device scoring system used with singly caged macaques indicating that creating and documenting enrichment ideas can be accomplished without a large personnel and budgetary commitment. We believe this strategy will help programs meet the regulatory requirements with relative ease.
Descriptors: enrichment devices, enrichment technicians, behaviorists, enrichment program development, tactile device scoring system, single housing, regulatory requirements, United States Animal Welfare Act, small facilities.

Roberts, S.J. and M.L. Platt (2005). Effects of isosexual pair-housing on biomedical implants and study participation in male macaques. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 44(5): 13-18. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: Social housing has been shown to contribute to the psychological well-being and physical health of captive primates, and this factor has led to United States Department of Agriculture guidelines requiring facilities to address the social needs of primate species known to live socially in nature as long as doing so does not endanger the animals or interfere with research goals. Although pair-housing is the best way to provide social enrichment, many researchers and facilities are hesitant to implement it, particularly in biomedical research contexts where implanted devices or behavioral performance might be compromised. In order to study the effects of pair-housing on biomedical implants and study participation, we collected data from a group of isosexually pair-housed male macaques (adult and subadult) with 1) cranial and eye implants and 2) controlled access to water as means of motivating subjects to participate in psychophysical studies. Implants, study participation, and weight gain were not adversely affected by pair-housing. Our results support the use of pair-housing as social enrichment for macaques with biomedical implants and controlled access to water.
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, Macaca fascicularis, primates as laboratory animals, male macaques, psychological well-being, group housing of primates with implanted devices, pair housing as social enrichment, controlled access to water, prostheses and implants, social behavior of primates in captivity, biomedical research environment, environmental enrichment, animal welfare, animal behavior.

Robins, J.G. and C.D. Waitt (2011). Improving the welfare of captive macaques (Macaca sp.) through the use of water as enrichment. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 14(1): 75-84. ISSN: 1088-8705.
DOI: 10.1080/10888705.2011.527605
Descriptors: literature review, animal welfare, foraging behavior, macaques, nonhuman primates, swimming pools as enrichment.

Rommeck, I., K. Anderson, A. Heagerty, A. Cameron, and B. McCowan (2009). Risk factors and remediation of self-injurious and self-abuse behavior in Rhesus Macaques. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 12(1): 61-72. ISSN: 1088-8705.
DOI: 10.1080/10888700802536798
Descriptors: self injurious behavior (SIB), rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta, risk factors, cage relocation.

Schapiro, S.J. (2002). Effects of social manipulations and environmental enrichment on behavior and cell mediated immune responses in rhesus macaques. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 73(1): 271-278. ISSN: 0091-3057.
NAL Call Number: QP901.P4
Abstract: This paper reviews a series of studies that have examined the effects of manipulations to the social and the inanimate environments on the behavior and cell-mediated immune responses of rhesus macaques of various ages living in different settings. In general, enrichment of the inanimate environment with toys, structures, foraging devices, and/or videotapes increased the amount of species-typical behavior expressed by the monkeys, but did not affect their immune responses. Housing monkeys socially, on the other hand, not only resulted in increased time spent in species-typical activities, but also resulted in (1) decreases in time spent in abnormal behavior and (2) changes in a number of immune parameters. Additionally, attempts to directly influence the affiliative interactions of socially housed adult rhesus have resulted in systematic changes in affiliative behavior, although anticipated accompanying systematic alterations to cell-mediated immune responses have yet to be realized. The data suggest that aspects of the physical and social environments influence behavioral and immunological parameters in captive macaques in the absence of other experimental manipulations. As such, these influences need to be appropriately managed and/or controlled in order to minimize potential confounds in experimental designs.
Descriptors: literature review, social environment, enriched housing, Macaca mulatta, foraging devices, animal behavior, toys, videotapes, immune responses, confounding aspects of experimental protocols.

Schapiro, S.J. and B.J. Bernacky (2011). Socialization strategies and disease transmission in captive colonies of nonhuman primates. American Journal of Primatology ISSN: 1098-2345.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.21001
Descriptors: colony management, disease transmission, social housing strategies, specific pathogen free primate colony.

Schapiro, S.J. and M. Bloomsmith (2001). Lower-row caging in a two-tiered housing system does not affect the behaviour of young singly housed rhesus macaques. Animal Welfare 10(4): 387-394. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, primates in laboratory settings, young animals, single housing, effect of light and location on normal and abnormal behavior, light intensity, animal welfare.

Schapiro, S.J., P.N. Nehete, J.E. Perlman, and K.J. Sastry (2000). A comparison of cell-mediated immune responses in rhesus macaques housed singly, in pairs, or in groups. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 68(1): 67-84. ISSN: 0168-1591.
NAL Call Number: QL750.A6
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, housing conditions in the laboratory, primates as laboratory animals, social enrichment, group size, cell-mediated immune responses, animal welfare.

Smith, D.R. (2013). Environmental enrichment as a means of increasing male-female social interactions in a critically endangered species, Macaca nigra. Dissertation, State University of New York at Fredonia: Fredonia, NY.
Descriptors: Sulawesi Crested macaques, Buffalo Zoo, zoo housed animals, environmental enrichment, enrichment increases social interactions.

Storey, P.L., P.V. Turner, and J.L. Tremblay (2000). Environmental enrichment for rhesus macaques: a cost effective exercise cage. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 39(1): 14-16. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: Providing suitable and varied environmental enrichment opportunities for nonhuman primates is both challenging and expensive, requiring institutions to be innovative when planning an enrichment program. Equipment must be durable, nontoxic, easily sanitized and disinfected, and readily assembled or prepared by animal care personnel. We developed a portable exercise cage for singly housed macaques from pre-existing but outdated caging; our cage met the described requirements and was used in animal-holding rooms. Modifying existing caging for this purpose led to substantial cost savings. These cages have proved to be popular with animals and their affiliated research teams.
Descriptors: primates as laboratory animals, enriched environment, exercise, portable cage, cost considerations, single housing, Macaca mulatta.

Sullivan, J., K. Schultz, N. Goecks, M. Rosga, and C. Cruzen (2009). Comparison of introduction strategies: gradual vs. protected contact in macaques. American Journal of Primatology 71(Suppl. 1): 33. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20733
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: macaques, social behavior, socialization strategies, laboratory animals.

Tasker, L. (2012). Linking welfare and quality of scientific output in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) use for regulatory toxicity. Thesis, University of Sterling.
Descriptors: primate welfare, welfare assessment, refinement of animal use, toxicology, long-tailed macaque.

Taylor, D.K., T. Bass, G.S. Flory, and F.C. Hankenson (2005). Use of low-dose chlorpromazine in conjunction with environmental enrichment to eliminate self-injurious behavior in a rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta). Comparative Medicine 55(3): 282-288. ISSN: 1532-0820.
NAL Call Number: SF77 .C65
Abstract: A 7-year-old, captive-bred, female rhesus macaque was placed in a quarantine facility upon arrival at our institution. At release from quarantine, she was observed pawing at and chewing on her left cheek. Physical examination revealed ulcerative lesions on the buccal surface of the left cheek. Initial differential diagnoses included Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus)-induced lesions and bacterial infection. Dental abnormalities and cheek pouch foreign body were ruled out during the physical exam. Treatment with 30 mg/kg cefazolin intramuscularly every 12 h was initiated. Twelve days later, the animal presented with a 2 x 2-cm, full-thickness erosion involving the opposite (right) cheek. Treatment with buprenorphine (0.1 mg/kg intramuscularly every 24 h) was initiated. Cultures for B virus were negative, and only nonpathogenic bacteria were isolated from swabs of the lesions. Hematology and serum chemistry profiles were normal. A wedge biopsy of the lesion revealed no definitive etiology. Further observation revealed that the lesions likely resulted from self-injurious behavior (SIB). Treatment with low-dose chlorpromazine (1 mg/kg intramuscularly once daily for 25 days, and then 0.5 mg/kg intramuscularly once daily for 25 days) was initiated. Bodyweight and condition were maintained during therapy, and serial hematology and serum chemistry profiles were normal. The animal was moved into a different room, and a toy "necklace" was created. The SIB was eliminated, and lesions healed within 35 days. Presently, 20 months after presentation, this animal remains in good health.
Descriptors: self-injurious behavior (SIB), abnormal behavior treatment, primates as laboratory animals, environmental enrichment, chlorpromazine, location change, adult female rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta, pawing and chewing at cheek, behavioral treatment program, toy necklace, case study.

Tsuchida, J. and A. Izumi (2009). The effects of age and sex on interest toward movies of conspecifics in Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata). Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science 48(3): 286-291. ISSN: 1559-6109.
NAL Call Number: SF405.3 .A23
Descriptors: Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, videos, movies, visual enrichment, individual housed animals, touch sensitive computer displays, age effects, gender effects.

Tsuchida, J., K. Kawasaki, T. Sankai, N. Kubo, K. Terao, T. Koyama, J. Makino, and Y. Yoshikawa (2003). New type of puzzle-task finger maze learning in Macaca fascicularis. International Journal of Primatology 24(2): 261-270. ISSN: 0164-0291.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9I54
Descriptors: cognitive abilities, cynomologus macaques, Macaca fascicularis, puzzle feeders, noncorrection-type finger maze (4FM), task difficulty, training of animals.

Turner, P.V. and L.E.II. Grantham (2002). Short term effects of an environmental enrichment program for adult cynomolgus monkeys. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 41(5): 13-17. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: Behavior patterns (including behavior disorders) of cynomolgus monkeys are established early in life, and exploratory behavior lessens with age. Whether environmental enrichment programs benefit these animals can be questioned, particularly for animals housed short-term. We evaluated the overall effect of our environmental enrichment program in 40 newly arrived male and female adult cynomolgus monkeys to determine whether it impacted animal well-being. Animals allocated into two groups one that received environmental enrichment (the enriched group) and one that did not (the nonenriched, control group) and behaviors were assessed over a 5-week period. We also examined the effect of enrichment on training time for a simple activity (entering a transfer box). Animals that had environmental enrichment made use of additional cage space, toys, and foraging items, but trends in observed in-cage behavior patterns were relatively unchanged throughout the course of the study. After study completion, physical evidence of self-trauma was found in 25% of the nonenriched animals but not in any of those in the enriched group. Enrichment had no notable effect on body weight or training time for a simple activity. Our findings suggest that provision of a comprehensive environmental enrichment program provides a beneficial effect to adult cynomolgus macaques singly housed short-term.
Descriptors: Macaca fascicularis, long-tailed macaques, primates as laboratory animals, environmental enrichment, animal welfare, group size, training of animals, abnormal behavior, self-injurious behavior (SIB), individual housing, effects of enriched versus nonenriched environments.

Vick, S.J., J.R. Anderson, and R. Young (2000). Maracas for Macaca? Evaluation of three potential enrichment objects in two species of zoo housed macaques. Zoo Biology 19(3): 181-191. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: Macaca arctoides, Barbary macaques, Macaca sylvanus, stump-tailed macaques, unresponsive objects, rattles, foraging devices, environmental enrichment, comparison study, effects of novelty, primates in zoo settings, species differences, manipulation of enrichment objects.

Washburn, D.A., J. Gulledge, and D. Rumbaugh (2001). Long-term testing of macaques with the computerized test system: implications for cognition and enrichment. American Journal of Primatology 54(Suppl. 1): 90-91. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, rhesus macaques, joystick tasks, computerized testing systems, interest of monkeys in computerized tasks, comparative assessment of cognitive processes, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 24th Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Savannah, Georgia, USA; August 8-11, 2001.

Watson, L. (2010). Effectiveness of perforated plexiglass dividers as social grooming devices between neighboring, individually housed adult male Macaca fascicularis. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 49(4): 1-5. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Descriptors: social housing, laboratory-living nonhuman primates, cynomolgus macaques, males, grooming contact bars, caging system modification, individually housed animals.

Watson, L. (2003). Pair- and singly-housed adult male M. fascicularis' behavioral response to varying video tape subject matter. American Journal of Primatology 60 (Suppl. 1): 83. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: long-tailed macaques, Macaca fasicularis, behavioral study, nature film, cartoons, video preferences, effect of housing condition, aggression, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 26th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Alberta, Canada; July 29 - August 2, 2003.

Watson, L. (2002). A successful program for same-and cross-age pair-housing adult and subadult male Macaca fascicularis. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 41(2): 6-9. ISSN: 0023-6861.
NAL Call Number: SF407.P7 L3
Descriptors: long-tailed macaques, pair-housed males, process of socialization, psychological well-being, behavioral management program, behavioral observations.

Watson, S.L., C.A. Shively, and M.L. Voytko (1999). Can puzzle feeders be used as cognitive screening instruments? Differential performance of young and aged female monkeys on a puzzle feeder task. American Journal of Primatology 49(2): 195-202. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: Conventional cognitive testing of monkeys is time-consuming and involves single-caging and food or water deprivation. Here we report a novel test of global cognitive performance that can be completed in a short time period without food/water or social restrictions. Nine mazes of increasing difficulty were developed using a standard puzzle feeder, and the maze-solving performance of ten young and five aged female cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) was tested. The young monkeys solved maze configurations at higher levels of difficulty and solved the first level of difficulty more quickly than aged monkeys. This task discriminated performance by age in nonhuman primates as do more conventional forms of cognitive testing and indicates that this task may be a quick and easy assessment of global cognitive function.
Descriptors: long-tailed macaques, Macaca fascicularis, problem solving, juvenile and adult female monkeys, solving mazes of various difficulties, task discrimination, puzzle feeders.

Watson, S., R. Stavisky, and J. Kaplan (1999). Exposure to novelty enhances problem-solving proficiency in cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis). American Journal of Primatology 49(1): 113. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: novel objects, brief exposure, open-field environment, puzzle-feeder task, neophobia, meeting abstract, long-tailed macaques.
Notes: Meeting Information: 22nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; August 12-16, 1999.

West, A.M., S.P. Leland, M.A. Lorence, T.M. Welty, W.L. Wagner, and J.M. Erwin (2008). Behavioral correlates of alopecia severity in laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). American Journal of Primatology 70(Suppl. 1): 51. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20556
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: behavior, integumentary system disease, environmental enrichment, foraging , behavioral pattern, scratching, grooming, self grooming, cage contact, alopecia.
Notes: Meeting Information: 31st Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, West Palm Beach, FL, USA; June 18 -21, 2008.

West, A., S. Leland, M. Collins, T. Welty, W. Wagner, and J. Erwin (2009). Pair-formation in laboratory rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): a retrospective assessment in a compatibility testing procedure. American Journal of Primatology 71(Suppl 1): 41. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20733
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: pair formation, macaques, captive animals, partner compatibility.

Westergaard, G.C., M.K. Izard, and J.H. Drake (2000). Reproductive performance of rhesus macaques (Macaca Mulatta) in two outdoor housing conditions. American Journal of Primatology 50(1): 87-93. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: reproduction, high-density gang cages, low-density outdoor corrals, amount of space, social stress, housing system effects on birth rates, rhesus macaques.

Westergaard, G.C., M.K. Izard, J.H. Drake, S.J. Suomi, and J.D. Higley (1999). Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) group formation and housing: wounding and reproduction in a specific pathogen free (SPF) colony. American Journal of Primatology 49(4): 339-347. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: In the present report, we examined the effects of group formation strategy and corral design on wounding and reproduction rates in rhesus macaques. Specifically, we examined group formation using a staged strategy, in which small groups of animals were introduced incrementally over a period of weeks, and a rapid formation strategy, in which all animals were introduced in 1 day. We also examined group formation using a divided corral design that facilitated visual and social separation of individuals, and an undivided corral design that did not facilitate visual or social separation. Dependent measures were wounding and reproductive rates over each of the 2 years that followed group formation. Results indicate that incrementally releasing subgroups of animals, and using a corral design that provides for visual and social separation of individuals, are effective strategies for reducing rates of traumatic wounding when forming multimale-multifemale rhesus macaque breeding groups. However, it must be noted that differences in formation strategy and corral design did not lead to higher reproductive rates. We conclude that incrementally releasing animals in hierarchical subgroups, and using a divided vs. undivided housing design, reduced intra-group wounding and associated demands on veterinary and animal management resources following formation of rhesus macaque breeding groups.
Descriptors: Macaca mulatta, rhesus macaques, social behavior, injury, housing environment, breeding groups, group formation using a staged or rapid approach, reduction of wounding during group formation, corral design, effects on reproductive rates.

Wolfensohn, S. (2004). Social housing of large primates: Methodology for refinement of husbandry and management. Alternatives to Laboratory Animals 32(Suppl. 1A): 149-151. ISSN: 0261-1929.
NAL Call Number: Z7994.L3A5
Descriptors: rhesus macaques, video, animal handling, effects of stress on animal behavior, positive reinforcement training, cage construction and set-up, husbandry and management, social housing, personnel safety.