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Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide: New World Monkeys

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New World Monkeys

Abbuhl, L., A. Sorrells, and M. Feurtado (2004). Enrichment for owl monkeys: A discussion. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 43(2): 10. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Descriptors: structural enrichment, nest boxes, feeding enrichment, mealworms, social housing, cardiomyopathy, Aotus sp., owl monkeys.

Arenas Rosas, R. and A. Marquez Arias (2003). Enriquecimiento ambiental para monos arana (Ateles geoffroyi) del Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria "Ramon de la Fuente" [Environmental enrichment of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) of the Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatria "Ramon de la Fuente"]. In: Abstracts of the 2002 Foro de Primatologia [Primatology Forum],November 21, 2002-November 22, 2002, Estacion de Biologia los Tuxtlas del Ibunam, Estacion de Biologia: San Andres Tuxtlas, Mexico, p. 12.
Descriptors: spider monkeys, Ateles geoffroyi, colony management, animal welfare, environmental enrichment, Mexico.
Language of Text: Spanish.

Boere, V. (2001). Environmental enrichment for neotropical primates in captivity. Ciência Rural 31(3): 543-551. ISSN: 0103-8478.
DOI: 10.1590/S0103-84782001000300031
NAL Call Number: S192.R4
Descriptors: captive animals, adaptation, animal welfare, behavioral needs, feeding enrichment, social housing, space requirements.

Boere, V. (2001). Order Primates: Behavior and environmental enrichment. In: M.E. Fowler and Z.S. Cubas (Editors), Biology, Medicine, and Surgery of South American Wild Animals, Iowa State University Press: Ames, Iowa, USA, p. 263-267. ISBN: 0813828465.
Descriptors: New World monkeys, environmental enrichment, animal behavior.

Boinski, S., T.S. Gross, and J.K. Davis (1999). Terrestrial predator alarm vocalizations are a valid monitor of stress in captive brown capuchins (Cebus apella). Zoo Biology 18(4): 295-312. ISSN: 0733-3188.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.Z6
Descriptors: Cebus apella, brown capuchins, well-being index, vocalizations, stress indicators, environmental enrichment, abnormal behavior, plasma cortisol levels, relationship between enrichment and stress levels, threatening stimulus.

Boinski, S., S.P. Swing, T.S. Gross, and J.K. Davis (1999). Environmental enrichment of brown capuchins (Cebus apella): Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures of effectiveness. American Journal of Primatology 48(1): 49-68. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Abstract: No consensus exists about the quantity and variety of environmental enrichment needed to achieve an acceptable level of psychological well-being among singly housed primates. Behavioral and plasma and fecal cortisol measures were used to evaluate the effectiveness of four levels of toy and foraging enrichment provided to eight wild-caught, singly housed adult male brown capuchins (Cebus apella). The 16-week-long study comprised six conditions and began with a 4-week-long preexperimental and ended with a 4-week-long postexperimental period during which the subjects were maintained at baseline enrichment levels. During the intervening 8 weeks, the subjects were randomly assigned to a sequence of four 2-week-long experimental conditions: control (baseline conditions), toy (the addition of two plastic toys to each cage), box (access to a foraging box with food treats hidden within crushed alfalfa), and box & toy (the addition of two plastic toys and access to a foraging box). Behavioral responses to changes in enrichment were rapid and extensive. Within-subject repeated-measure ANOVAs with planned post hoc contrasts identified highly significant reductions in abnormal and undesirable behaviors (and increases in normal behaviors) as the level of enrichment increased from control to toy to box to box & toy. No significant behavioral differences were found between the control and pre- and postexperimental conditions. Plasma and fecal cortisol measures revealed a different response to changing enrichment levels. Repeated-measure ANOVA models found significant changes in both these measures across the six conditions. The planned post hoc analyses, however, while finding dramatic increases in cortisol titers in both the pre- and postexperimental conditions relative to the control condition, did not distinguish cortisol responses among the four enrichment levels. Linear regressions among weekly group means in behavioral and cortisol measures (n=16) found that plasma cortisol was significantly predicted by the proportions of both normal and abnormal behaviors; as the proportion of normal behaviors increased, the plasma cortisol measures decreased. Plasma cortisol weekly group means were also significantly and positively predicted by fecal cortisol weekly group means, but no behavioral measure significantly predicted fecal cortisol weekly group means. In sum, these findings argue strongly that access to a variety of toy and foraging enrichment positively affects behavioral and physiological responses to stress and enhances psychological well-being in singly housed brown capuchins.
Descriptors: Cebus apella, capuchins, plasma and fecal cortisol measures, foraging enrichment, quantity and variety of environmental enrichment, manipulanda, diet, stress, normal versus abnormal behaviors and hormone levels, forage treats, psychological well-being.

Buchanan-Smith, H.M. (2012). Mixed-species exhibition of Neotropical primates: Analysis of species combination success. International Zoo Yearbook 46(1): 150-163. ISSN: 0074-9664.
DOI: 10.1111/j.1748-1090.2011.00151.x
Descriptors: enclosure design, environmental enrichment, mixed-species exhibit, New World monkeys.

Cardona Lopez, D.X., E. Zerda Ordonez, and J. Perez Torres (2004). Patron comportamental y conductas estereotipadas de dos grupos cautivos de Ateles fusciceps robustus en Colombia. [Behavioural pattern and stereotyped behaviour of captive groups of Ateles fusciceps robustus in Colombia.]. Universitas Scientiarum 9(Edicion Especial): 59-74 . ISSN: 0122-7483.
Descriptors: Ateles fusciceps robustus, Columbian black spider monkey, stereotypic behavior, environmental enrichment, stress, comparison study, zoological parks, Colombia.
Language of Text: Spanish; Summary in English.

de Almeida, A.M.R., T.C.C. Margarido, and E.L. de Monteiro Filho (2008). [Influencia do enriquecimento ambiental no comportamento de primatas do genero Ateles em cativeiro.] The influence of environmental enrichment on the behavior of the genus Ateles in captivity. Arquivos De Ciencias Veterinarias e Zoologia Da UNIPAR 11(2): 97-102. ISSN: 1415-8167.  
Abstract: Captive environment influences animal behavior and may cause damage to the health of the individuals. This study had the objective of proposing one suitable environment which could maintain the captivity welfare. Different techniques of environmental enrichment were applied to thirteen spider-monkeys (Ateles spp.) in three different captive environments, with different vegetation and animal composition. Individuals and social behaviors were observed for 309 hours, from February 13th to August 10th, 2006 at Passeio Publico and the Zoological Garden, Curitiba, Parana, Brazil. The observations were organized in three phases: control, experimental (application of the environmental enrichment activities) and the response to enrichment. Different responses to enrichment show that animals from this genus, when maintained in group in an area proportional to the number of individuals, whose vegetation is composed of trees, have better opportunity to express their species behaviors.
Descriptors: animal behavior, spider monkeys, zoo housed animals, environmental enrichment.
Language of Text: Portuguese, Summaries in English and Spanish.

Dettmer, E. and D. Fragaszy (2000). Determining the value of social companionship to captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 3(4): 293-304. ISSN: 1088-8705.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.J68
Descriptors: Cebus apella, capuchin monkeys as laboratory animals, social group size, animal welfare, food deprivation, duration, psychological needs.

Dubois, M.J., J.F. Gerard, and F. Pontes (2005). Spatial selectivity to manipulate portable objects in wedge-capped capuchins (Cebus olivaceus). Primates 46(2): 127-133. ISSN: 0032-8332 .
Abstract: We studied the manipulative activity of five wedge-capped capuchins (Cebus olivaceus) confronted with different types of unfamiliar and portable objects: wooden blocks, plastic rings, spoons, and coconuts. Combinatorial manipulations involving two portable objects of the same type were quite frequent. The lately introduced objects, whatever their kind, appeared as the most attractive. Nevertheless, some objects remained very attractive throughout the overall experiment, especially the wooden blocks which elicited more combinatorial and striking behaviors than the other objects. Concerning space, we observed that the individuals choose specific locations to perform their manipulative acts. The spatial distributions of these acts were more concentrated, and less concordant between individuals, in the present study than in two others conducted with the same group but involving the manipulation of familiar objects. This suggests that individual differences were more marked when the subjects manipulated unfamiliar objects than when they manipulated familiar ones. This finding may have applications when the members of a group have to benefit from an enrichment of their environment.
Descriptors: wedge-capped capuchins, Cebus olivaceus, object manipulation, novelty important in object selection by monkeys, spatial locations chosen by monkeys to manipulate objects, individual differences in manipulative activity, benefit of enrichment programs, social environment, Brazil.

Farmer, H.L., A.B. Plowman, and L.A. Leaver (2011-). Role of vocalisations and social housing in breeding in captive howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya). Applied Animal Behaviour Science 134(3-4): 177-183. ISSN: 0168-1591.
DOI: 10.1016/j.applanim.2011.07.005
Descriptors: black and gold howler monkeys, captive animals, howling vocalization, European zoos, family groups, pair housing, effects of social organization and vocalizations on reproductive success.

Fekete, J.M., J.L. Norcross, and J.D. Newman (2000). Artificial turf foraging boards as environmental enrichment for pair-housed female squirrel monkeys. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 39(2): 22-26. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Abstract: We investigated the use of artificial turf foraging boards to determine if providing captive squirrel monkeys an opportunity for semi-natural foraging behavior would 1) alter the monkeys' time budget to better approximate that seen in wild populations, 2) reduce the stereotypic, self-injurious, and aggressive behavior occasionally seen in captive squirrel monkeys, and 3) provide sustained enrichment. Five groups of pair-housed female squirrel monkeys were videotaped the week prior to, the week following, and for 2 weeks during the enrichment phase, when treat-enhanced boards were provided for 2 h daily. During the first 30 min of daily enrichment, inactivity declined 35.3%, locomotion increased 3.8%, and board-related behaviors occupied 36.3% of the activity budget; these changes were not evident after 1.5 h. Stereotypic behavior (pacing, headswinging, tailchewing) and aggression were not altered by the foraging opportunity. The foraging board retained the interest of the subjects across 2 weeks in the same daily pattern. Use of the foraging board altered the squirrel monkeys' time budget to become more like activity patterns seen in wild populations. Descriptors: turf grass foraging boards, no effect of enrichment on stereotypies and aggression, animal husbandry, cage design, foraging behavior, Saimiri sp., female squirrel monkeys, food preferences, time budget, activity patterns.

Ferreira, A.S., R.N. Almeida, and R.A. Martinez (2013). Management strategies and animal welfare of captive capuchin monkeys Genus Cebus Erxleben 1777 (Primates: Cebidae). World Applied Sciences Journal 21(1): 42-48. ISSN: 1818-4952.
Descriptors: capuchin monkeys, captivity, zoos, social housing, daily movement, environment enrichment, feeding enrichment, effect on abnormal behaviors.

Hoy, J., P. Murray, and A. Tribe (2005). Evaluation of the effectiveness of enrichment for a group of captive squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) using time-lapse recording and instantaneous scan sampling. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Environmental Enrichment,July 31, 2005-August 5, 2005, New York, NY, Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx: New York, NY, p. 272-279.
Descriptors: Saimiri sciureus, squirrel monkeys, environmental enrichment, socially housed animals, animal behavior recording, scan sampling.

Hoy, J., P.J. Murray, A. Tribe, M. Edstein, and S. Mcleod-Robertson (2006). Automation of enrichment for captive owl monkeys. In: 24th Annual Conference of the Australasian Primate Society,March 2, 1931-April 2, 2006, Perth, Australia, p. 7.
Descriptors: meeting abstract, owl monkeys.

Huber, H. and K. Lewis (2009). Gum's the word: applying knowledge from the wild to improve environmental enrichment for captive gummivores. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 138(Suppl 48): 153. ISSN: 0002-9483.
DOI: 10.1002/ajpa.21030
Descriptors: gumivory, primates, environmental enrichment.
Notes: Meeting Information: 78th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Chicago, Illinois; March 31 - April 4, 2009.

Huber, H.F. and K.P. Lewis (2011-). An assessment of gum-based environmental enrichment for captive gummivorous primates. Zoo Biology 30(1): 71-78. ISSN: 1098-2361.
DOI: 10.1002/zoo.20321
Descriptors: callitrichids, galagos, cercopithecines, environmental enrichment, gummivory, gum feeding in captivity.

Iglesias, D. and C. Gil-Burmann (2002). Environmental enrichment programme for squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus and Saimiri boliviensis) in captivity. Folia Primatologica 73(6): 291-292. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: environmental enrichment programs, squirrel monkeys, RAINFER Primate Centre (Fuente el Saz, Madrid), species-typical behavior, toys, outdoor housing, structural enrichment, shavings, comparison study.
Notes: In the Special Issue: Special Issue: 4th Meeting of the Spanish Primatological Society, Madrid, September 27-28, 2001.

Izzo, G.N., M.J. Bashaw, and J.B. Campbell (2011). Enrichment and individual differences affect welfare indicators in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). Journal of Comparative Psychology 125(3): 347-352. ISSN: 1939-2087.
NAL Call Number: BF671.J6
Descriptors: Guyanese squirrel monkeys, welfare indicators, novelty test, enrichment levels, changes in behavior, social rank.

Jacobsen, K.R., L.F. Mikkelsen, and J. Hau (2010). The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior of captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)Lab Animal 39(9): 269-277. ISSN: 0093-7355.
DOI: 10.1038/laban0910-269
Descriptors: male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella, Buster cubes, wood cylinders, gum arabic, bark shavings, behavioral observations, psychological well-being, group housing.

Kondo, S.Y., E.B. Yudko, and L.K. Magee (2003). A novel approach for documentation and evaluation of activity patterns in owl monkeys during development of environmental enrichment programs. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science 42(3): 17-21. ISSN: 1060-0558.
NAL Call Number: SF405.5.A23
Descriptors: Aotus sp., owl monkeys, effects of an environmental enrichment program, videotape, animal behavior, activity patterns, ethological analysis software.

Leonardi, R., H.M. Buchanan-Smith, V. Dufour, C. MacDonald, and A. Whiten (2010). Living together: behavior and welfare in single and mixed species groups of capuchin (Cebus apella) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)American Journal of Primatology 72(1): 33-47. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20748
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: social housing, primates, mixed species exhibits, species-specific behavior, social enrichment, capuchin, Cebus apella, squirrel monkeys, Saimiri sciureus.

Lock, L., J. Hooley, and C. Moinard (2009). Comparison of use of two foraging devices by captive woolly monkeys and chimpanzees. Ratel 36(1): 11-15. ISSN: 0305-1218.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.R37
Descriptors: feeding behavior, foraging devices, environmental enrichment, woolly monkeys, L. lagotricha, chimps, Pan troglodytes.

Long, L.A., S. Gibson, L. Williams, and C. Abee (2007). Owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) utilize food directed and non-food directed enrichment items. American Journal of Primatology 69(Suppl. 1): 53. ISSN: 0275-2565.
DOI: 10.1002/ajp.20448
NAL Call Number: Ql737.P9A5
Descriptors: owl monkeys, Aotus sp., animal behavior, food enrichment, non-food directed enrichment, nest boxes.
Notes: Meeting Information: 30th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Winston-Salem, NC, USA; June 20 -23, 2007.

Ludes Fraulob, E. and J.R. Anderson (1999). Behaviour and preferences among deep litters in captive capuchin monkeys (Cebus capucinus). Animal Welfare 8(2): 127-134. ISSN: 0962-7286.
NAL Call Number: HV4701.A557
Descriptors: Cebus capucinus, capuchins, deep litter housing, maize cobs, wood chips, wood wool, peat, animal behavior, foraging, enrichment, play behavior.

Ludes Fraulob, E. (1999). Enrichissement environnemental: Etude des variations comportementales liees a l'utilisation de differents types de litieres chez Cebus capucinus. [Environmental enrichment: Evaluation of the behavioural modifications of in the presence of four kinds of litter in Cebus capucinus]. Primatologie 2: 435-448. ISSN: 1279-8304.
Descriptors: Cebus capucinus, capuchin monkeys, animal housing, litter, peat bathing, role of environmental enrichment, animal behavior.
Language of Text: French; Summary in English and French.

Miller, K.E., K. Laszlo, and S. Suomi (2006). Using recycled barrel swings vs. prima-hedrons in primate enclosures. Laboratory Primate Newsletter 45(3): 12. ISSN: 0023-6861.
Descriptors: Cebus apella, capuchin monkeys, housing, recycled barrel swings vs commercial product as enrichment objects, play.

Rosenberg, I. and S. Forbes (2005). My animal unit internship: The positive role of interns in animal units. Animal Keepers' Forum 32(12): 562-564. ISSN: 0164-9531.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: Callimico goeldii, Goeldi's monkey, zoo animal housing, environmental enrichment, birds.

Savastano, G. (2004). Enrichment options: Variations from the norm. Animal Keepers' Forum 31(4): 153-155. ISSN: 0164-9531.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: callitrichids, cebids, visual enrichment, snowballs, cardboard boxes, swings.

Tondu, M., C. Lejeune, and M. Mercier (2000). Etudes ethologiques sur une colonie de Cebus apella vivant en captivite suite a divers enrichmissements envionnementaux. [Ethological evaluation of some environmental enrichments in a captive colony of Cebus apella]. Folia Primatologica 71(4): 266. ISSN: 0015-5713.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9F6
Descriptors: psychological well-being, Cebus apella, brown capuchin monkeys, stereotypic behavior, social interactions, play behavior, object manipulation, PVC pipes, meeting abstract.
Language of Text: French; Summary in English.
Notes: Meeting Information: 11th Annual Meeting of the Societe Francophone de Primatologie, Paris, France; September 29-October 2, 1999.

Vanregenmorter, E.M. (2012). Environmental influences on the activity patterns of a captive group of spider monkeys (Ateles fusciceps rufiventris). American Journal of Physical Anthropology 147(Suppl. 54): 291. ISSN: 0002-9483.
Descriptors: environmental influence, activity pattern, species-typical behavior, enrichment program, outdoor behavior, poster abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 81st Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

Visalberghi, E., G. Sabbatini, M. Stammati, and E. Addessi (2003). Preferences towards novel foods in Cebus apella: The role of nutrients and social influences. Physiology and Behavior 80(2-3): 341-349. ISSN: 0031-9384.
NAL Call Number: QP1.P4
Descriptors: preferences to novel foods, animal behavior, social influences, tufted capuchins, Cebus apella, energy content.

Webster, S.J.G. (2003). Can primates receive adequate primary diet from an enrichment unit? Animal Keepers' Forum 30(10): 420-422. ISSN: 0164-9531.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: Cebus capucinus, feeding enrichment, diet, dietary needs, food dispensers.

Weed, J.L. and L.M. Watson (1998). Pair housing adult owl monkeys (Aotus sp.) for environmental enrichment. American Journal of Primatology 45(2): 212. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: owl monkeys, Aotus sp., pair housing in laboratory settings, aggression, behavioral interactions, social housing animals of the same sex, socialization process, meeting abstract.

Williams, L.E., A. Steadman, and B. Kyser (2000). Increased cage size affects Aotus time budgets and partner distances. American Journal of Primatology 51(Suppl. 1): 98. ISSN: 0275-2565.
NAL Call Number: QL737.P9A5
Descriptors: social housing, perches, nest boxes, instantaneous behavior scans, activity budgets, Aotus sp., owl monkeys, meeting abstract.
Notes: Meeting Information: 23rd Annual Meeting of The American Society of Primatologists, Denver, Colorado, USA; June 21-24, 2000.

Wojciechowski, S. (2007). Changing enrichment methodology to eliminate a recurring shifting problem of one individual within a mixed-species exhibit. Animal Keepers' Forum 34(2): 73-76. ISSN: 0164-9531.
NAL Call Number: QL77.5.A54
Descriptors: Cebus apella robustus, brown capuchin monkeys, zoo animals, environmental enrichment, behavioral management, zoo exhibits.