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Environmental Enrichment For Nonhuman Primates Resource Guide: Online Resources

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Online Resources

Animal Welfare Institute, Laboratory Animals Section.
Description: The lab animals section of the AWI website contains full-text articles about primate cage space, lighting, manipulanda, and social housing largely written by primatologist Viktor Reinhardt. The site includes a number of reference publications by Victor and Annie Reinhardt including multiple online databases.

Catarrhine Café Cookbook. Psychological Well being Program, W.N.P.R.C. Online:
Description: Compiled by R. Bellanca and D. Koberstein, the cookbook contains foraging enrichment ideas originally intended for macaques and baboons but applicable for other species of non-human primates. It includes “Tricks of the Trade,” recipes, and examples of enrichment items.

Comfortable Quarters for Nonhuman Primates in Research Institutions. Reinhardt, V. Online: pages 65-77)
Description: Published by the Animal Welfare Institute, Comfortable Quarters offers suggestions and recommendations about how husbandry-related variables can be minimized or avoided thereby maximizing the animals' well-being and reducing the number of subjects required to obtain reliable research data.

Disney’s Animal Kingdom Theme Park Animal Enrichment Program Course.
Description: Provides information about the enrichment framework used to devise enrichment programs for animals at the Animal Kingdom. Includes an introduction to enrichment and steps to set up and evaluate an enrichment program.

Disney’s Animal Kingdom Theme Park ® Animal Training Program Course. Online:
Description: Provides information about the framework used to train animals at the Animal Kingdom. The web site provides information on learning theory and training terminology; working within an animal's current facility, species natural history, and individual background; and the process of creating a training program, from setting goals to implementation and evaluation.

Enrichment for Nonhuman Primates. National Institutes of Health, O.L.A.W. Online:
Description: This is a set of six booklets providing an overview of behavior and enrichment for baboons, capuchins, chimpanzees, macaques, marmosets and tamarins, and squirrel monkeys commonly used in research, education and entertainment. You may request a hard copy of any of the booklets, by emailing the NIH, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) at

Database on Refinement of Housing, Handling, and Husbandry and Environmental Enrichment for Animals in Research.
DescriptionA searchable database of enrichment and refinement citations for all laboratory animals, including nonhuman primates..

Environmental Enrichment and Refinement for Nonhuman Primates Kept in Research Laboratories: A Photographic Documentation and Literature Review. Reinhardt, V. and A. Reinhardt.
Description: The 2008 3rd edition contains information on all nonhuman primate species. It provides literature reviews, pictures, and a bibliography of refinement techniques that can be used in research laboratories.

Guidelines for the Housing and Management of Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abeli). Cocks, L. and Australasian Primate TAG.
Description: Provides information on the care of orangutans in captivity. Includes a chapter on activity patterns and behavioral enrichment.

International Directory of Primatology.
Description: A directory of the field of primatology including detailed information about organizations, field studies, population management, people active in primatology, and information resources. The online directory is searchable and available at the above website.

IPS International Guidelines for the Acquisition, Care and Breeding of Nonhuman Primates, Second Edition. International Primatological Society.
Description: These guidelines, prepared by the Captive Care and Breeding Committee, aim to promote good practice in the acquisition, care and breeding of primates and the enhancement of welfare.

Laboratory Primate Newsletter.
Description: The quarterly newsletter provides information of interest to people involved in nonhuman primate research. A Directory of Graduate Programs in Primatology and Primate Research is issued periodically. The newsletter is available by e-mail or on the web. To subscribe, send the message: Subscribe LPN-L your-own-name to The website contains all issues of Laboratory Primate Newsletter, policies, graduate programs, and related links. The site also contains a very useful environmental enrichment section called Articles on Environmental Enrichment and Psychological Well-being which contains all articles on environmental enrichment and psychological well-being that were printed in the newsletter from 1984-2003. The site topics are social enrichment, environmental enrichment, training, physiological and other measures of stress and psychological well-being, rearing and social development, colony management, editorials, and information resources. Articles are available full text and free of charge.

The Macaque Website. National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement & Reduction of Animals in Research. Online:
Description: Find information and practical guidance on the natural history and behavior of macaques, the care and management in captivity, and ways to assess their welfare.

Managing Monkey Behavior: Advancing the Social Management of Old World Monkeys. Whittaker, M. Active Environments, Inc. Online:
Description: This paper presents a review of social housing and management of old world monkeys in captivity. It also discusses positive reinforcement training.

Primate Info Net (PIN).
Description: PIN is a comprehensive website relating to all aspects of primatology at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The website includes information services, organizations and programs, information resources, products and services for primates, and related sites.

Primate Resource Referral Service (PRRS).
Contact Information: Primate Resource Referral Service, Washington National Primate Research Center Box 357330 University of Washington Seattle Washington 98195-7330 USA
Tel: (206) 543-5178; Fax: (206) 616-1710
Description: The PRRS provides communication between research institutions to facilitate exchanges of nonhuman primates or their tissues. The goal of the PRRS is to increase sharing of these animals, thereby decreasing the need to import animals for research, and to ultimately decrease the number of animals needed. The PRRS maintains a database of information about programs, sources, services, available/wanted animals, tissues, and primate equipment.

Description: PrimateLit is a bibliographical database for primatology and exists through a cooperative agreement between the Washington (WaNRPC) and Wisconsin (WRPC) National Primate Research Centers. The WPRC coordinates the project with technical support from the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Library Technology Group. Literature acquisition, analysis, and indexing are carried out by the Primate Information Center at the WaNRPC, University of Washington. The database contains records dating from 1940 to November 2010. It allows primate researchers to do their bibliographic research on their home or office computers.

Safe Pair Housing of Macaques. Carlson, J.
Description: This book published by the Animal Welfare Institute discusses the steps involved in pair housing macaques safely. Chapters include selecting potential pairs, the familiarization process, how to pair animals, and long-term compatibility considerations.

The Shape of Enrichment.
Description: A nonprofit corporation with aims to further environmental enrichment efforts worldwide. A quarterly publication called The Shape of Enrichment provides an open forum to exchange enrichment ideas among animal professionals. There is also an enrichment and training video library maintained in conjunction with the American Association of Zoo Keepers. Finally, the biannual International Conference on Environmental Enrichment is promoted on the Web site.

Taking Better Care of Monkeys and Apes: Refinement of Housing and Handling Practices for Caged Nonhuman Primates. Reinhardt, V.
Description: This 2008 book examines the refinement of traditional housing and handling practices for nonhuman primates who live in cages alone, in pairs or trios.