Research

Non-animal methods are developed and used in research to replace the use of animals. The resources below give examples of non-animal methods and explain how they help to advance science. 
Replacing Sentinel Animals Selected Bibliography

Below is a selected bibliography of scholarly literature from 2018 to 2021 on replacing sentinel animals with environmental sampling. 
 

Dubelko, A. R., Zuwannin, M., McIntee, S. C., Livingston, R. S., & Foley, P. L. (2018). PCR Testing of Filter Material from IVC Lids for Microbial Monitoring of Mouse Colonies. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS, 57(5), 477–482. https://doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-18-000008 
 

Hanson, W. H., Taylor, K., & Taylor, D. K. (2021). PCR Testing of Media Placed in Soiled Bedding as a Method for Mouse Colony Health Surveillance. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS, 60(3), 306–310. https://doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-20-000096 
 

Körner, C., Miller, M., & Brielmeier, M. (2019). Detection of Murine Astrovirus and Myocoptes musculinus in individually ventilated caging systems: Investigations to expose suitable detection methods for routine hygienic monitoring. PloS One, 14(8), e0221118. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0221118 
 

Mailhiot, D., Ostdiek, A. M., Luchins, K. R., Bowers, C. J., Theriault, B. R., & Langan, G. P. (2020). Comparing Mouse Health Monitoring Between Soiled-bedding Sentinel and Exhaust Air Dust Surveillance Programs. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS, 59(1), 58–66. https://doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-19-000061 
 

Miller, M., & Brielmeier, M. (2018). Environmental samples make soiled bedding sentinels dispensable for hygienic monitoring of IVC-reared mouse colonies. Laboratory Animals, 52(3), 233–239. https://doi.org/10.1177/0023677217739329 
 

O’Connell, K. A., Tigyi, G. J., Livingston, R. S., Johnson, D. L., & Hamilton, D. J. (2021). Evaluation of In-cage Filter Paper as a Replacement for Sentinel Mice in the Detection of Murine Pathogens. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS, 60(2), 160–167. https://doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-20-000086 
 

Pettan-Brewer, C., Trost, R. J., Maggio-Price, L., Seamons, A., & Dowling, S. C. (2020). Adoption of Exhaust Air Dust Testing in SPF Rodent Facilities. Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS, 59(2), 156–162. https://doi.org/10.30802/AALAS-JAALAS-19-000079 
 

Doctors Against Animal Experiments.

The NAT database (Non-Animal Technologies) contains information on modern non-animal technologies from various areas of biomedicine and life sciences, based on scientific studies and publications.

The Wyss Institute.  

Microchips lined by human cells that could revolutionize drug testing and development.  

National Center for the Replacement, Refinement, & Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs). 

This roadmap, vision and strategy for non-animal technologies in the UK has been drawn up by Innovate UK, the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research, intended to guide the efforts of all those working in this area.
 

NIH. National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences(NCATS).  

National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), along with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and the Food and Drug Administration develop of 3-D engineered tissue platforms, called tissue chips or organs-on-chips that mimic tissues and organ systems