National Agricultural Library (United States Department of Agriculture).
National Library of Medicine (National Institute of Health [United States Department of Health and Human Services]).
Clemson University Cooperative Extension Service.
Answers common questions regarding ciguatera. Explains what ciguatera is, where it occurs, methods of identification, and how to avoid it.
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (Food and Drug Administration [United States Department of Health and Human Services]).
Outlines the nature of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning including its diagnosis, associated foods, relative frequency, target populations, food analysis, outbreak history, and molecular structural data.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States Deprtment of Health and Human Services).
The online resource maintained by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), dealing with ciguatera and scombroid poisoning.
California Poison Control System.
Ciguatera is one of the more common causes of fish-related foodborne illness in the United States. It is caused by toxins that accumulate in the flesh of large predatory fish found in tropical oceans. The name ciguatera is derived from the Spanish name cigua for the sea snail Turbo pica found in the Caribbean Spanish Antilles. This neurotoxic syndrome has been recognized throughout history, with one of the earliest cases
having probably been reported in the 4th century when Alexander the Great refused to allow his soldiers to eat fish. One of the earliest written records of suspected ciguatera poisoning is from the journal of Captain William Bligh, who described symptoms consistent with ciguatera in 1789 after eating mahi-mahi. In addition, it was also quite possibly ciguatera that was illustrated by Captain James Cook while sailing on the Resolution in the South Pacific in 1774.
National Institute of Food and Agriculture (United States Department of Agriculture).
Ciguatera is form of food poisoning caused by toxins produced by dinoflagellates, a large group of protists that occur in marine and fresh water habitats. The toxins accumulate in the tissues of marine fish and invertebrates that eat the dinoflagellates and produce the poisoning when they, in turn, are consumed by humans and other animals.
Please note that the actual document is accredited to the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agriculture Studies (IFAS).