How should MODS records be formatted?


The following elements are required on all MODS records:

See links to template and sample records below.


An XML schema describes the structure of an XML record.  XML schemas support data types, which allow for ease of defining, converting and validating data.  A reference to an XML schema must appear at the
beginning of a set of records, or on each record if a file contains only
one record. Records without a schema declaration will be rejected.

MODS schema:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<mods xmlns:xsi=""

<!—Body of citation -- >

Article title:

The first word, proper nouns, names and the first word of  biological names should be capitalized. All other letters should be in lower case.

Article titles must be in English. If the title also appears in a second language, it may be added as a translated title, even if it is in the language of the article's text.


1) Rheological characterization of the fractions separated from pork lards through dry fractionation

2) Developing a savanna burning emissions abatement methodology for tussock grasslands in high rainfall regions of northern Australia

3) Susceptibility of developmental stages of Tetranychus uriticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) to infection by Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anispoliae (Hypocreales:Clavicipitaceae)

Titles are formatted as follows:

<title>Bioactivity of  indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci </title>

<titleinfo xml:lang="eng">Drippers flow disturbances due to application of CO2 for irrigation water</title>

<titleinfo xml:lang="por" type="translated">
<title>Disturbios de vazão em gotejadores devido a aplicação de co2 via água de irrigação</title>

Personal names:

Last name, first name and middle name should be in tagged elements as required by the format.

Records will be rejected in which first name, middle name and last name are in one tagged element.

Diacritics can be included with names.

Include affiliations for all authors, if possible; affiliations are mandatory for the first named author, if available.

More than one affiliation per author may be recorded within the affiliation tag. Separate the locations with a period.

><name type="personal">
<namePart type="family">Rinovetz</namePart>
<namePart type="given">Zorica Adina</namePart>
<affiliation>Theoretical High School "J.L. Calderon", Petalozzi 14, 300115 Timosoara,Romania; email: </affiliation>
<roleTerm type="text" authority="marcrelator">author</roleTerm>

Type of Resource/Genre:



Publisher Name:

The Publisher’s name should be spelled out as it appears on the publication.

< publisher>Kemerovo Institute of Food Science and Technology</publisher>

Date of issue:

Issue date may include day and month, in addition to year, depending on what information appears on the article or journal title page.  Copyright date is optional, but may be added.

Coding of data is as follows as presented in ISO 8601 (extended format):

Year: YYYY (2014)

Year and month: YYYY-MM (2014-07)

Complete date:YYYY-MM-DD (1997-07-16)

If the date range covers multiple months, e.g.Jan.-Feb.:( 2014-01)


<dateIssued encoding="w3cdtf"keyDate="yes">2013-04</dateIssued>

<copyrightDate encoding="w3cdtf">2012</copyrightDate>

Example for Spring 2013 (only the year is in keyDate because w3cdtf only allows year-month-day.  The season is added under <relatedItem>
<dateIssued encoding="w3cdtf"keyDate="yes">2013</dateIssued>


For MODS, codes for the "Language" element should be three letters, e.g.“eng” for English. NAL uses the iso639-2b codes. The list is available online at:>

<languageTerm type "code" authority="iso639-2b">eng</languageTerm>


Abstracts should be transcribed as they appear on the publication.

An English abstract is required on each record in order for it to be indexed. If an abstract is available in a language in addition to English, that abstract must be in a separate tagged element.

<abstract xml:lang="eng">…</abstract>
<abstract xml:lang="por">…</abstract>

Records with multiple languages in one <abstract> element will not be accepted.

The abstract should be in plain Unicode text. It should not include HTML or other format encoding elements. Please refer to the FAQ "How are entity references coded (symbols that need to be converted to codes)?" for the exceptions.

Abstracts should follow same capitalization rules as titles. There should be a period (.) at the end of the abstract.

Journal title:

The journal title should be spelled out, not abbreviated. Capitalization follows the same policy as the article title.

Do not include a journal’s subtitle unless it’s needed to clarify the meaning of the main title.

<relatedItem type="host">
<title>Food and raw materials</title>

ISSN (International Standard Serial Number):

Metadata samples will not be approved without an ISSN registered with the ISSN International Centre in Paris. ISSNs can be obtained in each country through the local ISSN Centre, which is usually the national library. For more information see:

All ISSN’s on a journal should be transcribed. This usually means the ISSNs for both the electronic and print versions.

<identifier type="issn">1459-0255</identifier>

Volume number/Issue number:

Transcribe volume, issue and number information as it appears on the article. Roman numbers may be used if they appear on the publication.

"Caption" should include the terminology used on the text, e.g. no., issue, part.

<detail type="volume">
<detail type="issue">

Extent (e.g. pagination):

Transcribe the pagination as it appears in the article. HTML created articles do not have page numbers, so don’t include them in records.

<extent unit="pages">


Information in this date element is used to create issue records and keep articles from the same issue together.

Issue date may include day, month, year, or season, depending on what information appears on the article or journal title page.


"year" only
<text type="year">2014</text>

"year" and "month"
<text type="year">2014</text>
<text type="month">04</text>

"year" "month" and "day":
<text type="year">2014</text>
<text type="month>04</text>
<text type="day>15</text>

"year" and "season"
<text type="year">2014</text>
<text type="season">Spring</text>

 Links to full-text:

NAL prefers digital object identifiers (DOI) be used to link to online full-text. If DOI’s are not available, URLs may be used. NAL will accept URLs even at the journal level. Numbers as they appear on the publication.

<identifier type="doi">10.12737/1516</identifier>
<identifier type="uri"></identifier>