Data and Modeling for Environmental Credit Trading





 The Water Quality Information Center at the National Agricultural Library

Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture



Data and Modeling for Environmental Credit

A Conservation Effects
Assessment Bibliography

Special Reference Briefs
Series no. SRB 2004-03

Compiled by
Ted J. Sherman
Stuart R. Gagnon
Joseph R. Makuch

Water Quality Information

National Agricultural

Agricultural Research

U.S. Department of

105 citations


National Agricultural
Library                    Beltsville,
Maryland  20705-2351               August



Agricultural Library Cataloging Record:

Sherman, Ted

Data and modeling for
environmental credit trading : a conservation effects assessment

(Special reference
briefs ; NAL-SRB. 2004-03)

1. Environmental
economics--United States--Bibliography.

2. Environmental
auditing--United States--Bibliography.

3. Environmental impact
charges--United States--Bibliography. I. Gagnon, Stuart

II. Makuch, Joseph R.
III. Water Quality Information Center (U.S.) IV. Title.

aZ5071.N3 no.



Data and Modeling for Environmental Credit
, Special Reference
Brief 2004-03. U.S. Department of Agriculture, National
Agricultural Library.

This bibliography is one in a
multi-volume set developed by the Water Quality Information Center
at the National Agricultural Library in support of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture's Conservation Effects Assessment Project
(CEAP). The bibliography is a guide to literature on the data and
modeling requirements for environmental credit trading. It provides
people interested in environmental credit trading and agriculture with information
about the current state of data acquisition and use of simulation
models in this emerging field.

Keywords: watershed management,
pollution control, nonpoint source pollution, models, data
collection, policy tools, environmental credit trading

Mention of trade names or
commercial products in this report is solely for the purpose of
providing specific information and does not imply recommendation or
endorsement by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

To ensure timely distribution,
this report has been reproduced essentially as supplied by the
authors.  It has received minimal publication editing and
design.  The authors' views are their own and do not
necessarily reflect those of the U.S. Department of

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August 2004











About This Bibliography


Data and Modeling for Environmental Credit Trading


Water Quality Trading and Related Issues


Subject Index


Author Index










This is one in a series of bibliographies
developed by the Water Quality Information Center at the National
Agricultural Library in support of the U.S. Department of
Agriculture's Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP).

The purpose of CEAP is to study the environmental effects of
conservation practices implemented through various U.S. Department
of Agriculture conservation programs. CEAP will evaluate
conservation practices and management systems related to nutrient,
manure, and pest management; buffer systems; tillage; irrigation
and drainage practices; wetland protection and restoration; and
wildlife habitat establishment. More information about CEAP is
available at

current titles in this series are

  • Environmental Effects of U.S. Department of Agriculture
    Conservation Programs
    Special Reference Brief 2004-01
  • Implementing Agricultural Conservation Practices: Barriers and
    Special Reference Brief 2004-02
  • Data and Modeling for Environmental Credit TradingSpecial Reference Brief 2004-03
  • Agricultural Conservation Practices and Related Issues: Reviews
    of the State of the Art and Research Needs
    Special Reference Brief 2004-04

of the documents, as well as bibliographies on similar topics, is
accessible online from the Water Quality Information Center

center gratefully acknowledges the following organizations who
granted permission to use their citations and/or abstracts in these

addition, support from the Natural Resources Conservation Service
for the development of these bibliographies is greatly appreciated.

Joseph R. Makuch, Ph.D.
Water Quality Information

[Table of Contents]

About This

This bibliography is a guide to
literature on the data and modeling requirements for environmental
credit trading. Environmental credit trading is an approach to
environmental protection that uses market-based mechanisms to
efficiently allocate emission or pollutant reductions among sources
with different marginal control costs. The purpose of this
bibliography is to help people with an interest in environmental
credit trading and agriculture become better informed about the
current state of data acquisition and use of simulation models in
this emerging field.

This bibliography has two
sections. The first section contains citations to the limited
literature currently available on this topic, including data and
modeling related to wetland mitigation banking. Also included are
citations where the subject is not agriculture, but the information
in the document may have applicability to agriculture.

There are 40 citations with
abstracts (when available) in the first section. Citations were
found through literature searches of the AGRICOLA database,
produced by the National Agricultural Library, and several
commercial bibliographic databases. In addition, Water Quality
Information Center staff created citations for documents that were
located by various other means.  Documents cited were
published from 1993 through 2003.

The second section contains 65
citations with abstracts (when available) on the general topic of
environmental credit trading and related economic incentives. All
these citations are from the AGRICOLA database and cover documents
published from 1981 through 2003. Water is the primary
environmental focus of these citations.

URLs are provided for online
documents that are freely available. The inclusion or omission of a
particular citation does not imply endorsement or

To locate information on a
specific topic, use the subject index beginning on page 39.
 An author index is also available beginning on page

To obtain a specific document,
please contact your local library. Information on how to obtain
documents from the National Agricultural Library can be found


[Table of Contents]


Data and Modeling for
Environmental Credit Trading

1. Acid rain and environmental degradation:
The economics of emission trading.

Klaassen, G.
Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar
Publishing; 336 p. (1996)

ISBN: 1-85898-489-0
This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

2. An Analysis of Economic Incentives in
Wetlands Policies Addressing Biodiversity.

Fernandez, L.
Science of the Total
(1-3): 107-122.

NAL Call #:  
RA565.S365; ISSN: 0048-9697.

Notes: Special issue: Managing for biodiversity for
the protection of nature;


Wetlands / biodiversity/ Policies/
Restoration/ Environmental protection/ Economic analysis/
Environmental economics/ Legislation/ Biological diversity/
Habitat/ Nature conservation/ Environmental restoration/
Simulation/ Economics/

United States, California/
Environmental Policy/ Conservation/ Resources Management/ Habitats/
Policy Making/ Costs/ Economic Aspects/ United States, California/
Protective measures and control/ Environmental action/ Evaluation

Abstract: This paper offers an economic analysis of
economic incentives within the Habitat Conservation Plan and
Wetlands Mitigation Bank policies. Both policies are relatively new
policies for protection and restoration of ecosystems such as
wetlands that support biodiversity. The components of the policies
such as the measures of success, conversion of biological units
into economic units, and timing of the actions by policymakers and
landowners influence the incentives to carry out protection and
restoration. A stochastic optimal control model is developed which
incorporates ecological uncertainty of wetlands restoration. The
model helps in examining the decisions of how much to invest in a
wetlands mitigation bank or habitat conservation plan. The model is
calibrated with data from California bioeconomic parameters.
Numerical simulation of the model provides a sensitivity analysis
of how model parameters of restoration costs, stochastic biological
growth, discount rate, and the market value of credits affect the
trajectory of investment and the optimal stopping state of wetlands
quality when the investment ends. The analysis reveals that more
restoration will occur when there is a reduction in restoration
costs, an increase in biological uncertainty or an increase in the
value of wetlands credits. Continued restoration is harder to
justify at a higher discount rate and cost.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

3. Applying the Watershed Protection Approach
to Estuaries and Wetlands.

Mlay, M.
In: Changes in Fluxes in
Estuaries: Implications From Science to Management/

Dyer, K. R. and Orth, R.

Fredensborg, Denmark: Olsen and
Olsen, 1994; pp. 407-410.

Notes: ISBN: 87-85215-22-8; Conference: ECSA22/ERF
Symposium, Plymouth (UK), 13-18 Sep 1992

USA/ wetlands/ estuaries/ resources
management/ decision making/ environmental protection/ watershed
management/ ecosystems/ interagency cooperation/ U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA)/ Estuaries/ Evaluation process/
Conservation, wildlife management and recreation/ Coastal Zone
Resources and Management/ Brackish water

Abstract:  In view of increasing environmental
pressures on estuaries and wetlands, and with improved scientific
understanding, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is
working to broaden its traditional approach to the regulation of
these complex ecosystems. Specifically, the Agency is changing its
perspective on single-purpose regulatory approaches to include
multi-agency, multi-media approaches, in recognition of the roles
that air, land, and water play in the transport and fate of certain
pollutants. The Agency is also promoting the use of natural, rather
than political, boundaries, such as watersheds, as the management
framework. This change in perspective is accompanied by the use of
cooperative efforts and leveraging approaches, such as
point-nonpoint source trading, in addition to 'command and control'
regulatory approaches to achieve desired environmental effects.
This paper provides several examples of this programmatic shift in
EPA and discusses the role of science in applying environmental
management approaches. The paper concludes by exploring the
delicate relationship between science and regulatory
decision-making. The author challenges researchers and
decision-makers to work more closely together to communicate and
understand the context of management decisions for which scientific
data and information is needed and to translate this technical
knowledge into information that can be applied in coastal

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

4. The bioeconomics of regulating nitrates in
groundwater from agricultural production through taxes, quantity
restrictions, and pollution permits.

Thomas, A. C. and Boisvert, R.

In: Research-Bulletin, No. 95-06;
Ithaca, NY: Department of Agricultural, Resource, and Managerial
Economics, Cornell University, 1995. 97 p.

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

5. Cap-and-trade policy challenges: A tale of
three markets.

Colby BG
Land Economics 76 (4): 638-658. (2000)
NAL Call #:  

Notes: 59 ref
This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

6. Capturing benefits from water entitlement
trade in salinity affected areas: A role for trading

Bell, R.

Australian Journal of
Agricultural and Resource Economics
46 (3): 347-366.
(Sept. 2002)
NAL Call #:  
HD1401.A89; ISSN: 1364-985X

water resources/ water supply/
access/ salinity/ water use / externalities/ trade/ water
allocation/ profits/ cost benefit analysis/ mathematical

This citation is from

7. Carbon Trading With Imperfectly Observable

Godal, O.; Ermoliev, Y.; Klaassen,
G.; and Obersteiner, M.

Environmental and Resource
25 (2): 151-169.

Notes: Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publ
Carbon/ Emissions Trading/
Monitoring/ Simulation/

Uncertainty/ Permits
Abstract: The Kyoto Protocol foresees emission
trading but does not yet specify verification of (uncertain)
emissions. This paper analyses a setting in which parties can meet
their emission targets by reducing emissions, by investing in
monitoring (reducing uncertainty of emissions) or by (bilaterally)
trading permits. We derive the optimality conditions and carry out
various numerical simulations. Our applications suggest that
including uncertainty could increase compliance costs for the USA,
Japan and the European Union. Central Europe and the Former Soviet
Union might be able to gain from trading due to higher permit
prices. Emissions trading could also lower aggregate uncertainty on

© Thomson ISI

8. Compensating for wetland losses under the
Clean Water Act.

National Research Council (U.S.).
Committee on Mitigating Wetland Losses.

Washington, D.C.: National Academy
Press; xxiii, 322 p.: ill. (2001)

NAL Call #:  KF5624-.C66-2001; ISBN: 0309074320

Wetlands ---Law and
legislation---United States/ Wetland conservation---Government
policy---United States/ Wetland mitigation banking---United

This citation is from

9. Cost minimization of nutrient reduction in
watershed management using linear programming.

Schleich, J. and White,

Journal of the American
Water Resources Association
33 (1): 135-142. (Feb. 1997)
NAL Call #:  
GB651.W315; ISSN: 1093-474X [JWRAF5]

watershed management/ water
quality/ nutrients/ pollutants / phosphorus/ linear programming/
cost effectiveness analysis/ cost control/ Wisconsin/ suspended

Abstract: Linear programming is applied to identify
the least cost strategy for reaching politically specified
phosphorus and total suspended solids reduction targets for the
Fox-Wolf river basin in Northeast Wisconsin. The programming model
uses data collected on annualized unit reduction costs associated
with five categories of sources of phosphorus and total suspended
solids discharge in each of the 41 subwatersheds in the basin to
determine the least cost management strategy. Results indicate
that: (1) cost-effective nutrient reduction requires careful
selection of geographic areas and source categories to address
throughout the watershed; (2) agricultural sources are the most
cost-effective to address in the basin; and (3) care should be
exercised in setting nutrient reduction targets, given that there
are likely to be significantly increasing marginal costs of
nutrient reduction; the model predicts that lowering the most
restrictive target by 33 percent would cut reduction expenditures
by about 75 percent. Policy implications of the model include
support for the investigation and potential development of
institutional arrangements that enable cost-effective nutrient
reduction activities to occur, such as the creation of an agency
with authority over a given watershed, coordinated watershed
management activities, or nutrient trading programs.

This citation is from

10. Documenting No-Till and Conventional Till
Practices Using Landsat ETM+ Imagery and Logistic

Bricklemyer, R. S.; Lawrence, R.
L.; and Miller, P. R.

Journal of Soil and Water
57 (5):
267-271. (2002)

NAL Call #:  
56.8 J822; ISSN: 0022-4561

Cultivated Lands/ Agricultural
Practices/ Tillage/ Data Acquisition/ Remote Sensing/ Satellite
Technology/ Performance Evaluation/ Cost Analysis/ Carbon/ Global
Warming/ Data acquisition

Abstract: The ability of agricultural lands to
sequester carbon from the atmosphere and help mitigate global
warming has the potential to add value to farmland through the
development of carbon-credit trading. Crucial to the creation of a
market-based carbon credit trading system is the monitoring and
verification of agricultural practices that promote carbon storage.
Using remotely sensed images for this purpose could prove more
efficient and cost-effective than traditional land-based methods.
Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery and logistic
regression had >95% accuracy in verifying no-till fallow fields.
Further research is needed to investigate the potential for this
low-cost technology to assist in the monitoring and verification of
practices that sequester carbon. Development of an accurate,
low-cost, efficient means of monitoring and verifying carbon
sequestering practices will further the development of cropland
carbon credits, thus helping to mitigate global warming, and will
add value to U.S. farmland.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

11. Economic and environmental modelling for
pollution control in an estuary.

Hanley, N.; Faichney, R.; Munro,
A.; and Shortle, J. S.

Journal of Environmental
52 (3): 211-225.
(Mar. 1998)

NAL Call #:  
HC75.E5J6 ; ISSN: 0301-4797 [JEVMAW]

estuaries/ water pollution/
pollution control/ water quality/ permits/ oxygen requirement/ case
studies/ uncertainty/ probabilistic models/ tradable pollution
permits/ forth estuary/ Scotland/ emissions/ emissions permit
system/ ambient permits system

This citation is from

12. The feasibility of tradeable permits for
water abstraction in England

and Wales.
Morris, J; Weatherhead, EK;
Dunderdale, JAL; Green, C; and Tunstall, S.

In: Water: Economics, management
and demand; International Commission on Irrigation & Drainage;
Proceedings 18th European Regional Conference:

Water -- An economic good.
(Held  September 1997 at
Oxford, UK.) Kay, M.;

Franks, T.; and Smith, L. (eds.);
pp. 328-338; 1997.

Notes: 5 ref

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

13. Global CO2 emissions trading: Early
lessons from the U.S. acid rain program.

Solomon BD
Climatic Change
30 (1):  75-96.

NAL Call #:  
QC980 .C55.
Notes: 71 ref
This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

14. Greenhouse Gas Economics and Computable
General Equilibrium.

Gottinger, HW
Journal of Policy
20 (5): 537-580.
(Oct. 1998);
ISSN: 0161-8938.
Notes: Publisher: Elsevier Science Inc

Computable General Equilibrium/
Global Pollution/ Greenhouse Gases/ Environmental Policy

Abstract: This paper employs a new class of
computable general-equilibrium (CGE) models, developed in the
context of energy-economy-environmental models to simulate the
impacts of the EU economy of internal and multilateral instruments
for regulation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. Climate change
due to emissions gases of greenhouse gases is a long-term global
environmental problem. While specific impacts on different regions
as well as their timing are yet uncertain, it is reasonable to
suppose that unilateral voluntary action by individual countries to
reduce their net emissions of GHGs is unlikely. This is because
significant reduction of net GHGs emissions by a single major net
emitter, say, for example the EU, is unlikely to substantially slow
down the rate of increase in concentration in the atmosphere
because the emissions of GHGs worldwide is increasing rapidly with
spreading industrialization. On the other hand, unilateral changes
in energy use patterns are widely perceived to have: adverse
effects on a country's economic growth, consumer welfare and trade
competitiveness. This perception is shared by both developing (DCs)
and industrialized countries (INCs). Some major policy instruments
have been assessed on the basis of experiments with the CGE model.
The use of each of the policy instrument for direct GHGs regulation
is promising. The results of the above experiments seem to show,
that first, emission standards accomplish significant decreases in
net GHGs emissions with negligible relative GDP and Welfare index
changes and without major distributional impacts in the sense of
relative changes in factor rewards. They seem to work through major
reduction in coal and natural gas use and slight overall reduction
in the use of petroleum. Second, auctioned tradeable permits also
accomplish large decreases in net GHGs emissions, with, however a
perceptible increase in the Welfare Index and significant
distributional impacts in higher rewards to land owners and labor
relative to capital owners. They appear to work primarily by
expansion to the forest sector and associated increases offsets
generation. Third, the use of a GHGs tax on positive net emissions
of GHGs by industries accomplishes large reductions in net GHGs
emissions with significant increase in GDP and the Welfare Index.
The relative changes in factor rewards are also important and favor
land owners over labor and capital owners. This instrument too
appears to work primarily through considerable expansion of the
forest sector and consequent increases offsets generation. Each of
these instruments show sufficient promise as effective policy tools
for GHGs reduction, that it would be advisable to conduct further
research in each case. The choice between standards on the one
hand. and market-based domestic regulatory instruments on the
other, is not straightforward. These results need verification
through further analysis. (C) 1998 Society for Policy Modeling.
Published by Elsevier Science Inc.

© Thomson ISI

15. Hydrodynamic modeling of wetlands for
flood detention.

Tsihrintzis, V. A.; John, D. L.;
and Tremblay, P. J.

Water Resources
12 (4): 251-269.
(Aug. 1998)

NAL Call #:  
TC401.W27; ISSN: 0920-4741 [WRMAEJ]

wetlands / flood control/
hydrodynamics/ drainage/ hydraulic structures/ simulation models/
mathematical models / structural design/ water flow/ Florida/
detention basins/ SWMM EXTRAN model

Abstract: The application of a link-node model in
modeling hydrodynamics of wetland areas related to flood detention
design is presented through the description of modeling and design
efforts of an actual project, the first privately-owned wetland
mitigation bank in Florida. The 142-ha project is located in the
Chapel Trail Preserve of the City of Pembroke Pines, South Florida,
where a degraded site is transformed into a healthy,
self-sustaining wetland ecosystem. Creation of the wetlands,
located adjacent to an existing development, required careful
evaluation of drainage conditions. To properly design the wetland
site, a hydrodynamic model was developed which allowed sizing of
hydraulic structures and computation of maximum water surface
elevations. The paper presents model description and calibration
using field data, parameter sensitivity, general application in the
project and use as a design tool. The model was found to be a
valuable tool that can be applied in similar projects.

This citation is from

16. Hydrologic Model for Design and
Constructed Wetlands.

Arnold, J. G.; Allen, P. M.; and
Morgan, D. S.

Wetlands 21 (2): 167-178. (2001)
NAL Call #:  
QH75.A1W47; ISSN: 0277-5212

Flow Discharge/ Model Studies/
Hydrology/ Watersheds/ Topography/ Soil water plant Relationships/
Climatic Changes/ Land Use/ Artificial Wetlands/ Wetlands/
Mathematical models/ Water budget/ Stream flow/ Design/ Soils/
Topographic features/ Texas/ Trinity River/ United

Abstract: The Trinity River Mitigation Bank was
proposed to develop and use a mature, contiguous, diverse riparian
corridor along the West Fork of the Trinity River near Dallas,
Texas, USA. In the proposed wetland design, water would be diverted
from Walker Creek as necessary to maintain wetland function.
Therefore, assessment of the magnitude and continuity of the flow
from Walker Creek was paramount to successful wetland operation.
The Soil and Water Assessment (SWAT) model was used to assess
whether the sustained flow (storm flow and base flow) from the
Walker Creek Basin could maintain the proposed bottomland wetland
ecosystem. For this study, SWAT was modified to allow ponded water
within the prescribed wetland to interact with the soil profile and
the shallow aquifer. The water budget was prepared for the wetland
based on a three-step process. First, data required to run the
model on Walker Creek, including soils, topographic, land-use, and
daily weather data were assembled. Next, data required to validate
the model were obtained. Since stream flow was not available at the
proposed site, flow from a nearby watershed with similar soils,
land use and topography were used. In the final step, the model was
run for 14 years and compared to the measured water balance at the
nearby watershed. The model results indicate that the wetland
should be at or above 85 percent capacity over 60 percent of the
time. The wetland did not dry up during the entire simulated time
period (14 years) and reached 40 percent capacity less than one
percent of the time during the simulation period. The advantages of
the continuous simulation approach used in this study include (1)
validation of wetland function (hydroperiod, soil water storage,
plant water uptake) over a range of climatic conditions and (2) the
ability to assess the long-term impact of land-use and management

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

17. Integrated economic-hydrologic water
modeling at the basin scale: The Maipo River basin.

Rosegrant, M. W.; Ringler, C.;
McKinney, D. C.; Cai, X.; Keller, A.; and Donoso, G.

24 (1): 33-46.
(Dec. 2000)

NAL Call #:  
HD1401.A47; ISSN: 0169-5150 [AGECE6].

Notes: Special issue: Management of water resource for
agriculture / edited by

U. Chakravorty and D. Zilberman;
Includes references

water allocation/ farm inputs/
decision making/ productivity/ irrigation/ demand/ water use
efficiency/ resource utilization/ models/ water policy/ cost
benefit analysis/ equations/ Chile

Abstract: Increasing competition for water across
sectors increases the importance of the river basin as the
appropriate unit of analysis to address the challenges facing water
resources management; and modeling at this scale can provide
essential information for policymakers in their resource allocation
decisions. This paper introduces an integrated economic-hydrologic
modeling framework that accounts for the interactions between water
allocation, farmer input choice, agricultural productivity,
non-agricultural water demand, and resource degradation in order to
estimate the social and economic gains from improvement in the
allocation and efficiency of water use. The model is applied to the
Maipo river basin in Chile. Economic benefits to water use are
evaluated for different demand management instruments, including
markets in tradable water rights, based on production and benefit
functions with respect to water for the agricultural and
urban-industrial sectors.

This citation is from

18. Market Incentives to Reduce Nonpoint
Source Agricultural Nutrient Pollution: A Theoretical and
Implementational Discussion.

Norman, M. E. and Keenan, J.

Journal of Environmental
24 (2): 151-157.

nonpoint pollution/ agricultural
pollution/ nutrients/ animal wastes/ taxation/ compost/ permits/
government programs/ research programs/ water pollution control/
nonpoint pollution sources/ agricultural runoff/ composting/
Environmental action/ Sources and fate of pollution

This article provides a theoretical
and implementational discussion of several potential market-based
mechanisms to reduce nonpoint source agricultural nutrient
pollution, including an excess nutrient tax; off-site animal waste
disposal subsidy; animal waste transport subsidy; compost subsidy;
and nutrient permit trading system. Market incentives have
theoretical appeal in that, if set at the proper level, they compel
polluters to reduce pollution generation to the socially efficient
level automatically. However, each market-based mechanism has
associated implementational factors which must be overcome. The
implementation discussion highlights the basic information,
monitoring, enforcement, and political requirements concerning each
of the policies. In addition, market inefficiencies may reduce the
practical effectiveness of market-based incentives. In cases where
informational and other inefficiencies are high, alternative
approaches (such as market surveys and nutrient management
education) aimed at reducing those inefficiencies may be

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

19. A Method to Improve the International
Comparability of Emission Data From Industrial

Saarinen, K.
Environmental Science and
6 (4): 355-366.

NAL Call #:  
GE170.E58; ISSN: 1462-9011.

Notes: Publisher: Elsevier Sci Ltd
Industrial Emissions/
Comparability/ Monitoring/ Data Production Chain

Abstract: Emissions from industrial installations
are regulated under several international conventions and
directives to prevent harmful impacts on environment and human
health. Stricter limitations often exist in national legislations,
or due to regional and local conditions, than in the international
conventions. The international comparability of emission data from
industrial installations is currently poor. Comparability is an
essential element when the environmental performance of different
installations or techniques is studied, as well as in reviewing
data presented in emission registers. The availability of reliable
and comparable data is an important requirement for the emissions
trading market. Comparable emission data ought to be used when
reviewing compliance with the national emission reduction targets
established under international conventions, as well as in
reviewing the compliance of industrial installations with the
requirements set in the environmental permit conditions. There are
currently no internationally agreed principles or a comprehensive
strategy for production of emission data at the level of an
industrial installation. The data production chain principle
presented in this paper provides a tool for identifying elements
that are essential in comparing emission data correctly and that
need to be taken into consideration to ensure emission data
reliability. The method was originally developed and applied in
Finland for emission and impact monitoring of wastewaters from
industrial installations and fisheries. Due to the implementation
of the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) directive
the methodology was reconstructed for integrated emissions
monitoring purposes. The data production principle was

introduced for European use when
preparing the BREF document on monitoring of emissions. It will
also be relevant when the industrial installations report their
emissions data to the Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers
(PRTRs). (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights

© Thomson ISI

20. Modeling for Point-Non-Point Source
Effluent Trading: Perspective of Non-Point Sources Regulation in

Zhang, W. and Wang, X.

Science of the Total
292 (3):
167-176. (2002)

NAL Call #:  

RA565.S365; ISSN: 0048-9697.
Notes: Publisher: Elsevier Science Bv
Non Point Source Pollution/ Point
Non Point Effluent Trading/ Watershed/ Uncertainty/ Pollution
Abatement/ Water Quality/ Nonpoint/ Wetlands/ Cost

Abstract: In the past decades, little abatement
efforts have been implemented on China's non-point source water
pollution, and studies aiming at non-point sources regulation were
also rare; Watershed abatement trading between point and non-point
sources may serve as a cost-effective way to deal with the problem.
The inherent uncertainty of non-point emissions, however, could
affect the feasibility and outcome of point-non-point effluent
trading. The purpose of this paper is to model the watershed
point-non-point abatement trading incorporating the uncertainty of
non-point source emissions, and to examine its impacts on trading
equilibrium and trading ratio. The uncertainties of non-point
emissions were taken into consideration by setting an acceptable
probability by which the watershed emission constraints were
achieved. Using the watershed optimization model, the optimal
abatement allocation and trading ratio were explicitly illustrated.
It was found that they were affected significantly by the variances
of non-point emissions, the reliability requirement assigned to the
non-point abatement, and the marginal abatement costs of point and
non-point sources. Since the variances of non-point emissions may
increase or decrease at the abatement level, the impacts of these
factors were discussed in different circumstances. Based on the
illumination of the trading model, future directions and
implications of point-non-point trading in China were discussed.
(C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

© Thomson ISI

21. Phosphorus Credit Trading in the Fox-Wolf
Basin: Exploring Legal, Economic, and Technical Issues.

Baumgart, P; Johnson, B. N.; and
Pinkham, J. R.

Alexandria, VA: Water Environment
Research Foundation; 97-IRM-5D, 2000. 110 p.


water pollution/ phosphorus/
Wisconsin/ water quality/ monitoring/ models/ total maximum daily

Abstract:  The report details the work of a
nonprofit organization to implement a watershed based trading
program for the Fox-Wolf basin in Wisconsin. It examines the
history of water quality problems and mitigation efforts in the
area, as well as the current legal and economic environment for
starting such a program. Modeling and monitoring activities the
group is taking to support a trading program is also

22. Phosphorus Credit Trading in the Kalamazoo
River Basin: Forging Nontraditional Partnerships.

Kieser, M.
Alexandria, VA: Water Environment
Research Foundation; 97-IRM-5C, 2000. 282 p.

water pollution/ phosphorus/
Michigan/ water quality/ monitoring/ environmental models/ nonpoint
source pollution

Abstract:  A voluntary water quality trading
demonstration program intended to reduce phosphorus and sediment
loading in parts of the Kalamazoo River in Michigan is described.
The program achieves better water quality using trades between
point and nonpoint sources than those achieved by point source
controls alone. The environmental and economic benefits of the
program are analyzed and technical issues such as setting baselines
through calculations, monitoring and modeling are

23. PM10 Conformity Determinations: The
Equivalent Emissions Method.

Foresman, E. L.; Kleeman, M. J.;
Kear, T. P.; and Niemeier, D. A.

Transportation Research:
Part D, Transport and Environment
8 (2): 97-112. (2003); ISSN: 1361-9209.
Notes: Publisher: Pergamon-Elsevier Science


Particulate Air Pollution/
Atmospheric Particles/ Southern California/ Infant Mortality/
Aerosol / Association/ Emergency/ Children/ Asthma/

Abstract: The US Clean Air Act Amendments require
PM10 transportation conformity and attainment demonstrations. This
study examines the policy implications and validity of a proposed
PM10 transportation conformity method called equivalent emissions
(EE) that uses a linear, non-chemical model to incorporate
emissions trading into PM10 transportation conformity
determinations. We evaluate the new method by comparing predictions
from EE to predictions from a mechanistic air quality model that
uses non-linear chemical mechanisms to calculate the formation of
secondary PM10. Results indicate that the EE method over estimates
reductions of secondary PM10 formation allowing the primary
fraction to rise while secondary PM10 is not actually declining in
the atmosphere. Thus, conformity could be established between air
quality and transportation plans using EE, resulting in projects
being funded that might prolong public exposure to unhealthy levels
of PM10 depending on the specifics of the non-attainment area. (C)
2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

© Thomson ISI

24. Point/Nonpoint source trading of pollution
abatement: Choosing the right trading ratio.

Malik, A. S.; Letson, D.; and
Crutchfield, S. R.

American Journal of
Agricultural Economics
 75 (4): 959-967. (Nov. 1993)
NAL Call #:  
280.8-J822; ISSN: 0002-9092 [AJAEBA]

pollution control/ law enforcement/
costs/ water quality/ trading/  uncertainty/ mathematical
models/ ratios/ United States/ abatement costs

Abstract: In programs for trading pollution
abatement between point and nonpoint sources, the trading ratio
specifies the rate at which nonpoint source abatement can be
substituted for point source abatement. The appropriate value of
this ratio is unclear because of qualitative differences between
the two classes of sources. To identify the optimal trading ratio,
we develop and analyze a model of point/nonpoint trading. We find
the optimal trading ratio depends on the relative costs of
enforcing point versus nonpoint reductions and on the uncertainty
associated with nonpoint loadings. The uncertainty does not imply a
lower bound for the optimal trading ratio.

This citation is from

25. Predicted change in soil carbon following
afforestation or reforestation, and analysis of controlling factors
by linking a C accounting model (CAMFor) to models of forest growth
(3PG), litter decomposition (GENDEC) and soil C turnover

Paul, K. I.; Polglase, P. J.; and
Richards, G. P.

Forest Ecology and
177 (1-3):
485-501. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
SD1.F73; ISSN: 0378-1127.
Notes: Publisher: Elsevier Science

Soil/ Carbon cycle/ Models/
Afforestation/ Reforestation/ Decomposition/ Pinus radiata/
Australia/ Monterey pine/ Soil

Abstract: A complete carbon (C) accounting model
for forest systems, GRC3, links a C tracking model (CAMFor) with
independently verified models of forest growth (3PG), litter
decomposition (GENDEC) and soil C turnover (RothC). GRC3 was tested
in seven regional case studies of eucalypt or Pinus radiata
plantations in Australia to predict rates of change in soil C after
afforestation and to determine controlling factors. The model was
calibrated as far as possible to above-ground growth of
plantations, litterfall, accumulation of litter and in some cases
root biomass, and was then run to determine expected change in soil
C. Between 0 and 10 years soil C was predicted to decrease by an
average of 1.7% per year (0.79tCha super(-1) per year) and between
10 and 40 years it was predicted to increase by 0.82% per year
(0.46tCha super(-1) per year). The mean rate of change after 40
years was 0.09% per year (0.06tCha super(-1) per year). These
values and pattern of change were consistent with a recent review
of the global literature of change in soil C after afforestation
[For. Ecol. Manage. (2002a)]. Modelling analyses suggests the main
reasons for this pattern are: (i) initially, there are limited
inputs of C to soil as plantation net primary production (NPP) is
small and goes to building biomass. Residues from the previous crop
decompose leading to net loss of C unless a groundcover (intercrop
or weeds) is maintained in the inter-rows, (ii) much of the
plantation NPP is allocated to long-lived woody components (stems,
branches, and coarse roots), which are temporarily or permanently
(by harvesting) removed from the soil C cycle, and (iii) as the
stand develops, inputs from the more lignified, resistant material
increases. The amount of input may be less under plantation than
pasture but the quality of residues is the over-riding factor and
in the long-term soil C accumulates. Actual trends in soil C may
vary according to site and management conditions, but the main
controlling factors will be different between pasture and
plantation in the amount and allocation of NPP, and the quantity
and quality of residue inputs to soil. Sensitivity (Monte Carlo)
analyses showed that model parameters and processes for which it
will be important to have good estimates include the amount of NPP
and its allocation to various plant components, rate constants for
decomposition of litter and root residues, the proportion of C lost
to respiration during decomposition of litter and soil C, and rate
constants for humification (the proportion of decomposing
above-ground litter that is transferred to soil). Changes in soil C
were small compared with other forest pools and fluxes-after 40
years of afforestation less than 3% of the cumulative NPP was
predicted to accumulate in soil. It is debatable whether it will be
feasible or cost-effective to directly measure change in soil C
over short-time frames (such as 5 years) for the purpose of
claiming C credits under an emissions trading scheme. Modelling
provides a useful alternative and at the very least can be used to
identify sites and time frames where investment in soil C
measurement may be warranted.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

26. Restoring Wetlands Through Wetlands
Mitigation Banks.

Fernandez, L. and Karp,

Environmental and Resource
12 (3): 323-344.
Environmental economics/
Environmental restoration / Wetlands/ Development projects/
Mathematical models/ Government regulations/ Economic Aspects/
Rehabilitation/ Stochastic Process/ Model Studies/
 Optimization/ Simulation / Sensitivity Analysis/
Calibrations/ Banks / Investment/ Habitat improvement (physical)/
Environmental protection/ Environmental legislation/ Policies/
wetlands mitigation banks/ Environmental action/ Evaluation
process/ Protective measures and control/ Freshwater

Abstract: This paper offers the first economic
analysis of wetlands mitigation banks. The banks are a new
alternative for restoration of wetlands by developers before
receiving regulatory approval for future development of wetlands in
the same watershed. A stochastic optimal control model is developed
which incorporates ecological uncertainty of wetlands restoration.
The model helps in examining the decisions of how much to invest in
a wetlands mitigation bank. The model is calibrated with data from
California bioeconomic parameters. Numerical simulation of the
model provides a sensitivity analysis of how model parameters of
restoration costs, stochastic biological growth, interest rate, and
the market value of credits affect the trajectory of investment and
the optimal stopping state of wetlands quality when the investment
ends. The analysis reveals that restoration of the whole site will
occur when there is a reduction in restoration costs, an increase
in biological uncertainty or an increase in the value of wetlands
credits. Continued restoration is harder to justify with a

interest rate.
© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

27. Sensitivity analysis of predicted change
in soil carbon following afforestation.

Paul, K. I.; Polglase, P. J.; and
Richards, G. P.

Ecological Modelling
164 (2-3): 137-152.

NAL Call #:  
QH541.15.M3E25; ISSN: 0304-3800

Models/ Soil/ Carbon cycle/
Afforestation/ Plantations/ Australia/ Modeling/ mathematics/
computer applications/ Soil

Abstract: A credible and cost-effective methodology
is needed to support the use of new tree plantations to offset
greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately to form part of an
emissions trading scheme. A number of validated models of forest
growth are available. However, there has been relatively little
validation of models to predict changes in pools of C in litter and
soil, and thus suitable for C accounting. A modelling approach is
needed to track changes in soil C because direct measurements are
currently cost-prohibitive. Modelling approaches also allow for
scenario analyses that can be useful for planning purposes. We used
a complete C accounting model for forests, GRC3, to simulate
patterns of change in soil C following afforestation under four
test cases representing typical conditions in Australia. Soil C was
predicted to initially decrease (usually during the first 10 years)
before a gradual recovery and accumulation of soil C occurred.
Sensitivity analyses were used to determine which parameters and
inputs potentially cause the greatest uncertainty in calculated
change in soil C using GRC3. Taking into account the uncertainties
in the values of parameters and inputs, initial (0-10 years)
decrease in soil C was predicted to be 0.96-2.35% per year (or
4.16-14.8 t C ha super(-1)) with a standard deviation between 0.10
and 0.43% per year among case studies, whereas the predicted
increase in soil C (10-40 years) was predicted to be between 0.49
and 1.80% per year (or 7.57-24.4 t C ha super(-1)) with a standard
deviation between 0.18 and 0.69% per year. Results indicated that
uncertainty could be greatly reduced by calibration of the fraction
of above-ground litter transferred to soil C (i.e. humification),
fraction of C lost by respiration during decomposition of litter,
dead roots and soil C, and decomposition rates of the soil C pools.
It was also important to obtain accurate input data for initial
soil C content (including inert soil C), climatic conditions and
allocation of net primary production to various tree

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

28. The Structure and Practice of Water
Quality Trading Markets.

Woodward, R. T.; Kaiser, R. A.;
and Wicks, A. M. B.

Journal of the American
Water Resources Association
38 (4): 967-979. (2002)
NAL Call #:  
GB651.W315; ISSN: 1093-474X.
Notes: Publisher: Amer Water Resources

Transferable Discharge Permits/
Nonpoint Source Pollution/ Water Policy/ Regulation/ Decision
Making/ Water Quality/ Pollution Control/ Permits/ Externality/

Abstract: The use of transferable discharge permits
in water pollution, what we will call water quality trading (WQT),
is rapidly growing in the U.S. This paper reviews the current
status of WQT nationally and discusses the structures of the
markets that have been formed. Four main structures are observed in
such markets: exchanges, bilateral negotiations, clearinghouses,
and sole source offsets. The goals of a WQT program are
environmental quality and cost effectiveness. In designing a WQT
market, policy makers are constrained by legal restrictions and the
physical characteristics of the pollution problem. The choices that
must be made include how trading will be authorized, monitored and
enforced. How these questions are answered will help determine both
the extent to which these goals are achieved, and the market
structures that can arise. After discussing the characteristics of
different market structures, we evaluate how this framework applies
in the case of California's Grassland Drainage Area Tradable Loads

© Thomson ISI

29. Team Approaches in Reducing Nonpoint
Source Pollution.

Romstad, E.
Ecological Economics
47 (1): 71-78. (2003)
NAL Call #:  
QH540.E26; ISSN: 0921-8009.

Notes: Publisher: Elsevier Science Bv
Nonpoint Source Pollution/ Game
Theory/ Environmental Economics/ Incentives/ Enforcement and

Abstract: It is technically difficult and costly to
monitor nonpoint source pollution. Consequently, most economic
instruments directed towards reducing this type of pollution have
focused on circumventing the monitoring problem by focusing on
readily observable factors. Such instruments include taxes or
tradable pen-nits on inputs or other incentives to induce changes
in fanning practices. One difficulty with such approaches is that
the incentives may not be consistent with the primary objectives of
the policies-to reduce nutrient runoffs. This paper seeks to
identify under what conditions it would be beneficial to apply more
direct incentives for reduced nutrient runoffs. Monitoring and
enforcement are core issues in this connection. It is still
difficult to monitor individual farm field runoffs. Hence, the
incentive problems associated with multiple agents emitting to the
same recipient need to be resolved. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V All
rights reserved.

© Thomson ISI

30. Three-Dimensional Eutrophication Model for
Lake Biwa and Its Application to the Framework Design of
Transferable Discharge Permits.

Yamashiki, Y.; Matsumoto, M.;
Tezuka, T.; Matsui, S.; and Kumagai, M.

17 (14):
2957-2973. (2003)

NAL Call #:  
GB651.H93 ; ISSN: 0885-6087.

Notes: Publisher: John Wiley & Sons Ltd
VLES/ very large eddy simulation/
Eutrophication/ Lake Biwa/ Transferable Discharge Permits/
Equations/ Solver

Abstract: The main goal of this study is to
evaluate the eutrophication status under different management
approaches in a basin, by combining the Biwa3D model
(three-dimensional eutrophication analysis model) with several
nutrient-reduction cases to calculate their effects on the water
quality in Lake Biwa, Japan, and by applying the model to evaluate
the cost-effectiveness between different scenarios designed to
control eutrophication. A non-hydrostatic hydrodynamic model
featuring very large eddy simulation (VLES) concepts, combined with
ecological components that consider three types of phytoplankton
species, one zooplankton, and nutrient cycling in each grid, is
developed as the basic component of the research. Nitrogen and
phosphorus loads from I I I sub-basins that supply Lake Biwa are
set as the boundary condition for the numerical simulation. The
chlorophyll a concentration calculated near the water intake,
weighted in proportion to the intake discharge, is set as the water
quality index. Transferable discharge permits are introduced for
estimating the total reduction cost for achieving the objective
water quality. Two types of scenario are tested: one considers the
difference in location of nutrient reduction in the north and south
basins, and the other ignores this difference. Initially, the
effect of nutrient loads on the water quality of Lake Biwa was
calculated using the Biwa3D model, using estimated nitrogen and
phosphorus loads from the basin as the boundary condition.
Transferable discharge permits were then designed according to the
impact factor on each basin calculated by the model in order to
compare the cost-effectiveness of the reduction scenarios. It is
concluded that consideration of the characteristics of each basin
and the distribution of effluent in designing transferable
discharge permits reduces the total costs by around 4-25% of that
required for achieving the target concentration of chlorophyll a.
Copyright (C) 2003 John Wiley Sons, Ltd.

© Thomson ISI

31. The time path and implementation of carbon

Feng HL; Zhao JH; and Kling

American Journal of
Agricultural Economics
 84 (1): 134-149. (2002)
NAL Call #:  

280.8 J822.
Notes: 24 ref
This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

32. Tradable Discharge Permit System for Water
Pollution: Case of the Upper Nanpan River of China.

Tao, W.; Zhou, B.; Barron, W. F.;
and Yang, W.

Environmental and Resource
15 (1): 27-38.
Wastewater discharges/ Chemical
oxygen demand/ Water pollution control/ Environmental economics/
Permits/ Wastewater Disposal/ Water Pollution Sources/
 Economic Aspects/ Receiving Waters/ Economics/ Costs/ Waste
disposal/ Pollution control/ Waste water/ Yunnan Province/ China,
People's Republic/ Nanpan River/ tradable permits/ Environmental
action/ Sources and fate of pollution/ Prevention and control/
Water & Wastewater Treatment/ Freshwater

Abstract: A discharge permit system for water
pollution of the upper Nanpan River has been tested since 1992.
This paper proposed the shift of the current non-tradable permits
to tradable permits to attain the same pollution reduction targets
at a lower cost. It was found that this river appeared good for
trading. A pilot trading program for point sources was then
recommended to a smaller trading zone. There would be ten potential
trades for chemical oxygen demand discharge, gaining an annual
cost-saving of Chinese Yuan 2.4 million, or saving 18.4% of the
total annual cost to attain the reduction target without trading.
The marginal pollution reduction cost was estimated at Chinese Yuan
959 for one kilogram chemical oxygen demand per day. Meanwhile,
'without trading' and 'with trading' scenarios would bring about
900.9 kg/day and 51.5 kg/day of redundant reduction respectively.
The net annual benefit arising from trading, about Chinese Yuan 1.6
million, would still be significant. At last, the study recommended
that compliance monitoring and executing institution requirements
be kept in mind while designing the program. An information system
needs to be established to provide potential participants relevant
information. The method of permit allocation and lifespan of
permits should also be addressed later.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

33. Trading poultry litter at the watershed
level: A goal focusing application.

Jones K and D' Souza G
Agricultural and Resource
Economics Review
(1): 56-65. (2001)

NAL Call #:  
Notes:  25 ref
This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

34. Transaction Costs and Sequential
Bargaining in Transferable Discharge Permit Markets.

Netusil, N. R. and Braden, J.

Journal of Environmental
61 (3): 253-262.

NAL Call #:  
HC75.E5J6; ISSN: 0301-4797.

Notes: Publisher: Academic Press Ltd
Marketable Permits/ Non Point
Source Pollution/ Transaction Costs/ Source Pollution Abatement/
Nonpoint Pollution/ Efficiency/ Incentives/ River

Abstract: Market-type mechanisms have been
introduced and are being explored for various environmental
programs. Several existing programs, however, have not attained the
cost savings that were initially projected. Modeling that
acknowledges the role of transactions costs and the discrete,
bilateral, and sequential manner in which trades are executed
should provide a more realistic basis for calculating potential
cost savings. This paper presents empirical evidence on potential
cost savings by examining a market for the abatement of sediment
from farmland. Empirical results based on a market simulation model
find no statistically significant change in mean abatement costs
under several transaction cost levels when contracts are randomly
executed. An alternative method of contract execution, gain-ranked,
yields similar results. At the highest transaction cost level
studied, trading reduces the total cost of compliance relative to a
uniform standard that reflects current regulations. (C) 2001
Academic Press.

© Thomson ISI

35. Use of multispectral Ikonos imagery for
discriminating between conventional and conservation agricultural
tillage practices.

Vina A; Peters AJ; and Ji

PE and RS: Photogrammetric
Engineering and Remote Sensing
69 (5): 537-544. (2003)
NAL Call #:  
325.28 P56.

Notes: 12 ref
This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

36. Water markets and water

Weinberg, M.; Kling, C. L.; and
Wilen, J. E.

American Journal of
Agricultural Economics
 75 (2): 278-291. (May 1993)

NAL Call #:  
280.8-J822; ISSN: 0002-9092
water quality/ irrigation water/
markets/ water use efficiency/ water allocation/ farm management/
decision making/ drainage/ simulation models/ water policy/ United

Abstract: In addition to improving the allocative
efficiency of water use, water markets may reduce
irrigation-related water quality problems. This potential benefit
is examined with a nonlinear programming model developed to
simulate agricultural decision-making in a drainage problem area in
California's San Joaquin Valley. Results indicate that a 30%
drainage goal is achievable through improvements in irrigation
practices and changes in cropping patterns induced by a water
market. Although water markets will not generally achieve a
least-cost solution, they may be a practical alternative to
economically efficient, but informationally intensive,
environmental policies such as Pigouvian taxes.

This citation is from

37. Watershed management and wetland
mitigation: A framework for determining compensation

King, Dennis M.; Bohlen, Curtis
C.; and Adler, Kenneth J.

Solomons, Md.: Chesapeake
Biological Laboratory; 17 p. : ill. (1993)

Notes: Cover title. "Review copy." "July 19, 1993."
"University of Maryland System draft report #: UMCEES-CBL-93-098."
Includes bibliographical references (p. 17).

NAL Call #:  QH76.K562--1993
Wetland conservation---Mathematical
models/ Wetland conservation---Government policy/ Watershed
management/ Environmental policy---Mathematical models

This citation is from

38. Watershed nutrient trading under
asymmetric information.

Johansson RC
Agricultural and Resource
Economics Review
(2): 221-232. (2002)

NAL Call #:  
Notes: 45 ref

This citation is provided courtesy
of CAB International/CABI Publishing.

39. Watershed Risk Analysis Model for TVA's
Holston River Basin.

Chen, C. W.; Herr, J.; Goldstein,
R. A.; Sagona, F. J.; Rylant, K. E.; and Hauser, G. E.

Water, Air and Soil
90 (1-2): 65-70.
(July 1996)

NAL Call #:  

TD172.W36 ; ISSN: 0049-6979.
Notes: Conference: Int. Clean Water Conf.: Clean
Water: Factors That Influence Its Availability, Quality and Its
Use, La Jolla, CA (USA), 28-30 Nov 1995

Water authorities/ water resources/
waste water/ hydrology/ pollution control/ water quality/
watersheds/ River basins/ Hydroelectric power plants/ Holston
Basin/ risk/ water pollution control/  decision making/ United
States/ Holston River/ modelling/ risks/ General papers on
resources/ Prevention and control/ General/ Sources and fate of
pollution/ Freshwater pollution/ Environment

Abstract: The Electric Power Research Institute has
launched a research project to develop a conceptual risk analysis
framework for watershed management of point and nonpoint source
pollution. The research leads to the design of an engineering model
to 1) process and translate water quality data (coliform, BOD, DO,
suspended solids, temperature, sediment, etc.) into decision
variables (suitability for water contact sports and swimming, fish
spawning, fish survival, human consumption of fish, and freedom
from algal nuisance, etc.) and 2) predict water quality
improvements from proposed management alternatives. Actual
development of the model is being carried out with the Tennessee
Valley Authority (TVA) for the Holston River watershed. The effort
includes model construction by importation of GIS map files,
stringing together existing watershed and reservoir models,
calibration of the model, and selection of decision variables and
water quality check points. The model calculates hydrology, waste
load, water quality and suitability of fish habitats at headwaters.
The base case results and improvements after best management
alternatives will be compared to the data

observed by TVA's River Action
Team. The final product will be a user friendly tool that
stakeholders can use to find a cost effective method of improving
water quality, including market-based pollution trading.

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

40. Wetlands mitigation banks: A developer's
investment problem.

Fernandez, L. and Karp, L.;
Berkeley, Calif.: University of  California Berkeley,
Department of Agric. Resour. Econ  (Series: Working Paper
Series 713), 1994. 35 p.

Notes: ISSN: 1068-7483; Co-published by: California
Agricultural Experiment Station and Giannini Foundation of
Agricultural Economics

NAL Call #:  S1.W6
wetlands / land development/
investment/ reclamation/ federal programs/ land policy/ stochastic
models/ restoration

This citation is from

[Table of Contents]


Water Quality Trading and
Related Issues


41. Agricultural nonpoint source pollution and
economic incentive policies: Issues in the reauthorization of the
Clean Water Act --- Water quality.

Malik, Arun S.; Larson, Bruce A.;
Ribaudo, Marc. ; and United States. Dept. of Agriculture. Economic
Research Service. Resources and Technology Division.

Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Resources and Technology
Division; iv, 14 p. (1992)

Notes: Cover title.  "November 1992"--P. iii.
 Includes bibliographical references

(p. 12-14).
NAL Call #:  aTD428.A37M34-1992

Agricultural pollution---Government
policy---United States/ Water Pollution---Government
policy---United States

This citation is from

42. Albemarle-Pamlico: Case study in pollutant
trading -- Most of the nutrients came from nonpoint

Hall, J. and Howett, C.
EPA Journal 20 (1/2): 27-29. (1994)

NAL Call #:  
TD171.U5; ISSN: 0145-1189
estuaries/ water quality/
 pollutants/ nutrients/ nitrogen/ point sources/ nutrient
sources/ environmental degradation/ watershed management/ pollution
control/ North Carolina/ nonpoint sources

This citation is from

43. At the Crossroads of Control.
Willey, Z.
72 (3): 12-15.

Notes: 2 fig, 1 tab.

Agricultural management/ Economic
analysis/ Nonpoint pollution sources/ Water pollution/ Water
quality/ Environmental fate

This citation is from

44. Building markets for tradable pollution
rights: Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORANSCO),
Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972.

Maloney, M. T. and Yandle,

In: Water rights: Scarce resource
allocation, bureaucracy, and the environment/ Anderson, T. L.; San
Francisco, Calif.: Pacific Institute for Public Policy Research,

 1983. pp. 283-320.
Notes: ISBN: 0884103897
NAL Call #:  KF5569.A2W37
This citation is from

45. Can a watershed be managed?

Johnson, C. R.; Kaunelis, V. P.;
and Cave, K. A.

Water Environment and
12 (6): 31-33.

NAL Call #:  
TD419.W37; ISSN: 1044-9493

Catchment hydrology/ Nonpoint
source pollution/ Watersheds/ Michigan

This citation is from

46. Charting a new course: Pollutant trading
can play a key role in improving water quality.

Podar, Mahesh and Kashmanian,
Richard M.

Forum for Applied Research
and Public Policy
13: 40-44.
(Fall 1998);
ISSN: 0887-8218

Environmental policy/ Economics/
Water pollution/ Pollution control/ Water quality/ United

This citation is from

47. Chesapeake nutrient trading needs CWA

Water Environment and
7 (5): 30-34.

NAL Call #:  
TD419.W37; ISSN: 1044-9493
Environmental programs/ Clean Water
Act/ Chesapeake Bay/ Water quality

This citation is from

48. A classroom experiment about tradable

Kilkenny, M.
Review of Agricultural
22 (2): 586-606.
(Fall 2000-Winter 2000)

NAL Call #:  
HD1773.A3N6; ISSN: 1058-7195.

Notes: Includes references.
rural communities/ permits/
 experiments/ teaching methods/ externalities/  costs/
college students/ markets

This citation is from

49. Controlled trading of pollution

Russell, C. S.
Environmental Science and
15 (1): 24-28.

NAL Call #:  
TD420.A1E5; ISSN: 0013-936X

This citation is from

50. Cost-effective point-nonpoint trading: An
application to the Susquehanna River Basin.

Horan, R. D.; Abler, D. G.;
Shortle, J. S.; and Carmichael, J.

Journal of the American
Water Resources Association
38 (2): 467. (2002)
NAL Call #:  

GB651.W315; ISSN: 1093-474X
Nonpoint source pollution/ Water
quality/ Environmental programs/ Cost benefit analysis/ Watersheds/

This citation is from

51. Design and Legality of an Innovative
Approach to Nonpoint Source Control.

Dudek, D. and Wendel,

In: Contributed papers and
abstracts for the conference on water, laws and management.

(Held 17 Sep 1989-22 Sep 1989 at
Tampa, Florida.)

Middleburg, Va.: American Water
Resources Association; 1989.

Notes: AWRA special publication No.89-4.
NAL Call #:  TD223.A1C66

Nonpoint source pollution/ Water
pollution/ Water quality/ Environmental programs/

This citation is from

52. Differences in social and public risk
perceptions and conflicting impacts on point/nonpoint trading

Horan, R. D.
American Journal of
Agricultural Economics
 83 (4): 934-941. (Nov. 2001)

NAL Call #:  
280.8-J822; ISSN: 0002-9092 [AJAEBA].
Notes: Includes references.

water quality/ pollution control/
risk/ social costs/ ratios/ stochastic processes/ federal programs/
equations/ United States  

Abstract: If stochastic nonpoint pollution loads
create socially costly risk, then an economically optimal
point/nonpoint trading ratio-the rate point source controls trade
for nonpoint controls-is adjusted downward (a risk reward for
nonpoint controls), encouraging more nonpoint controls. However, in
actual trading programs, ratios are adjusted upward in response to
nonpoint uncertainties (a risk premium for nonpoint controls). This
contradiction is explained using a public choice model in which
regulators focus on encouraging abatement instead of reducing
damages. The result is a divergence of public and social risk
perceptions, and a trading market that encourages economically
suboptimal nonpoint controls.

This citation is from

53. Draft framework for watershed-based

Environmental Protection Agency,
Office of Water

Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency. (1996)

Notes: EPA/800-R-96-001.

Watersheds/ Water quality/

 Environmental programs/ Clean Water Act
This citation is from

54. Economic incentives for agricultural
nonpoint source pollution control.

Malik, A. S.; Larson, B. A.; and
Ribaudo, M.

Water Resources
30 (3): 471-480.
(May 1994-June 1994)

NAL Call #:  
292.9-Am34; ISSN: 0043-1370 [WARBAQ].
Notes: Includes references.

water pollution/ pollution control/
environmental legislation/ incentives/ economic policy/ Clean Water

Abstract: The limited success of
command-and-control policies for reducing nonpoint source (NPS)
water pollution mandated under the Federal Water Pollution Control
Act (FWPCA) has prompted increased interest in economic incentive
policies as an alternative control mechanism. A variety of measures
have been proposed ranging from fairly minor modifications of
existing policies to substantial revisions including watershed-wide
polices that rely on economic incentives. While greater use of
economic incentive policies, such as environmental bonds and
point/nonpoint source trading is being advocated in the
reauthorization of the CWA, the expected effects of individual
proposals will be modest. The characteristics of NPS pollution,
namely uncertainty and asymmetrical information, underscores that
there is no single, ideal policy instrument for controlling the
many types of agricultural NPS water pollution. Some of the usual
incentive-based policies, such as effluent taxes, are not well
suited to the task. Individual incentive policies proposed for the
reauthorized CWA, such as pollution trading or deposit/refund
systems, are not broadly applicable for heterogeneous pollution
situations. Economic incentive policies may be appropriate in some
cases, and command-and-control policies will be preferable in
others and may in fact complement incentive policies.

This citation is from

55. Efficiency of U.S. conservation-compliance

Govindasamy, R. and Huffman,

8 (2): 173-185.
(Feb. 1993)

NAL Call #:  
HD1401.A47; ISSN: 0169-5150 [AGECE6].
Notes: Includes references.

erosion/ control/ erosion control/
soil conservation/ federal programs/ opportunity costs/ losses from
soil/ equations/ production costs/ profits/ soil types/
mathematical models/ efficiency/ United States/ Iowa/ cost

Abstract: Under the conservation-compliance
program, most of the individual producers are forced to cut their
soil erosion to 7 t per acre annually irrespective of the marginal
cost of controlling soil erosion. In a system where coupons to a
ton of soil loss were issued to producers and traded, the marginal
cost of controlling soil loss within each soil type and across
different soil types would be equalized. An instrumental variable
procedure was used to determine the effect of soil erosion on net
profits. The results for Iowa show that there is considerable
difference in the marginal opportunity cost of controlling soil
erosion between soil types. By assigning one ton of erosion to Iowa
soil type Downs (5-10% slope) instead of Clarion (2-5% slope),
there is a savings of $5.00 per acre for the society as a whole.
The tradable coupon system is not only efficient, but will also
bring in more land under soil conservation.

This citation is from

56. Estuarine Management from a Global
Economic Perspective.

Bundy, M. M.
Water Science and
26 (12):
2735-2739. (1992)

NAL Call #:  
Estuaries/ Water quality/

 Environmental programs/ Watersheds/ Chesapeake Bay
This citation is from

57. Feasibility of point-nonpoint source
trading for managing agricultural pollutant loadings to coastal

Crutchfield, S. R.; Letson, D.;
and Malik, A. S.

Water Resources
30 (10): 2825-2836.
(Oct. 1994)

NAL Call #:  
292.8-W295; ISSN: 0043-1397 [WRERAQ].
Notes: Includes references.

pollutants/ agriculture/ water
pollution/ point sources/ pollution control/ water quality/
watersheds/ coastal areas/ feasibility/ United States/ nonpoint
source pollution / point source pollution

Abstract: A recent focus of water quality policy
discussions has been the trading of pollution abatement between
point and nonpoint sources. Point-nonpoint trading would allow
point sources to sponsor nonpoint source controls rather than
install further controls of their own. If nonpoint source loadings
are significant and the marginal costs of their control are lower
than for additional point source controls, water quality goals
could be met at lower cost with trading. We isolate difficulties
particular to incentive policies such as point-nonpoint trading and
then screen coastal watersheds for those satisfying conditions that
play a major role in determining whether trading can improve water
quality. We follow the recent Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization
Amendments in emphasizing agriculture, the single largest cause of
nonpoint source pollution. Our screening analysis provides an
initial, empirical assessment of the feasibility of trading for
managing agricultural land use to protect coastal water quality. We
also illustrate the additional analysis required to quantify the
potential for successful trading in those watersheds which meet our
screening criteria.

This citation is from

58. Fertile ground: Nutrient trading's
potential to cost-effectively improve water quality.

Faeth, Paul.

Washington, DC: World Resources
Institute; viii, 50 p.: ill., map. (2000)

Notes: Includes bibliographical references (p.

NAL Call #:  TD427.N87-F33-2000; ISBN: 1569731977

Nutrient pollution of
water---United States/ Water quality management---United

This citation is from

59. Furthering 'beyond-compliance'

Linett, B.; Hartig, J. H.; Wise,
P. L.; Mehan, G. T.; Tosine, H. M.; and Gulezian, G.

Water Environment and
10 (11):
 63-68. (1998)

NAL Call #:  
TD419.W37; ISSN: 1044-9493

Environmental programs/ Water
quality/ Water pollution/ Pollution prevention/ Great

This citation is from

60. Green evolution: Are economic incentives
the next step in nonpoint source pollution control?

Young, T. F. and Karkoski,

Water Policy 2 (3): 151-173. (2000); ISSN: 1366-7017

Agricultural pollution/ Government
policies/ Water pollution control/  Economics/ Environmental
incentives/ United States, California/ Water Quality Control/
Nonpoint Pollution Sources/ Agricultural Runoff/ Best Management
Practices/ Pricing/  Costs/ Pollution control / Environmental
protection/ Selenium/ Pollution legislation/ Pollution (Nonpoint
sources)/ Runoff (Agricultural)/ Charges/ Costs/ United States,
California/ incentives/ Environmental action/ Water quality
control/ Protective measures and control/ Water Quality

Abstract: Pollution from agriculture remains one of
the United States' most vexing water pollution problems.
Conventional wisdom asserts that agricultural pollution control is
best accomplished using voluntary 'Best Management Practices', and
that quantitative discharge limits and economic incentives are
impractical. Recent experience in California demonstrates
otherwise. Here, quantitative limits on selenium discharges have
been imposed on a regional consortium of farm districts. The
consortium has developed a relatively streamlined institutional
system that uses tradable discharge permits to enforce the limits.
Individual districts use tiered water pricing and other mechanisms
to control discharges. Agricultural pollution from the region has

© Cambridge Scientific Abstracts

61. Green payments for nonpoint pollution

Horan, R. D.; Shortle, J. S.; and
Abler, D. G.

American Journal of
Agricultural Economics
 81 (5): 1210-1215. (1999)
NAL Call #:  
280.8-J822; ISSN: 0002-9092 [AJAEBA].

Notes: Paper presented at the annual meeting of the
American Agricultural Economics Association, August 8-11, 1999,
Nashville, Tennessee.  Includes references.

pollution control/ incentives/
federal programs/ support measures/ environmental protection/ water
quality/ United States/ Clean Water Action Plan

This citation is from

62. Has the time come to regulate farmers: We
already do, but how do we decide what is enough, how clean is

Allee, D. J. and Dworsky, L.

Water Resources
(88): 21-22.

NAL Call #:  
Notes: Special issue on the Clean Water

Agricultural management/
Environmental Policy/ Clean Water Act/ Pollution control/ Nonpoint
source pollution/ Water quality

This citation is from

63. Implementing domestic tradable permits for
environmental protection.

Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development.

Paris, France : Organisation for
Economic Co-operation and Development.

252 p. : col. ill.

Notes: Includes bibliographical references.;
ISBN: 9264170227

Emissions trading/ Environmental
policy/ Economic aspects/ OECD countries/ Environmental

This citation is from

64. Incentive based conservation policy and
the changing role of government.

Sohngen, Brent
DeKalb, Illinois.: American
Farmland Trust Center for Agriculture in the Environment.

Notes: Center for Agriculture in the Environment
Working Paper Series: CAE/WP98-6.

NAL Call #:  HD256-.W67-no.-98-6

Environmental policy/ Water
quality/ Economics/ United States

This citation is from

65. Increasing regulators' confidence in
point-nonpoint pollutant trading schemes.

Taff, S. J. and Senjem,

Water Resources
32 (6): 1187-1193.
(Dec. 1996)

NAL Call #:  
292.9-Am34; ISSN: 0043-1370 [WARBAQ].

Notes: Includes references.
water pollution/ point sources/
pollutants/ pollution control/ watershed management/ water quality/
costs/ regulation/ uncertainty/ Oregon/ nonpoint sources/ water
quality uncertainty/ practice uncertainty/ enforcement uncertainty/
price uncertainty

Abstract: One of the principal stumbling blocks to
regulatory agencies' adopting pollutant trading schemes is the
complex of uncertainties surrounding any change in institutions.
This is especially true if nonpoint pollution sources are to be
involved along with point sources. Regulators are understandably
reluctant to switch from tried-and-true point source permit
systems, even if trading schemes can be shown (on paper, at least)
to result in lower public expenditures. We propose a set of
practical criteria for point- nonpoint pollutant trading systems
that promise to increase regulators' confidence that the new system
will be equally effective in controlling pollution and at the same
time more likely to capture efficiencies in pollution reduction

This citation is from

66. Innovative Water Quality-Based Permitting:
A Policy Perspective.

Downing, D. and Sessions,

Journal of the Water
Pollution Control Federation
57 (5): 358-365. (1985)
NAL Call #:  

Water quality/ Pollution control/
Water pollution/ Nonpoint source pollution/ Environmental

This citation is from

67. International trading arrangements, the
intensity of resource use, and environmental quality.

Young, M. D.
In: Agriculture and water quality:
International perspectives/ Braden, J. B.

and Lovejoy, S. B.
L. Rienner: Boulder, Colo., 1989;
pp. 197-215.

Notes: Includes references.
NAL Call #:  HC79.W32A37

international trade/ environmental

This citation is from

68. Lessons learned about the performance of
USDA agricultural nonpoint source pollution programs.

Ribaudo, M. O.
Journal of Soil and Water
53 (1): 4-10.

NAL Call #:  
56.8-J822; ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3].
Notes: Includes references.

water quality/ water pollution/
pollution control/ environmental protection/ federal programs /
USDA/ program evaluation/ United States

This citation is from

69. Managing the Water Environment: Prospects
for Change.

Zabel, T. and Rees, Y.
Water Law 9 (5-6): 195-203. (1999); ISSN: 0959-9754

Effluents/ Economics/ Environmental
programs/ Water pollution/ United Kingdom

This citation is from

70. A new tool for water quality: Making
watershed-based trading work for you.

National Wildlife

Montpelier, Vt.: National Wildlife
Federation. (1999)

Notes: Title from title page of source code document.
 "June 1999"  

Includes bibliographical

NAL Call #:  TD365-.N48-1999

Water quality management/ Watershed

This citation is from

71. Nonpoint pollution policies and politics:
The role of economic incentives.

Braden, J. B.

American Water Resources
Association Technical Publication Series (TPS)
57-65. (Nov. 1988)
NAL Call #:  
TC401.A5; ISSN: 0066-1171.

Notes: In the series analytic: Nonpoint pollution:
1988--policy, economy, management, and appropriate technology /
edited by V. Novotny.  Includes references.

pollution by
agriculture/ water pollution/ environmental pollution/ control/
programs/ environmental policy/ incentives/ subsidies/ abatement
subsidies/ transferable discharge permits

This citation is from

72. Nonpoint sources.

Line, D. E.; McLaughlin, R. A.;
Osmond, D. L.; Jennings, G. D.; Harman, W. A.; Lombardo, L. A. ;
and Spooner, J.

Water Environment
70 (4): 895-912.
(June 1998)

NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47; ISSN: 1061-4303 [WAERED].

Notes: Includes references.
water pollution/ groundwater
pollution/ pollutants/ pesticide residues/ leaching/ runoff/
pollution control/ low input agriculture/ best management
practices/ nonpoint source pollution

Abstract: Annual literature review covers multiple
aspects of nonpoint source pollution and includes references to
articles on pollution trading.

This citation is from

73. Nonpoint sources.
Line, D. E.; Jennings, G. D.;
McLaughlin, R. A.; Osmond, D. L.; Harman, W. A.; Lombardo, L. A. ;
Tweedy, K. L.; and Spooner, J.

Water Environment
71 (5): 1054-1069.
(Aug. 1999)

NAL Call #:  
TD419.R47; ISSN: 1061-4303 [WAERED].

Notes: Includes references.
water pollution/ groundwater
pollution/ groundwater/ surface water/ water quality/ pollutants/
runoff/ leaching/ agricultural land/ agricultural chemicals/
pollution control/ literature reviews/ nonpoint source pollution/
best management practices

Abstract: Annual literature review covers multiple
aspects of nonpoint source pollution and includes references to
articles on pollution trading.

This citation is from

74. Optimizing point/nonpoint source tradeoff
in the Holston River near Kingsport, Tennessee.

Podar, M. K.; Jaksch, J. A.;
Sessions, S. L.; Crossman, J. C.; Ruane, R. J.; Hauser, G.; and
Burmaster, D. E.

In: Perspectives on nonpoint
source pollution: Proceedings of a national conference.

(Held 19 May 1985-22 May 1985 at
Kansas City, Missouri.)

Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Regul and
Standards; pp. 417-424 ; 1985.

Notes: Includes references.

NAL Call #:  TD223.P39
river water/ water pollution/ point
source/ pollution by agriculture/ waste disposal/ biological oxygen
demand/ waste water treatment/ simulation models/ Tennessee

This citation is from

75. Options for agricultural nonpoint-source
pollution control.

Ribaudo, M. O.
Journal of Soil and Water
47 (1): 42-46.
(Jan. 1992-Feb. 1992)

NAL Call #:  
56.8-J822; ISSN: 0022-4561 [JSWCA3].

Notes: Includes references.
pollution/ control/ pollution
control/ water pollution/ drainage/ leaching/ runoff/ pesticides/
sediment/ soil conservation/ land policy/ USDA/ land banks/ federal
programs/ United States

This citation is from

76. Point-nonpoint effluent trading in
watersheds: A review and critique.

Jarvie, M. and Solomon,

Environmental Impact
Assessment Review
18 (2):
135-157. (1998)

NAL Call #:  
TD194.6.E56; ISSN: 0195-9255

Watersheds/ Water pollution/
Environmental policies/ Economics/ Nonpoint source

This citation is from

77. Point-nonpoint nutrient trading in the
Susquehanna River basin.

Horan, R. D.; Shortle, J. S.; and
Abler, D. G.

Water Resources
38 (5): 8-1-8/13.

NAL Call #:  
292.8-W295; ISSN: 0043-1397
Water quality/ Nonpoint source
pollution/ Pollution load/ Environmental programs/ Market
development/ Economics

This citation is from

78. Point/nonpoint source pollution reduction
trading: An interpretive survey.

Letson, D.
Natural Resources
32 (2): 219-232.
(Spring 1992)

NAL Call #:  
HC79.E5N3; ISSN: 0028-0739 [NRJOA].

Notes: Includes references.
water pollution/ cost control/
literature reviews/ United States

This citation is from

79. Point-nonpoint source trading for managing
agricultural pollutant loadings: Prospects for coastal

Letson, David.; Crutchfield,
Stephen R.; Malik, Arun S.; and United States.

Dept. of Agriculture. Economic
Research Service.

Washington, DC: U.S. Dept. of
Agriculture, Economic Research Service;

vii, 14 p. : ill., map.

Notes: Cover title.  "September 1993"--P. [iii].

 "Water quality."  
Includes bibliographical
references (p. 13-14).

NAL Call #:  A281.9-Ag8A-no.674
Water quality management---United
States/ Agricultural pollution---United States/ Nonpoint source
pollution---United States

This citation is from

80. Point-Nonpoint Source Trading: Looking
beyond Potential Cost Savings.

Bartfeld, E.
Environmental Law
23 (1): 43-106. (1993)
Environmental policy/ Laws and
regulations/ Water quality/ Water pollution/ Nonpoint source
pollution/ Pollution prevention/ Economics

This citation is from

81. Point/nonpoint source trading program for
Dillon Reservoir and planned extensions for other areas.

Elmore, T.; Jaksch, J.; and
Downing, D.

In: Perspectives on nonpoint
source pollution: Proceedings of a national conference.

(Held 19 May 1985-22 May 1985 at
Kansas City, Missouri.)

Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water

Regulations and Standards; pp.
413-416.; 1985.

Notes: Includes references.
NAL Call #:  TD223.P39
water reservoirs/ water pollution/
point source/ pollution by agriculture/ control/ programs/ water
composition and quality/ monitoring/ Colorado  

This citation is from

82. Point Sources-Nonpoint Sources Trading in
the Lake Dillon Watershed:

A final report.
Northwest Colorado Council of

Frisco, Colo.: Northwest Colorado
Council of Governments. (1984)

Notes: Final Report 1984. 45 p.
Nonpoint source pollution/
Wastewater treatment/ Water pollution/ Phosphorus/ Eutrophication/
Water quality trading

This citation is from

83. Policy objectives and economic incentives
for controlling agricultural sources of nonpoint

Horan, R. D. and Ribaudo, M.

Journal of the American
Water Resources Association
35 (5): 1023-1035. (Oct. 1999)
NAL Call #:  
GB651.W315; ISSN: 1093-474X [JWRAF5]

agriculture/ water pollution/
pollution control/ water quality/ economics/ incentives/ policy/
costs/ USDA/ United States  

Abstract: In this paper, we review the physical
characteristics of agricultural nonpoint pollution and discuss the
implications for setting appropriate pollution control objectives
and designing incentive-based pollution control policies. First, we
discuss that policy objectives must be designed carefully to ensure
positive economic net benefits can be expected from pollution
control. Next, we review several classes of incentives and
recommend the use of design-based incentives (i.e., incentives
based on variable input use, management practices, and land use)
for controlling nonpoint pollution. Cost-effectiveness requires
that incentives elicit three types of responses from farmers: (1)
use variable inputs at appropriate levels, (2) adopt appropriate
management practices, and (3) make appropriate land use decisions
at the extensive margin of production. If a set of incentives fails
to induce the correct responses, the resulting runoff levels and
hence ambient pollution levels and damages will be too large
relative to policy goals. A review of existing programs suggests
that greater program coordination and improved targeting of
incentives are needed for further water quality improvements.
Alternatively, properly designed market-based systems may be
effective alternatives. These systems would reduce overall
pollution control costs by allowing markets to allocate point
source and nonpoint source control costs more

This citation is from

84. Pollution Permits and Markets for Water

O'Neill, W. B.
Madison, Wisc.: University of
Wisconsin, 1980.

Notes: PhD Thesis
Water pollution/ Water quality/
Models/ Program planning/ Economics

This citation is from

85. Pronsolino v. Marcus.
Shosteck, D.
Ecology Law
28 (2): 327-354.

Water pollution/ Nonpoint source
pollution/ Water quality/ Clean Water Act/ Pollution load/ Laws and
regulations/  Environmental protection/ Environmental policy/
total maximum daily load

This citation is from

86. The regulation of water pollution permit
trading under conditions of varying streamflow and temperature
Wisconsin permit market system, Transferable Discharge

O'Neil, W. B.

Land Economics 6: 219-231. (1983)
NAL Call #:  
HD1401.L3; ISSN: 0075-7837.
Notes: Includes references.

This citation is from

87. The role of education in nonpoint source
pollution control policy.

Ribaudo, M. O. and Horan, R.

Review of Agricultural
21 (2): 331-343.
(Fall 1999-Winter 1999)

NAL Call #:  
HD1773.A3N6; ISSN: 1058-7195.
Notes: Includes references.

water quality/ water pollution/
pollution control/ educational programs/ program evaluation/
profitability/ environmental policy/ United States

Abstract: Education is often used to provide
producers with information on how to operate more efficiently with
current technologies or on profitable new technologies that
generate less pollution. While such "win-win" solutions to water
quality problems are attractive, we use a simple economic framework
to show that education cannot be considered a strong tool for water
quality protection. Its success depends on a number of factors
related to profitability and altruism, and "win-win" solutions are
not always guaranteed, even when they appear to exist. Evidence
suggests that net returns are the chief concern of producers when
they adopt alternative management practices.

This citation is from

88. Search for the Northwest Passage: The
assignation of NSP (non-point source pollution) rights in nutrient
trading programs.

Collentine, D.

Water Science and
45 (9): 227-234.

NAL Call #:  
TD420.A1P7; ISSN: 0273-1223.
Notes: Special issue on Diffuse/Non-point Pollution
and Watershed Management.

Nonpoint source pollution/ Water
Pollution/ Water quality standards/  Environmental policy/
Pollution load/ Law and legislation/ Water Quality

This citation is from

89. Simulation of a two-pollutant, two-season
pollution offset system for the Colorado River of Texas below

Letson, D.

Water Resources
28 (5): 1311-1318.
(May 1992)

NAL Call #:  
292.8-W295; ISSN: 0043-1397 [WRERAO].
Notes: Includes references.

river water/ water pollution/
pollutants/ water quality/ environmental impact/ seasonal
variation/ simulation models/ mathematical models/ Texas/ pollution

Abstract: A pollution offset system is a discharge
permit system in which transfers are made subject to a restriction
that no violations of water quality standards occur at any
location. Simulation of a pollution offset system with seasonal
variation and multiple pollutants allows for comparison of the
savings possible from these design features. A simulation model
(Qual-TX) developed by the Texas Water Commission is applied to a
case study region near Austin, Texas, yielding impact coefficients
for an economic optimization model without investment whose least
cost solution represents the theoretical equilibrium of a pollution
offset system. The optimization model finds short-run savings of
17.5% for a pollution offset system, as compared to a command and
control policy that would also achieve the dissolved oxygen
standard. Seasonal variation in permit design produces minimal
effects; virtually all savings come from allowing pollution offsets
for the two different pollutants.

This citation is from

90. Theory and Practice of Pollution Credit
Trading in Water Quality Management.

Hoag, Dana L. and Hughes-Popp,
Jennie S.

Review of Agricultural
19 (2): 252-262.

NAL Call #:  
HD1773.A3N6; ISSN: 1058-7195

Economics/ Water quality/
 Pollution control/ Environmental policy

This citation is from

91. Trading between point and nonpoint
sources: A cost effective method for improving water quality ---
The case of Dillon Reservoir.

Elmore, Tom and United States.
Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Policy, Planning and

Washington, D.C.: U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency; 20 leaves: maps. (1984)

Notes: Presented at 57th WPCF Conference (New Orleans,
La.);  Cover title.  "The work for this study was funded
by a grant."  Includes bibliographical references (leaf

NAL Call #:  TD224.C6T72

Water quality
management---Colorado---Dillon Reservoir/ Dillon

This citation is from

92. Trading in the Tar-Pamlico.
Hall, J. C. and Howett, C.

Water Environment and
6 (7): 58-61.

NAL Call #:  
TD419.W37; ISSN: 1044-9493
Watershed management/ Water
quality/ Nonpoint source pollution/ Economics/ Laws and

This citation is from

93. Trading on water: Trading can be a cheaper
answer to water quality problems, creating a win-win solution for

Greenhalgh, Suzie and Faeth,

Forum for Applied Research
and Public Policy
16 (1):
71-77. (2001);
ISSN: 0887-8218

Water quality/ Economics/
Environmental policy/ Water pollution/ Pollution control/ United

This citation is from

94. Transferable Discharge Permit Trading
under Varying Stream Conditions: A Simulation of Multiperiod Permit
Market Performance on the Fox River, Wisconsin.

O'Neil, W. B.
Water Resources
19 (3): 608-612.

NAL Call #:  
Water quality/ Water pollution/
Market development/ Economics/ Planning/ Environmental

This citation is from

95. Transferable Discharge Permits and
Economic Efficiency: The Fox River.

O'Neill, W.; David, M.; Moore, C.;
and Joeres, E.

Journal of Environmental
Economics and Management
346-355. (1983)

NAL Call #:  
Water quality/ Economics/
Simulation models/ Water pollution/ Pollution control

This citation is from

96. The U.S. environmental policy experience:
A critique with suggestions for the European community.

Howe, C. W.
Environmental and Resource
3 (4): 359-379.

Environmental policy/ United
States/ Water quality/ Economics

This citation is from

97. Using historical biological data to
evaluate status and trends in the Big Darby Creek Watershed (Ohio,

Schubauer Berigan, M. K.; Smith,
M.; Hopkins, J.; and Cormier, S. M.

Environmental Toxicology
and Chemistry
19 (4,pt.2):
1097-1105. (2000)

NAL Call #:  
QH545.A1E58; ISSN: 0730-7268 [ETOCDK].
Notes: In the Special Issue: Ecosystem Vulnerability.
Paper presented at the American Society for Testing and
Materials-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Society of
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Symposium, August 17-20,
1998, Seattle, Washington.  Includes references.

watersheds/ watershed management/
biological indicators/ trends/ Ohio  

Abstract: Assessment of watershed ecological status
and trends is challenging for managers who lack randomly or
consistently sampled data, or monitoring programs developed from a
watershed perspective. This study investigated analytical
approaches for assessment of status and trends using data collected
by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency as part of state
requirements for reporting stream quality and managing discharge
permits. Fish and benthic macroinvertebrate metrics collected
during three time periods (1979-1981, 1986-1989, 1990-1993) were
analyzed for the mainstem of Big Darby Creek, a high-quality
warm-water stream in central Ohio, USA. Analysis of variance of
transformed metrics showed significant differences among time
periods for six fish metrics. In addition, significant positive
linear trends were observed for four metrics plus the index of
biotic integrity score, and negative linear trends for two fish
metrics. An analysis of a subset of sites paired by location and
sampled over the three periods reflected findings using all
available data for the mainstem. In particular, mean estimates were
very similar between the reduced and full data sets, whereas
standard error estimates were much greater in the reduced subset.
Analysis of serial autocorrelation patterns among the fish metrics
over the three time periods suggests changes in the nature of
stressors over time. A comparison within the most recent time
period showed significantly better condition for Big Darby mainstem
than for Hellbranch Run (the easternmost subwatershed), after
adjusting for watershed size. The consistency of paired and
nonrandomized results suggested that either type of data might be
judiciously used for this watershed assessment. Results indicated
that overall biological condition of the mainstem of the Big Darby
Creek watershed has significantly improved since the early

This citation is from

98. Using Market Incentives to Protect Water
Quality in America.

Willey, Z.
Water Resources
(88): 43-51.

NAL Call #:  
Notes: Special issue on the Clean Water

Water quality/ Economics/ Pollution
control/ Nonpoint source pollution/ Water quality standards/
Environmental fate

This citation is from

99. Water pollution: Pollutant trading could
reduce compliance costs if uncertainties are resolved --- Report to
the Chairman, Committee on Public Works and Transportation, House
of Representatives.

United States. General Accounting
Office and United States. Congress. House. Committee on Public
Works and Transportation.

Washington, D.C.: U.S. General
Accounting Office; 15 p. (1992)

Notes: Cover title.  "June 1992."
 "GAO/RCED-92-153."  "B-247972.2"--P. 1.

Includes bibliographical
references.  SUDOCS: GA 1.13:RCED-92-153.

NAL Call #:  TD420.U542-1992

United States Environmental
Protection Agency---Auditing/ Water Pollution---United
States---Prevention---Cost control/ Water Pollution---Government
policy---United States

This citation is from

100. Water quality impacts of biochemical
oxygen demand under transferable discharge permit programs
[Delaware River estuary and Willamette River].

Brill, E. D. Jr.; Eheart, J. W.;
Kshirsagar, S. R.; and Lence, B. J.

Water Resources
20 (4): 445-455.
(Apr. 1984)

NAL Call #:  
292.8-W295; ISSN: 0043-1397 [WRERA].
Notes: Includes references.

water composition and quality/
waste water disposal/ transfers/ regulations/ environmental
assessment/ water management/ United States/ rivers/

This citation is from

101. Water Quality Management Simulation

Chiang, Shin An.
Stillwater, Okla.: Oklahoma State
University; 158 p. (1986)

Notes: Thesis (Ph. D.); Includes bibliographic

Water quality/ Water quality
standards/ Pollution load/ Simulation models/ Cost

This citation is from

102. Watershed-Based Effluent Trading: The
Nonpoint Source Challenge.

Stephenson, Kurt; Norris,
Patricia; and Shabman, Leonard.

Contemporary Economic
16 (4): 412-421.

NAL Call #:  
HD72.C6; ISSN: 1074-3529

Economics/ Water quality/
 Pollution control/ Environmental policy

This citation is from

103. Watershed-based permitting: Wave of the
future of water quality management.

Galya, D.; Mitchell, D.; and
Gerath, M.

Environmental Regulation
and Permitting
7 (4): 61-66.

 (1998); ISSN: 1083-6624
Watersheds/ Economics/ Water
quality/ Pollution control/ Environmental policy

This citation is from

104. Watershed-based Pollution trading
Development and Current Trading Programs.

McGinnis, S. L.
Environmental Engineering
and Policy
2 (3): 161-170.
Watersheds/ Water quality/
 Water Pollution/ Environmental policy/ Water quality
standards/ Watershed management

This citation is from

105. The welfare sensitivity of
agri-environmental instruments.

Horan, R. D.; Claassen, R.; and
Howe, L.

Journal of Agricultural and
Resource Economics
26 (2):
368-386. (Dec. 2001)

NAL Call #:  

HD1750.W4; ISSN: 1068-5502.
Notes: Includes references.
pollution control/ environmental
policy/ emission/ simulation/ welfare economics/ mathematical
models/ uncertainty/ comparisons/ efficiency/ social benefits/
fertilizers/ runoff/ statistical analysis

This citation is from

[Table of Contents]


abatement costs    24
abatement subsidies

access    6
acid rain    1, 13
Aerosol    23

Afforestation    25, 27
agricultural chemicals
agricultural land
   43, 62

agricultural pollution
   60, 18
pollution---Government policy---United States
pollution---United States
Agricultural Practices

agricultural runoff
   60, 18
agriculture    57, 83

air pollution    5, 35
air quality    5
ambient permits system
animal wastes    18

Artificial Wetlands
Association    23
Asthma    23
atmosphere    35

Atmospheric Particles
Australia    25, 27
Banks    26
best management
   60, 72, 73

biodiversity    2
Biological diversity
biological indicators
biological oxygen

Brackish water    3
Calibrations    26
Carbon    7, 10, 31, 35
Carbon cycle    25, 27

carbon sequestration
   31, 35
case studies    11
Catchment hydrology
Charges    60

Chemical oxygen demand
Chesapeake Bay    47, 56
Children    23
Chile    17

China    32
clay fraction    35
Clean Water Act    47, 53, 54, 62, 85
Clean Water Action

climatic change    13
Climatic Changes    16
coastal areas    57
Coastal Zone Resources and

college students    48
Colorado    51, 81
Comparability    19
comparisons    4, 105

compost    18
composting    18
Computable General
computer applications

Conservation    2
conservation tillage
Conservation, wildlife
management and recreation

control    55, 71, 75, 81
Cost    20
Cost Analysis    10, 101
cost benefit analysis

   6, 50, 17
cost control    9, 78
cost effectiveness
cost functions    55

Costs    2, 4, 48, 60, 65, 24, 83, 28, 32, 38
crop residues    35
Cultivated Lands    10
Data Acquisition    10

Data Production Chain
decision making    3, 17, 28, 36, 39
Decomposition    25
Delaware    100

demand    17, 33
Design    16
detention basins    15
Development projects

drainage    15, 75, 36
dynamic models    31

Economic analysis
   2, 43
Economic Aspects    2, 26, 32
economic policy    54
Economics    1, 2, 46, 12, 60, 64, 69, 76, 77, 80, 83, 84, 90, 32, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98, 102, 103

ecosystems    3
educational programs
Efficiency    5, 55, 31, 34, 38, 105
Effluents    69

Emergency    23
emission    1, 31, 35, 105
emissions    11
emissions permit

Emissions Trading
Emissions trading OECD
Enforcement and

Environment    39
Environmental action
   2, 60, 18, 26, 32

   2, 26, 29, 32
Environmental fate
   43, 98
environmental impact
   12, 89

   54, 26
environmental models
Environmental policies
Environmental Policy

   2, 4, 46, 13, 14, 62, 64, 67, 71, 80, 85, 87, 88, 90, 93, 96, 102, 1
, 104, 105

Environmental policy Economic
aspects OECD countries
policy---Mathematical models

Environmental programs
   47, 50, 51, 53, 56, 59, 66, 69, 77, 94
   2, 3, 60, 61, 63, 68, 85, 26, 31
   2, 26
Equations    52, 55, 17, 30

erosion    55
erosion control    55
estuaries    42, 3, 11, 56
Eutrophication    82, 30

Evaluation process
   2, 3, 26
experiments    48
externalities    5, 6, 48
Externality    28

farm inputs    17
farm management    36
feasibility    57
federal programs    52, 55, 61, 68, 75, 40

fertilizers    105
fishery management
flood control    15
Florida    15

Flow Discharge    16
forth estuary    11
Freshwater    26, 32
Freshwater pollution

Game Theory    29
General    39
General papers on

Global Pollution    14
Global Warming    10, 13, 31
Government policies
government programs

Government regulations
Great Lakes    59
Greenhouse Gases    14, 35

groundwater    4, 73
groundwater pollution
   72, 73
Habitat    2
Habitat improvement

Habitats    2
Holston Basin    39
Holston River    39
hydraulic structures

hydrodynamics    15
Hydroelectric power
Hydrology    16, 39

Incentives    54, 60, 61, 71, 83, 29, 34
Industrial Emissions
industry    13
Infant Mortality    23

information    38
information services
international trade

investment    26, 40
Iowa    55
irrigation    12, 17

irrigation water    36
Lake Biwa    30
land banks    75
land development    40

land policy    75, 40
Land Use    16
Law and legislation
law enforcement    24

Laws and regulations
   80, 85, 92
leaching    4, 72, 73, 75
Legislation    2
linear programming

literature reviews
   73, 78
litter    33
losses from soil    55

low input agriculture
maize    35
Market development
   77, 94
Marketable Permits

markets    48, 36
mathematical models
   6, 55, 15, 16, 24, 26, 89, 105
mathematics    27

Michigan    45, 22
Model Studies    16, 26
Modeling    27
modelling    39

models    4, 17, 21, 84, 25, 27, 33
monitoring    5, 7, 19, 21, 22, 81, 38
Monterey pine    25
Nanpan River    32

Nature conservation
   2, 12
nitrates    4
nitrogen    42
Non Point Source
   20, 34

Nonpoint    20
nonpoint pollution
   18, 34
nonpoint pollution
   43, 60, 18
nonpoint source
   45, 50, 51, 57, 62, 66, 72, 73, 22, 76, 77, 80, 82, 85, 88, 28, 29, 92, 98

Nonpoint source
pollution---United States
nonpoint sources    42, 65
North Carolina    42
Nutrient pollution of
water---United States

nutrient sources    42
nutrients    42, 9, 18, 38
Ohio    97
opportunity costs

Optimization    26
Oregon    65
oxygen requirement

Particulate Air
Pennsylvania    50
Performance Evaluation
Permits    7, 48, 11, 18, 28, 31, 32

pesticide residues
pesticides    75
phosphorus    9, 21, 22, 82, 33, 38
Pinus radiata    25

Planning    94
Plantations    27
Point Non Point Effluent
point source    74, 81

point source pollution
point sources    42, 57, 65
Policies    2, 26
policy    12, 83

Policy Making    2
pollutants    42, 9, 57, 65, 72, 73, 89, 33

pollution    1, 75
Pollution Abatement

pollution by
   71, 74, 81
Pollution control
   42, 46, 52, 11, 54, 57, 60, 61, 62, 65, 66, 68, 72, 73, 75, 24, 83, 87, 89, 28, 90, 31, 32, 93, 33, 95, 98, 102, 103, 38, 39, 105
Pollution legislation

Pollution load    77, 85, 88, 101
Pollution (Nonpoint
Pollution prevention
   59, 80
poultry    33

practice uncertainty
Prevention and control
   32, 39
price uncertainty
prices    31

Pricing    60
probabilistic models
production costs    55
productivity    17

profitability    87
profits    6, 55
program evaluation
   68, 87
Program planning    84

programs    71, 81
Protective measures and
   2, 60, 26
ratios    52, 24
Receiving Waters    32

reclamation    40
Reforestation    25
Regulation    65, 28
regulations    4, 100

Rehabilitation    26
Remote Sensing    10, 35
research programs
resource allocation

resource management
resource utilization
   5, 17
resources management
   2, 3

restoration    2, 40
risk    52, 39
risks    39
River    34

River basins    39
river water    74, 89
rivers    100
runoff    72, 73, 75, 105

Runoff (Agricultural)
rural communities
salinity    6
satellite imagery

Satellite Technology
Scotland    11
seasonal variation

sediment    75
Selenium    60
Sensitivity Analysis
Simulation    2, 7, 26, 105

simulation models
   15, 74, 89, 95, 36, 101
social benefits    105
social costs    52
Soil    25, 27

soil conservation
   55, 75
soil types    55
Soil water plant
Soils    16

Solver    30
Source Pollution
Sources and fate of
   18, 32, 39
Southern California

statistical analysis
   35, 105
stochastic models
Stochastic Process

stochastic processes
Stream flow    16
structural design
subsidies    71

sulfur    1
support measures    61
surface water    73
suspended solids    9

sustainability    33
taxation    18
taxes    4

teaching methods    48
Tennessee    74
Texas    16, 89
Tillage    10, 35

Topographic features
Topography    16
total maximum daily
   21, 85
tradable permits    32

tradable pollution
trade    5, 6, 38
trading    24
Transaction Costs

Transferable Discharge
   71, 28, 30
transfers    100
trends    97

Trinity River    16
U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA)
Uncertainty    7, 11, 65, 20, 24, 105
United Kingdom    69

United States    46, 52, 55, 57, 61, 16, 64, 68, 75, 78, 24, 83, 87, 93, 96, 36, 100, 39
United States, California    2, 60
United States Environmental
Protection Agency---Auditing
USA    3

USDA    68, 75, 83
very large eddy
Visits    23
VLES    30

Waste disposal    74, 32
Waste water    32, 39
waste water disposal
waste water treatment

Wastewater discharges
Wastewater Disposal
Wastewater treatment

water allocation    6, 12, 17, 36
Water authorities
Water budget    16
water composition and
   81, 100

water flow    15
water management    100, 38
water policy    5, 17, 28, 36, 38
water pollution    43, 4, 46, 51, 11, 54, 57, 59, 65, 66, 68, 69, 73, 74, 75, 21, 22, 76,
78, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 93, 94, 95, 104, 38,

Water pollution
   60, 18, 32, 39
Water Pollution---Government
policy---United States
   41, 99
Water Pollution
Water Pollution---United
States---Prevention---Cost control

water quality    42, 43, 46, 47, 50, 9, 51, 52, 53, 11, 56, 57, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 65,
66, 68, 20, 77, 80, 24, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 89, 28, 90, 92, 93, 33, 94, 95, 96, 98, 36, 101, 102, 103, 104, 39

Water Quality Control
Water quality
Water quality
management---Colorado---Dillon Reservoir

Water quality
management---United States
   58, 79
Water quality
   88, 98, 101, 104
Water quality trading
water quality

water reservoirs    81
water resources    6, 39
water supply    6
water use    6

water use efficiency
   17, 36
Water & Wastewater
Watershed    20

watershed management
   42, 3, 9, 65, 70, 92, 33, 97, 104, 37, 38
Watersheds    45, 50, 53, 56, 57, 16, 76, 33, 97, 103, 104, 38, 39
welfare economics
   5, 105
conservation---Government policy

conservation---Government policy---United States
conservation---Mathematical models
Wetland mitigation
banking---United States
wetlands    2, 3, 12, 15, 16, 20, 26, 40

Wetlands---Law and
legislation---United States
wetlands mitigation
Wisconsin    9, 21, 86
Yunnan Province    32

[Table of Contents]


Abler, D.G.    50, 61, 77
Adler, Kenneth J.

Allee, D.J.    62
Allen, P. M.    16
Anderson, T.L.    44

Arnold, J. G.    16
Barron, W. F.    32
Bartfeld, E.    80
Baumgart, P    21

Bell, R.    6
Bohlen, Curtis C.
Boisvert, R.N.    4
Braden, J. B.    67, 71, 34

Bricklemyer, R. S.
Brill, E.D. Jr.    100
Bundy, M.M.    56
Burmaster, D.E.    74

Cai, X.    17
Carmichael, J.    50
Cave, K.A.    45
Chen, C. W.    39

Chiang, Shin An.    101
Claassen, R.    105
Colby BG    5
Collentine, D.    88

Cormier, S.M.    97
Crossman, J.C.    74
Crutchfield, S.R.
   57, 24
Crutchfield, Stephen

D' Souza G    33
David, M.    95
Donoso, G.    17
Downing, D.    66, 81

Dudek, D.    51
Dunderdale, JAL    12
Dworsky, L.B.    62
Dyer, K. R.    3

Eheart, J.W.    100
Elmore, T.    81
Elmore, Tom    91
Environmental Protection
Agency, Office of Water

Ermoliev, Y.    7
Faeth, Paul.    58, 93
Faichney, R.    11
Feng HL    31

Fernandez, L.    2, 26, 40
Foresman, E. L.    23
Franks, T.    12
Galya, D.    103

Gerath, M.    103
Godal, O.    7
Goldstein, R. A.    39
Gottinger, HW    14

Govindasamy, R.    55
Green, C    12
Greenhalgh, Suzie
Gulezian, G.    59

Hall, J.    42
Hall, J.C.    92
Hanley, N.    11
Harman, W.A.    72, 73

Hartig, J.H.    59
Hauser, G.    74
Hauser, G. E.    39
Herr, J.    39

Hoag, Dana L.    90
Hopkins, J.    97
Horan, R.D.    50, 52, 61, 77, 83, 87, 105
Howe, C.W.    96

Howe, L.    105
Howett, C.    42
Howett, C.M.    92
Huffman, W.    55

Hughes-Popp, Jennie S.
Jaksch, J.    81
Jaksch, J.A.    74
Jarvie, M.    76

Jennings, G.D.    72, 73
Ji L    35
Joeres, E.    95
Johansson RC    38

John, D.L.    15
Johnson, B.N.    21
Johnson, C.R.    45
Jones K    33

Kaiser, R. A.    28
Karkoski, J.    60
Karp, L.    26, 40
Kashmanian, Richard M.

Kaunelis, V.P.    45
Kay, M.    12
Kear, T. P.    23
Keenan, J. D.    18

Keller, A.    17
Kieser, M.    22
Kilkenny, M.    48
King, Dennis M.    37

Klaassen, G.    1, 7
Kleeman, M. J.    23
Kling, C.L.    36
Kling CL    31

Kshirsagar, S.R.    100
Kumagai, M.    30
Larson, B.A.    54
Larson, Bruce A.    41

Lawrence, R. L.    10
Lence, B.J.    100
Letson, D.    57, 78, 24, 89
Letson, David.    79

Line, D.E.    72, 73
Linett, B.    59
Lombardo, L.A.    72, 73
Lovejoy, S.B.    67

Malik, A.S.    54, 57, 24
Malik, Arun S.    41, 79
Maloney, M.T.    44
Matsui, S.    30

Matsumoto, M.    30
McGinnis, S.L.    104
McKinney, D.C.    17
McLaughlin, R.A.    72, 73

Mehan, G.T.    59
Miller, P. R.    10
Mitchell, D.    103
Mlay, M.    3

Moore, C.    95
Morgan, D. S.    16
Morris, J    12
Munro, A.    11

National Research Council
(U.S.). Committee on Mitigating Wetland Losses.
National Wildlife
Netusil, N. R.    34
Niemeier, D. A.    23

Norman, M. E.    18
Norris, Patricia    102
Northwest Colorado Council of
O'Neil, W.B.    86, 94

O'Neill, W.    95
O'Neill, W.B.    84
Obersteiner, M.    7
Organisation for Economic
Co-operation and Development.

Orth, R. J.    3
Osmond, D.L.    72, 73
Paul, K. I.    25, 27
Peters AJ    35

Pinkham, J.R.    21
Podar, M.K.    74
Podar, Mahesh    46
Polglase, P. J.    25, 27

Rees, Y.    69
Ribaudo, M.    54
Ribaudo, M.O.    68, 75, 83, 87
Ribaudo, Marc.    41

Richards, G. P.    25, 27
Ringler, C.    17
Romstad, E.    29
Rosegrant, M.W.    17

Ruane, R.J.    74
Russell, C.S.    49
Rylant, K. E.    39
Saarinen, K.    19

Sagona, F. J.    39
Schleich, J.    9
Schubauer Berigan, M.K.    97
Senjem, N.    65

Sessions, S.    66
Sessions, S.L.    74
Shabman, Leonard.
Shortle, J.S.    50, 11, 61, 77

Shosteck, D.    85
Smith, L.    12
Smith, M.    97
Sohngen, Brent    64

Solomon, B.    76
Solomon BD    13
Spooner, J.    72, 73
Stephenson, Kurt    102

Taff, S.J.    65
Tao, W.    32
Tezuka, T.    30
Thomas, A.C.    4

Tosine, H.M.    59
Tremblay, P.J.    15
Tsihrintzis, V.A.
Tunstall, S.    12

Tweedy, K.L.    73
United States. Congress.
House. Committee on Public Works and Transportation.
United States. Dept. of
Agriculture. Economic Research Service.
United States. Dept. of
Agriculture. Economic Research Service. Resources and Technology

United States. Environmental
Protection Agency. Office of Policy, Planning, and
United States. General
Accounting Office
Vina A    35
Wang, X. J.    20

Weatherhead, EK    12
Weinberg, M.    36
Wendel, H.    51
White, D.    9

Wicks, A. M. B.    28
Wilen, J.E.    36
Willey, Z.    43, 98
Wise, P.L.    59

Woodward, R. T.    28
Yamashiki, Y.    30
Yandle, B.    44
Yang, W.    32

Young, M.D.    67
Young, T.F.    60
Zabel, T.    69
Zhang, W.    20

Zhao JH    31
Zhou, B.    32

[Table of Contents]

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J. R. Makuch / USDA-ARS-NAL-WQIC / 

Stuart Gagnon / USDA-ARS-NAL-WQIC /
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