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Animal, Cell, Enzyme Models for the Detection of Exposure to Pesticides and Other Toxicities


The objectives of this project are to develop and improve chemical biomarkers of exposure to agrochemicals and apply these biomarkers to understand and mitigate the impact of agricultural practices on society, particularly on human and animal health. <P>The overall objectives of the project are to use agrochemicals to : (a) develop biomarkers of exposure to agrochemicals and recognize early signs of neural, muscle and reproductive toxicity, (b) study the molecular mechanisms of these toxicities, (c) examine their impact on wildlife and agricultural ecosystems, (d) develop cell and developmental systems to screen for such toxicities and their risks, (e) to apply the results to agricultural and wildlife situations and (f) when appropriate, to human health.

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Non-Technical Summary: This project is to develop and improve sensitive ways to detect exposure to toxic agrochemicals, to establish how they act and to propose ways to identify and establish their risks to domestic and wild animals and humans, reducing their impact on society. <P> Approach: The specific approach is to develop and improve sensitive ways to detect exposure to toxicants, to establish mechanisms of their action and propose guidelines for their identification, risk estimation and remediation. Agrochemicals to be used include common organophosphate and organocarbamate esters such as diazinon and carbaryl, neurotoxic probes such as diisopropyl fluorophosphate and drugs such as pyridostigmine bromide. Animals to be studied include mammals, birds, fish and amphibians. Adults, embryos, organs and cells will be studied, both wild, domestic and tissue cultured. Residues are determined by gas chromatography, enzyme activities such as cholinesterases by spectrophotometric and radiometric methods, cell damage by cytochemical techniques.

Wilson, Barry
University of California - Davis
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