<ol> <li>Identify the genetic mechanisms associated with the development and maintenance of AR and develop rapid tests to identify resistance genes;
<li>Determine the in vivo (particularly in poultry) and in vitro effect the acquisition of resistance confers on the bacterium; and
<li>Conduct prospective ecological studies to better define the acquisition, transmission, and dissemination of AR including, as a component, participation in the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System.</ol>
PCR and DNA probe based targeting of specific genes and genetic elements, construction of recombinant DNA libraries of resistant bacterial strains for genetic mapping, clonging and sequencing studies and expression profiling of genes expressed by resistant isolates will be used to identify genes involved in resistance to a particular antimicrobial, to identify mobile genetic elements, and to study the affect resistance has on pathogenicity. Both in vivo (particularly in poultry) and in vitro studies will be conducted to complement the molecular studies and to study direct effects that resistance may confer on the bacterium. Type and frequency of transfer of resistance genes between bacteria and within the environment will also be studied. Field studies and participation in NARMS will enable prevalence estimates to be made. Genotyping using AFLP, Riboprinting, PFGE, sequencing and other molecular techniques will be used to determine relatedness between isolates.