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Assessing Nutrient Losses, Emissions, and Pathogen Transport from Manure Application and Animal Production Sites in the Western U.S.


<OL> <LI>
Evaluate open-path Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy for identifying and
quantifying ammonia, nitrous oxide, and methane emissions from animal waste
application sites.
Determine the influence of manure characteristics on nutrient cycling and
potential off-site losses.
Characterize soil physical property alterations and microbial community shifts in
soils receiving manure treatments using molecular techniques to detect the presence
of pathogens on or in soil, soil water, runoff, and vegetables.

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Approach: <BR> Objective 1: Open path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) will be used
to determine concentrations of ammonia, methane and nitrous oxide gaseous emissions
during and following manure applications at several locations throughout Southern
Idaho. Air speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation,
barometric pressure, and soil temperature will be measured via a portable weather
station. Air particulates, PM2.5 and PM10, will be sampled up-stream and down-stream
at each land application site. Average gas emission concentrations as affected by
material and application method will be compared.
<BR> <BR> Objective 2. Methods will be developed for extraction and characterization of
phosphorus in animal manures using phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance
spectroscopy. We will characterize manures from swine, poultry, and trout fed varying
low phytate grain diets aimed at increasing utilization of feed nutrients. This
characterization will identify the quantity and composition of nutrients in the
manures and how they are affected by altering animal diets, primarily focusing on
phosphorus. Manure from a variety of sources will be collected and characterized and
then utilized in incubation and growth chamber studies to determine the manure
characteristics having the greatest influence on plant phosphorus availability and
phosphorus solubility in soils.
Nutrient concentrations in percolation water collected from field plots treated with
nitrogen fertilizer, manure, and no fertilizer or manure will be compared to samples
of shallow groundwater underlying the local irrigation district. Nitrate-N,
ammonium-N, Cl, dissolved P, Total-P, and dissolved organic carbon will be analyzed.
The nitrate nitrogen-15 and Oxygen-18 fractionation will be obtained for a subset of
water samples using the microbial denitrifier method. This data will be used to
determine the impact of using manure and fertilizer on nutrient losses from furrow
irrigated fields.
<BR> <BR> Objective 3: We will characterize soil physical property alterations and microbial
community shifts in soils receiving manure treatments using molecular techniques to
detect the presence of pathogens on or in soil, soil water, runoff and vegetables.
Treatments will be: 1) solid dairy waste incorporated into soil, 2) composted solid
dairy waste incorporated into soil, 3) inorganic fertilizer and 4) control (no
amendment). Active bacterial biomass, microbial diversity and Escherichia coli and
Enterococcus sp in soils and water in each treatment will be determined at 0-30 cm soil and in 100 cm deep soil water at -1, 1, 7, 14, 28, 174 and 216 days after
application of waste. Soil and water samples will be split into four separate parts
and samples for the three above mentioned bacteria. The fourth sample will be frozen
at -80 degrees C until DNA can be extracted and soil microbial communities and the
presence of specific pathogens be determined using molecular methods. This work will
contribute towards developing a set of validated methods for determining soil
microbial communities in relation to pathogen survival. (Replacing 5368-12630-001-
00D, 5/05.)

Lentz, Rodrick; Dungan, Robert; Bjorneberg, David; Leytem, April
USDA - Agricultural Research Service
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