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Biology and Management of Spotted Wing Drosophila on Small and Stone Fruit


<p>Goals and outputs: Long-term Goals and Critical Stakeholder Needs: Stakeholder needs revolve around the acquisition of appropriate data for prescribing SWD control measures. Thus, our two main longterm goals are to develop an economically viable and environmentally sustainable integrated pest management program for managing SWD; and deliver information developed from this project via activities such as training seminars, workshops, and in-field demonstration events offered to the fruit-production industry, growers, homeowners, and farming consultants. These goals will be addressed via research/outreach activities regarding genomics, population dynamics, and the development of prescriptive measures for control. Objectives: </p>
<p>Objective 1: Evaluate genetic, biological, and ecological parameters of SWD. 1.1 Conduct genomic studies. 1.2 Evaluate biological and ecological parameters. 1.3 Study seasonal phenology. 1.4 Assess host preferences and fruit susceptibility. </p>
<p>Objective 2: Develop a management strategy to minimize infestation and reduce risk. 2.1 Optimize monitoring systems. 2.2 Develop and validate degree-day model and establish treatment thresholds. 2.3 Conduct laboratory assays and replicated field trials for chemical controls. 2.4 Determine propensity for insecticide resistance development. 2.5 Initiate surveys for natural enemies for long-term biological control. 2.6 Explore area-wide sanitation and preventative practices. 2.7 Complete economic analysis. </p>
<p>Objective 3: Measure awareness, impact and success. 3.1 Conduct stakeholder advisory panel meetings to review accomplishments and guide and direct objectives. 3.2 Design evaluation tools that assess biological, economical and social impacts. </p>
<p>Objective 4: Synthesize existing and new information and provide. real-time support. 4.1 Organize and schedule outreach and education interactions. 4.2 Create informational materials. 4.3 Develop real-time interactive online information, networking tools and forums.</p>

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<p>NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY:<br/> This 4.5-year long-term CAP project addresses four of the five SCRI-mandated focus areas(threats, productivity, innovation, food safety). The Spotted Wing Drosophila (SWD),Drosophila suzukii, is a new invasive pest of small and stone fruits, most notably, blueberries, blackberries, strawberries, raspberries, cherries, and peaches. Throughout the Pacific States(Oregon, California, Washington) three observations indicate an urgent need for the coordination of region-wide comprehensive project to development of a SWD Integrated Pest Management Program (SWD*IPM): 1) the lack of biological information regarding the population dynamics of SWD, 2) the lack of information concerning pest control options specific to SWD in the array of fruit production systems throughout a vast physio-geographical range, and 3) the extent of SWD-caused injury to fruits
reported in 2008 and 2009. The overarching goals of our proposal are: 1) develop a trans-disciplinary systems-based and sustainable approach to the management of SWD, and 2) to provide a network of outreach programs that will deliver new information to improve crop production. The SWD*IPM Research Team includes personnel with expertise in entomology, horticulture, genomics, pest management consulting, agricultural production, economics, sociology, extension, and policy-making. The foundation of the SWD*IPM project is based on three components: biological/management information, economic analysis, and assessing sociological impacts (Fig. 1). The project includes stakeholder input and employs a number of approaches including networking and social tools to guide the development, coordination, and implementation of a comprehensive plan for SWD*IPM.
<p>APPROACH:<br/> Outreach Plan: Our outreach plan will be guided by the project's stakeholder advisory panel and will report area-wide pest incidence data using already developed real-time interactive websites, and will promote the most effective IPM tools. We will organize Extension meetings and training sessions, report new SWD information at existing grower field days, conduct collaborative on-farm experiments and demonstration tours, and present seminars at public and scientific venues. We will conduct outreach education via newspaper articles, video clips, and You-Tube showings, furthermore, we will create sets of laminated informational cards and pocket identification aids, a newsletter, and technical bulletins/journal publications. Economic, Social, and Environmental Benefits: The proposed research and Extension effort will benefit all stakeholders (listed in
Stakeholder Engagement section below). Effective management of SWD will result in a major reduction in maggot-infested fruit and reduce potential for export restrictions that may be imposed by trading partners. In the absence of the development of an effective integrated pest management program, growers will use prophylactic pesticide-intensive control methods. An effective IPM program will maintain high levels of fruit production and environmental quality, while avoiding excessive pesticide use and economic and social stresses to rural communities and their family core businesses. Stakeholder Engagement: Our stakeholders, including commercial growers and homeowners, fruit handlers, community leaders, consultants, and the public, have welcomed this proposal and they are committed to helping the mission accomplish its goals. We have held many open-forum meetings in Oregon, Washington, and
California prior to and during the development of this proposal, and we have established a stakeholder advisory group that will grow, and help guide and direct the project and review accomplishments at annual meetings. We will present recent advances in SWD biology and crop management in each of the planned project years at venues such as the annual Tree Fruit Conference (Portland), Commodity Commission and grower meetings, crop consultant conferences, and professional meetings such as the Entomological Society of America (ESA) National Meeting and regional ESA Pacific Branch Meeting.
<p>PROGRESS: 2012/09 TO 2013/08<br/>Target Audience: The target audience for this project include include stone-fruit (cherries, peaches, etc.) and berry producers, the associated processing and distribution sectors, and home gardeners who produce stone-fruits and berries. Changes/Problems: We would like to solve this issue for organic growers. We have not been able to survey community leaders; this part of the project will not happen. What opportunities for training and professional development has the project provided? Training and professional development were offered at a presentation of SWD management titled �SWD in Caneberries: The End of IPM?� at the North American Raspberry and Blackberry Association annual meeting, a full hour of monitoring updates at UCCE Annual Caneberry Meeting on January 18 in Watsonville, CA and at the Annual Cherry Meeting in
Stockton, CA on February 1, and at the Small Farm Conference in Fresno, CA on March 12. One professional scientist attended 2 professional meetings to report on our results The Extension specialist and staff person who were responsible for this work received ad-hoc training by entomologists on the project. One OSU faculty research assistant organized, conducted and reported research protocols of her own design with foreign collaborators in Korea and presented a seminar at Seoul Women�s University. Another FRA has attended and presented at local, regional, and national meetings. This was professional development for them. We brought on an undergraduate work-study student to enter and help analyze the data. Two undergraduate interns prepared and presented SWD talks. This was professional development for them. How have the results been disseminated to communities of interest? An alert
was issued to USFS Gifford Pinchot and Mount Hood special forest products license program, seeking picker complaints about SWD in National Forest berry fields. Avenues of dissemination included online through the SWD website ( and via grower meetings and professional meetings and on-site demonstrations. Spotted Wing Drosophila: Insect resistance management (Y-tube video), WSU Mount Vernon Research Center and Skagit County Extension websites. Whatcom County Extension Ag Monthly articles: Insecticide degradation vs. SWD population dynamics in northwest Washington blueberry: �How to win the game� (March), SWD overwintering and life cycle strategies in the PNW (April), SWD insecticide strategy for Washington blueberry growers: Know thy markets and treatment intervals. Multiple grower workshops, extension sponsored presentations regarding SWD management and
regional/national/international/ESA meetings/symposia. New educational products, factsheets, news items and alerts were disseminated through the WSU home and garden listserve with 283 members. WSU Gardening webpage, premiers October 2013; SWD tools for gardeners will be linked. SWD information is disseminated to communities of interest via: 1) The Small Fruit Update, a weekly berry industry newsletter distributed to a large segment of the commercial berry growing community in the Pacific Northwest, the industries that support commercial berry growing and most of the public researchers working with Northwest berry growers; 2) Weekly SWD Updates embedded within the Small Fruit Update and posted on; 3) Industry website ( offering real time SWD trap monitoring data by crop and county and four years of archived historical SWD
trap monitoring data .Results are summarized and distributed to research and Extension faculty who disseminate to their stakeholders. Biological, social, and economic impact data is shared annually with the stakeholder advisory group, the researchers, and the Extension faculty. What do you plan to do during the next reporting period to accomplish the goals? California: More grower education throughout California. Look into entomopathogenic fungi and predaceous nematodes for SWD management in organic caneberries. Research regarding Objectives 2.1 and 2.7 at 2014 conference for Agricultural & Resource Economics Associations (AAEA). Submit paper based on dissertation research regarding SWD to the American Journal of Agricultural Economics (AJAE). Our seasonal phenology work in California raspberries and our California mixed crop seasonal phenology work will be submitted for publication
in a peer-reviewed journal. Begin bioassays on laboratory insecticide-selected populations. Begin sequencing insecticide target site genes from field populations. Begin sequencing laboratory selected populations, if indicated. Research will continue on SWD diel periodicity. We are currently working on refining a SWD population model, aimed at implementing it as a web-based interface to determine SWD infection risk. Washington: Continue trapping program through 2014, disseminate results. Continue to test trap design parameters and experimental baits and lures. Implement organic/�soft chemistry� control trial in sweet cherries. Monitor to efficacy of control strategies. Establish BMPs for organic/sustainable control. Delve into genetic homogeneity of overwintering SWD in a dry, cold winter, hot summer climate. Complete peer reviewed management factsheet gardeners and for small
farmers. Continue physical barrier demonstration, monitor for SWD in native huckleberry Continue dissemination via listserve, workshops, presentations, factsheets, webinars. Determine maximum residue levels with decline for insecticides on highbush blueberry and mistigation and airblast treatments. These determinations will be coupled with insecticide residues in/on blueberry foliage and adulticidal residue efficacy with foliage bioassay data support. Trap design parameter studies will continue. Oregon: Conduct foreign exploration in search of natural enemies in Asia. Regional natural enemy survey is ongoing. Publish Extension bulletins on SWD management, create video on larval extraction, complete two journal articles on larval extraction, and alternate hosts. Continue to maintain the present scouting and data and information dissemination system to ensure consistency throughout the
life of the grant. We are going to run one last year of social, economic, and biological impact evaluation, then run analyses across years.
<p>PROGRESS: 2011/09/01 TO 2012/08/31<br/>OUTPUTS: Obj 1.1 A second iteration of the genome was assembled, filling gaps and low coverage areas. Additional refinement and labeling are necessary, but the genome should be completed soon. Obj 1.2 Previously described physiological parameters inform population matrixes and modeling systems for contrasting SWD controls. Studies under harsh overwintering field conditions show the importance of urban refuges and related risk to proximate growers. Survival models and seasonal phenology studies confirm earlier SWD emergence in milder climates compared to harsher climates. Oviposition preference in the upper third of cherry canopies; decreased preference at higher positions in the tree. Obj 1.3 Long-term data from weekly adult trapping with apple cider vinegar traps and larval fruit infestation in major production areas reveal
seasonal differences, with earlier emergence during milder winters (2012 cf. 2011), higher populations during optimal summer temperatures. High populations and some crop loss on susceptible crops evident early in mild California areas compared to less favorable areas in the Mid-Columbia and Eastern Washington, where numbers remained generally low. Larval fruit infestation was found July to August in crops in mild production areas in Oregon. Fall populations increased exponentially in all production areas. Obj 1.4 Caneberry, cherry and blueberry are preferred commercial hosts. Several non-crop hosts have been identified, and may provide SWD refugia near production areas. Their presence must be considered when developing management protocols. Studies of SWD movement into commercial crops support the importance of non-crop hosts. Obj 2.1 Alternate baits were tested in lab and field for
attractiveness to SWD. Trap design, monitoring and bait studies revealed shortcomings of currently used traps. Studies for improvement continue. Obj 2.3 Pesticides which provide effective control have been identified; resistance management control strategies are designed. Additional pesticides with control potential are under evaluation. Preliminary data from perimeter and alternate-row insecticide applications in raspberry and blackberry show promise for control similar to full cover sprays. Pesticide application by mist irrigation shows promise; evaluation continues. Obj 3 The central theme from stakeholders nationwide is that SWD results in significant economic loss. Annual feedback provides direction for project improvement and guides studies. Audience-specific survey tools have provided two years of evaluation data. Obj. 4.1 SWD websites are integrated, providing static and dynamic
alerts and educational materials to stakeholders. Resource materials are released after stakeholder feedback regarding market-sensitive information. Workshops and field days reviewed identification, biology and control recommendations to growers; with peer talks at regional, national and international meetings. Obj. 4.2 Backyard reporting was promoted. Obj. 4.3 A dynamic data dissemination system allows OR and WA growers to view SWD infestation on a regional and temporal basis. PARTICIPANTS: PIs/PDs: Oregon State University: Vaughn Walton (PD); Amy Dreves (PI); Jeff Miller (PI); Peter Shearer (PI); Clark Seavert (PI); Wei Q. Yang (PI); Flaxen Conway (PI evaluation); Mary Halbleib (FRA evaluation); Jos. DeFrancesco (IR-4); Leonard Coop (phenology modeler); Daniel Dalton, Preston Brown, Betsey Miller, Amanda Ohrn (Research Assistants); Linda Brewer (Project Manager). Washington State
University: Doug Walsh (PI); Elizabeth Beers (Field research); Jessica Goldberger (economist); Carol Miles, Todd Murray, Tim Smith, (Extension educators); Lynell Tanigoshi (Bench and field research). University of California Davis: Frank Zalom (PI); David Begun (genomics); Rachael Goodhue (economist); Kelly Hamby (post doc). University of California Berkeley: Bob VanSteenwyk (PI). University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources: Mark Bolda (PI); Janet Caprile, Wm. Coates, Jos. Grant, David Haviland (Extension educators). Jana Lee (PI). Partner Organizations: Peerbolt Crop Management - Trapping. Collaborators and contacts are within the recipient's organization, non-formal collaborations outside the organization. OSU: Bernadine Strik, Patricia Skinkis, Gail Langellotto, Paul Jepson; USDA-Aphis: Karen Ackerman; USDA-NIFA: Herb Bolton; USDA-ARS: Peter Landolt; U MI: Rufus Isaacs;
N Carolina State: Hannah Burrack; U of ID: Stephen Cook; Utah State: Marion Murray; U of FL: James Price; Rutgers: Cesar Rodriguez-Saona; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada: Sheila Fitzpatrick. Training or professional development: (ugrad, grad, post docs, faculty, K-12, farmers, producers, managers, staff or volunteers. Graduate Students: Samantha Tochen, Jimmy Click, Joe Kleiber. Undergraduate Students: Monica Marcus, Jamie Christenson, Sarah Wong, Lisa Thompson, Seta Kavianian. Interns: Charlene Marek and Teresa Chase. Volunteers: Leyz Magana, Piper Davis, Rich Little. TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences for this work include commercial stone and small fruit growers in Oregon, Washington, California, and by extension throughout the US. In Oregon and Washington, berry farms are generally smaller acreages; berries can be a good alternative enterprise contributing to the whole-farm
diversity with which the traditionally underserved small farms population can manage risk. Backyard fruit growers also are included in our target audience. Efforts include traditional extension outreach efforts such as publications, workshops, field days, but also Web 2.0 techniques including websites, blogs, webinars, online databases and models. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: No major changes in approach to report at this time.
<p>PROGRESS: 2010/09/01 TO 2011/08/31<br/>OUTPUTS: Obj 1.1 A draft SWD genome was assembled but many gaps & low coverage regions exist. Improvement strategies are ongoing. Obj 1.2 Temperature-related developmental parameters and winter survival were determined. Overwintering field studies for 2 seasons show limited adult SWD survival in the Pacific Northwest. Early phenology models predict 50% peak first generation SWD emergence in the mid-Willamette Valley, OR with earlier emergence in milder climates and later emergence in harsher climates. In most production areas, apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps mostly attract females in the early season thus identifying females early season is crucial. ? Obj 1.3 Monitoring SWD weekly throughout the year using ACV-baited traps for adults combined with larval fruit infestation were conducted in most major production areas.
Seasonal populations show higher early season abundance in mild regions of California compared with harsher areas such as Mid-Columbia region in OR where numbers remained low until mid-August. SWD abundance in Eastern Washington remained low most of the season. Larval fruit infestation was found during harvest in some California crops and in late crops in August in mild areas in Oregon. Populations increased rapidly in fall in all production areas. Obj 1.4 Lab tests indicate females laid 85-161 eggs the first 4 weeks post-emergence. Susceptible fruit is more prone to attack when color change starts. Cherry, commercial caneberry, blueberry and wild blackberry are the important hosts. No commercial impact was seen on wine grapes or cranberries. Obj 2.1 Alternate baits were tested in lab and field for attractiveness to SWD. Some were as or more attractive than ACV. Alternate trap types are
being evaluated. Obj 2.3 Effective pesticides were identified. Perimeter and alternate row insecticide application studies demonstrated that reduced spray applications in raspberry & blackberry may be as effective as full cover sprays . Obj 3 Data was gathered from growers, packers and at Extension events using 3 audience-specific surveys. Response rates from growers and packers were 16- 50%. Surveys will be revised for 2012 based on scientist & advisory panel feedback. Obj. 4.1 SWD-focused websites alerted and educated growers and disseminated information around the country (about 80,000 domestic views) and more than 100,000 views from 96 countries. Several publications were developed. Preseason workshops and field days were held to review identification, biology and recommendations to growers; peer talks were held at regional and national meetings. Obj. 4.2 Backyard reporting was
promoted. Obj. 4.3 An integrated, real-time online SWD information collection/dissemination system was created, allowing OR and WA growers to view SWD infestation on a regional basis. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals Beers, Betsy Bolda, Mark Brewer, Linda Brown, Preston Dalton, Daniel DeFrancesco, Joseph Dreves, Amy: PI Halbleib, Mary Kelley, Kathy Anderson Lee, Jana Luh, Hang-Kwang - ONID Miller, Jeffrey: PI Murray, Todd Peerbolt, Tom Shearer, Peter: PI Tanigoshi, Lynell VanSteenwyk, Robert Walsh, Doug: PI Walton, Vaughn: PD Yang, Wei Qiang Zalom, Frank: PI Partner Organizations Washington State University University of California, Davis University of California, Berkeley Peerbolt Crop Management Collaborators and contacts Begun, David Bruck, Denny Caprile, Janet Coates, William Conway, Flaxen Coop, Leonard Epstein, David Fitzgerald, Tonie Fitzpatrick, Sheila Goldberger, Jessica Goodhue,
Rachael Grant, Joe Haviland, David Jepson, Paul Kaufman, Diane Landolt, Peter Langellotto, Gail Martin, Tunyalee Miles, Carol Peerbolt, Anna Pickel, Carolyn Seavert, Clark Smith, Tim Skinkis, Patricia Strik, Bernadine Vollmer, Emily TARGET AUDIENCES: The target audiences for these efforts include growers and their workers, field men, packers, home gardeners, the general public, academic peers, Extension faculty, and other organizations, businesses, NGOs and non-profits, and individuals supporting outreach education around this introduced pest. PROJECT MODIFICATIONS: Nothing significant to report during this reporting period.

Zalom, Frank G; Walton, Vaughn M; Walsh, Robert; Shearer, Peter; Dreves, Amy
Oregon State University
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