The goal of this research is to advance knowledge of E. coli strains that do not match the current designated O types. The long-term goal is to create a collection of new O-AGCs in E. coli to improve nomenclature, database collection, and to refine current technologies for O-antigen detection. In support of these long-term goals, the objectives of the proposed research are: Objective 1: Identify, annotate and compare new O-antigen gene clusters (O-AGCs) with previously identified O-AGCs. Objective 2: Identify biomarker genes to refine current technologies for O-antigen detection. Objective 3: Use an innovative approach to clone O-AGCs, and to analyze how the O-antigen influences the bacterium's ability to survive and persist in the environment under stress conditions.