The major goal of this project is to develop and evaluate novel methods/reagents for the concentration of human noroviruses prior to detection using bacteria. Ultimately, this work will serve as the foundation to see if bacterial based norovirus concentration methods have merit for investigation in different relevant foods. Specifically, this will be accomplished using three revised objectives:1.To engineer and inducibly express broadly reactive human norovirus-binding peptide(s) on the surface of Escherichia coli using the ice nucleation protein, and evaluate its ability to concentrate human norovirus in comparison with a previously established concentration method. This objective will work to see if biotechnologically engineered bacteria can be created and used for concentration of human noroviruses and compare its performance to a previously established norovirus concentration method.2.To evaluate the ability of previously reported norovirus-binding bacteria to concentrate human norovirus in comparison with a previously established concentration method. This objective will work to see if endogenously binding bacteria can be used for concentrationof human noroviruses and if they are superior to a previously established norovirus concentration method.3.To determine the binding specificity of the engineered and wild type bacteria, and evaluate their sensitivity in the presence of high levels of potentially competing viruses. This objective seeks to further characterize the range of selectivity and sensitivity of bacterial concentration methods for noroviruses.