AIM I. Design and develop soil swimming robots for soil sensing of the maize plant root and its rhizosphere with an above-ground carrier mobile robot to support large-scale field campaigns.AIM II. Develop the use of the soil robot collective to identify interactions between maize roots and soil water relations at critical plant development time points.AIM III. The project will share the impact and scientific findings of this project with the greater scientific community and public by implementing a coordinated set of activities that engage students, scientists, growers, and the public.i. Engagement of stakeholders at scientific meetings associated with Cornell and professional societies. ii. Postdoctoral associates, undergraduates, and graduate students will participate in interdisciplinary research that spans across the fields of robotics, remote sensing, plant physiology, and plant genetics.iii. Recruit and engage under-represented groups in research project activities.iv. Educate children and the public in robotics and plant biology through outreach activities at Cornell.