<OL> <LI>Characterize the influence of crop zinc,iron and calcium and other components on bioavailability of crop cadmium to animals; <LI>Characterize bioavailability of soil lead, arsenic, and copper accumulated by vegetable crops grown on long-term orchard and other crop contaminated soils; <LI>Characterize genetic resources and inheritance of grain Cd to reduce cadmium in nonoilseed sunflower, flax, durum wheat, and release improved low Cd grain germplasm.
<OL> <LI> Conduct animal feeding studies on the effect of dietary iron, zinc and calcium supply, and crop Zn level, on absorption of Cd in polished rice, and other crops for which grain Cd is important in understanding of human Cd risks from foods (darum wheat; lettuce; bread wheat). <LI> Grow commercial and garden carrot cultivars with a wide range of properties on contaminated orchard soils rich in Pb and As; include soil amendments expected to reduce plant uptake of Pb or As. Measure bioavailability of metals in vegetables in animal studies. Examine residue in peel layer vs. internal storage root tissue. <LI>Complete testing of inheritance of grain Cd concentration in sunflower, flax using crosses between previously identified low and high Cd genotypes; assist plant breeders in developing germplasm releases with lower Cd than present commercial types. Examine physiology of genetic differences in Cd accumulation in relation to soil properties where crops are produced.