PEIIAD objectives are multi-faceted in that laboratory-based projects, population-based animal studies with associated field components, and analyses of research findings for policy formation are included. The lab projects will develop and validate diagnostic assays for use in national and international training programs in risk assessment and surveillance. Research analyses consultations will create policy documents for Avian Influenza & other important infectious animal diseases. Research continues on the design, refinement, and validation of a disease spread model to simulate outbreaks of highly contagious animal diseases. Research on several endemic diseases that impact animal movement continues to advance. Optimization of diagnostic tests for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea, for detection of Clostridium perfringens in horses, and strangles in horses also continues. Research continues on the detection of Johnes disease in dairy cattle, Mycobacterium bovis detection and BCG vaccine efficiency in cervids, and determination of sensitivity/specificity of 2 diagnostic tests for West Nile Virus in horses. Biosecurity research program continues including a training program for veterinarians in foreign animal diseases and the design of practical, evidence-based approaches to control contagious diseases in animal populations. Antimicrobial drug use and antimicrobial resistance research continues including the evaluation of natural/organic rearing, antimicrobial drug use in animals, and the investigation of methods for evaluating antimicrobial resistance over time. <P>
Specific objectives follow:
<li>Establish a biosecurity model to avoid introduction of exotic diseases to livestock premises. </li>
<li>Contribute to global surveillance for infectious animal diseases including AI, FMD, bovine TB, and BSE. </li>
<li>Support seed funding for research mini-projects related to economically important infectious animal diseases. </li>
<li>Continue outreach and training at local, national, and international levels in disease investigations, surveillance systems, and control strategies for highly contiguous animal diseases. </li>
<li>Validate practical and acceptable procedures of PCR for detection of Mycobacterium bovis in cattle. </li>
<li>Address need for a sensitive and specific rapid screening test for M. bovis. </li>
<li>Continue assessment of potential FMD disease transmission between domestic animals and wildlife by generating baseline data of disease impact on wildlife populations. </li>
<li>Continue Johnes Disease research to determine the association between infection status of dairy cows based on postmortem histopathology, culture of multiple tissues, and previous results of fecal culture and multiple sera ELISA tests. </li>
<li>Investigate the practical efficacy and value of biosecurity measures related to losses due to on-going animal health problems. </li>
<li>Continue research investigating associations among antimicrobial drug use, antimicrobial resistance, and effects on animal health and production. </li>
<li>Provide an outreach program in foreign animal diseases for practicing veterinary professionals.
NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY: Colorado State University's Program for Economically Important Infectious Animal Diseases (PEIIAD) was conceived in 1998 with the intention to fill a void concerning the integrated funding, development and initiation of research on animal diseases that threaten the national economy. Before PEIIAD's creation, no single entity provided timely research focused entirely on animal diseases that threaten the US food supply or can cause economic losses for agriculture on a local, national, and international scale. PEIIAD is at the forefront in addressing the most challenging questions regarding animal disease surveillance, response to emerging and re-emerging animal diseases, diagnostic strategies for infectious animal diseases, food safety concerns, risk analysis models/protocols, and trade economics. PEIIAD's mission is to advance research and outreach activities related to economically critical infectious animal diseases. Research strategies unite appropriate diagnostics and surveillance through an integrated, broad-based approach. In PEIIAD research findings are synthesized in the pursuit of an animal disease concern from its roots in basic science through to policy development and outreach. PEIIAD researchers have extensive international infectious disease experience that promotes a global perspective. Knowledge of infectious animal diseases on a global scale is vital to US public health due to possible human health impacts of zoonotic diseases (diseases that transfer between humans and animals), economic devastation resulting from an uncontained animal disease outbreak, and homeland security threats from intentional or unintentional importation of disease through animals and animal products. PEIIAD aims in 2008 to contribute to global surveillance for infectious animal diseases including AI, FMD, bovine TB, and BSE; support seed funding for research mini-projects on economically important infectious animal diseases; and provide outreach in foreign animal diseases to veterinary professionals. The qualifications/selection criteria for PEIIAD mini-projects are: topics should be within the scope of economically important infectious animal diseases and the project should have both short and long tangible product(s) in terms of scientific or technical impact on agriculture animals. PEIIAD 2009 research activities will be multi-faceted in that laboratory-based projects, population-based animal studies with associated field components, and analyses of research findings for policy formation will be incorporated. Global, emerging infectious animal disease research will focus on laboratory projects and research analyses. Laboratory projects will develop and validate diagnostic assays that can be used as part of surveillance system with various national and international training programs in risk assessment. The research analyses and consultations will lead to the creation of policy documents for Avian Influenza and other important infectious animal diseases. Research on endemic diseases that impact animal movement will continue. Biosecurity research will continue along with training for regional veterinarians in foreign animal diseases.<P>
APPROACH: The PEIIAD research priorities are categorized into five focus areas: <OL> <li> Global, emerging infectious animal diseases: PEIIAD is extensively involved in the current global effort to control the spread of Avian Influenza (AI) in poultry and other bird species. Activities involve authoring and conducting national and international training programs, participating in risk modeling, and advising government agencies regarding control strategies. PEIIAD staff members have been involved in building a simulation epidemiological model to determine the effectiveness of various strategies in controlling AI. PEIIAD staff members have been engaged in ten training sessions related to epidemiology of AI in SE Asia, the Middle East, and selected African and European countries. Research on FMD in wildlife species to generate parameters has been conducted for the purpose of incorporation in a decision analysis model to address disease transmission between wildlife and domestic species. PEIIAD staff members are also heavily participating in global and national science-based policy making process for BSE and other TSE diseases in animal populations. Dr. Salman, the PI, is participating in global animal health and welfare through engagement with the European Union Animal Health Programs. <li>Risk and decision analysis models: During the last three years, PEIIAD has contributed to the creation of a risk analysis model for describing the spread of highly contagious animal diseases. This model is currently being evaluated by Canadian and US animal health authorities for its application in FMD and AI situations. Validation of the model is underway using data collected from the most recent outbreaks of FMD in Uruguay, Brazil, and Exotic New Castle disease in CA. <li>Endemic animal diseases that impact animal movement, marketing, and food safety: During the last five years, the PEIIAD lab has developed and validated Mycobacterium bovis diagnostic assay for bovine tuberculosis that is currently used by USDA National Veterinary Services Laboratory. PEIIAD lab has also participated in the validation of new, advanced diagnostic assays for animal diseases such as Vesicular Stomatitis (VSV) and FMD. <li>Biosecurity staff members of PEIIAD have been involved in national and international programs for the objective assessment of the efficacy and value of biosecurity practices. They have initiated and implemented an awareness program in foreign animal diseases for practicing veterinary professionals to train them to be first responders in the event of a disease introduction. <li>Antimicrobial drug use and antimicrobial resistance: Selected PEIIAD staff members (Drs. Morley and Traub-Dargatz) are the leaders in the publication of a major white paper concerning the use of antimicrobial drugs by veterinarians for treatment of disease. They are also involved in the development of both large-scale assessments of antimicrobial drug use patterns for treatment of animal diseases and large-scale investigations concerning association of antimicrobial drug use and antimicrobial resistance in livestock species (especially beef and dairy cattle).