Assess the epidemiology of animal Salmonella, E. coli, Enterococci, Campylobacter and other bacteria to determine the frequency, phenotypic and genotypic characteristics and trends of resistance present in the bacterial populations studied in addition to defining areas best suited for interventions.
Approach: <BR/> Antimicrobial susceptibility testing will be conducted on approximately 125,000 Salmonella, Campylobacter spp., Enterococci, and E. coli isolates and other bacterial isolates which may be added to the program. Isolates will originate from multiple animal species and the environment obtained from in-house studies, from the National Veterinary Services Laboratories, from FSIS sponsored projects, from sentinel sites, from APHIS sponsored projects, and from collaborators. A Sensititre Semi-Automated Sensititre System will be used for testing. Associated research will consist of in vivo and in vitro approaches to determine if pathogenesis is attributed to an increase in resistance. Alternative approaches to use of antimicrobials will also be explored; risk factors likely to be affected by interventions will be identified and resistance mechanisms will be characterized at the molecular level.