A. Risk Assessment: <OL> <LI> Evaluate Salmonella contamination associated with farm production and carryover; evaluate consumer exposure in domestic homes and the effect of portion size on consumer exposure to Salmonella. <LI> Food Safety Risk and Economic Optimality in Ready to Eat Turkey Products <LI>Evaluate strategies for communication comprehension, efficiency, and compliance related to risk in food processing consumption. <LI> Evaluate how psychological and emotional factors contribute to food safety risk. <LI>Risk Assessment of Salmonella contamination of different turkey meat products including organic, fresh, frozen, and ready to eat products from US Midwestern retail outlets, and different turkey meat products consumed by specific risk groups. <LI>Merging and Data Analysis (Drs. Logue, Nganje, Sellnow, Hinsz and Khaitsa) data collected from the five objectives will be merged and included in the risk model to address issues of data gaps and new research which will enhance the project.
B. Risk Assessment for Pathogens of Food Safety Concern in Milk and Powdered Milk Products: <ol> <LI> Assess the potential for raw milk as a source of Enterobacter sakazakii in powdered infant formula, and then examine isolates for relatedness to outbreak isolates that have been documented in the United States. <LI> Assess the potential for milk and milk products as a source of other members of the Enterobacteriaceae, and as a source of antimicrobial resistance mechanisms. <LI> Assess the potential for milk and milk products as a source of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.
C. Intelligent Quality Sensors for Food Safety: <OL> <LI> Identification of liquid metabolites associated with meat contaminated with Salmonella. <LI>Characterization of liquid metabolites using Raman Spectroscopy. <LI> Fabrication and evaluation of different sensing materials for detecting specific indicator gaseous compounds associated with meat contamination due to Salmonella. <LI>Investigate on developing pattern recognition techniques for enhancing the performances of our electronic nose modules. <LI>Evaluate the performance of integrated electronic nose module in field-conditions.
NON-TECHNICAL SUMMARY: Annually, millions of people in the US suffer from foodborne illness, resulting in thousands of deaths. The purpose of these projects are to develop and test models designed to predict risk of pathogen contamination, and to develop improved quality sensors, with the ultimate goal of enhancing food safety.
APPROACH: 1) Studies will investigate Salmonella in turkeys from entry into rearing barns to slaughter. Molecular analysis will further define the pathotype of the organism and the transfer between flock rotations. Domestic exposure of consumers to Salmonella in homes will be evaluated. 2) The empirical model will include optimal intervention strategy at the retail (consumer) level. The associated risks, costs and benefits of alternative mitigation strategies (e.g., generic and augmented HACCP) for Salmonella are evaluated jointly. 3) Studies will test potential risk communication messages that contain varying strategies related to culture, learning styles, public outrage, and message source in order to determine message receptivity. The messages will be tested with diverse publics, including general American macro-culture and underserved populations. We will test differences in message receptivity, and develop strategies for adapting risk messages to meet the needs of various audiences. 4) Studies will test whether the activation of the disgust emotion heightens perceptions and judgments of risk and diminishes willingness to approach and interact with foods appearing to have properties associated with contamination. Food handlers and preparers reports of key practices will be assessed. 5) Different turkey meat products including organic, fresh, frozen, and ready to eat products from retail outlets will be randomly sampled and tested for the presence of Salmonella. 6) Data and information from all studies will be merged and reported in a range of media. B. Risk Assessment for Pathogens of Food Safety Concern in Milk and Powdered Milk Products. Initial Approach to All Objectives: Assess the potential for milk and milk products as a source of Enterobacter sakazakii, other members of the Enterobacteriaceae, and M. avium subsp. Paratuberculosis on raw milk samples. Culturing procedures for E. sakazakii and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis have been optimized with newly developed and commercially available media. An improved method for isolation of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis from bulk tank milk samples will be implemented. C. Intelligent Quality Sensors 1) Representative meat samples will be analyzed using HPLC technique to determine their constituents and identify indicator metabolites. 2) The identified metabolites (compounds) will be characterized using SERS (surface enhanced) Raman spectroscopy. 3) Detectors will be fabricated based on their novel sensing characteristics to provide additional sensitivity to the indicator compounds. 4) We will use the responses of different electronic nose modules to determine probability density functions (pdf), which will be used to generate additional numbers of simulated data sets which will be used to develop and evaluate classification or prediction models using neural networks techniques. 5) The framework for integrated prototype electronic nose will be developed. The integrated nose modules will then be further evaluated for discriminating Salmonella contaminated meat samples.
PROGRESS: 2007/08 TO 2008/07<BR>
OUTPUTS: Outputs from this project have included oral and visual presentations of the research at both professional and non-professional meetings as a means to share our data. The groups we have aimed this material are professional researchers, some focus groups for message testing and groups of minorities. We have also shared this research with policy makers and economic groups. Some examples of presntations are included below Noormohamed, A., and Logue, C.M. (2008) Prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella and E. coli strains from healthy and sick animals. Accepted for CRWAD Annual General Meeting 10/08 Kaldhone, P., Nayak, R., Lynne, A.M., White, D.G., Logue, C.M. and Foley, S.L. (2007) Characterization of Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg from turkey associated sources. Abstract and presentation, American Society for Microbiology North Central Branch Meeting October 5-6, Marshfield WI. J. Oloya, M. Theis, D. Doetkott, N. Dyer, P. Gibbs, M. L. Khaitsa. 2008. Genotypic Similarites and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Salmonella Isolates in Humans and Animals in North Dakota. The 95th Annual Meeting of International Association for Food Protection, Columbus, Ohio, August 3-6, 2008. Lisa Mowry, D. K. Doetkott, M. L. Khaitsa. 2008. The Association of Antimicrobial Resistance and Presence of Class-1 Integrons in Salmonella spp. isolated from various meat products. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students (ABRCMS). Orlando, FL, November 5 - 8, 2008. Ndembe, Elvis, William Nganje, and Dragan Miljkovic: Offsetting Behavior and the Benefits of Food Safety Policies in Vegetable Preparation and Consumption, WERA-72 Annual Meetings, June 18-19, 2008, St. Clara, CA. Ndembe, Elvis, William Nganje, and Dragan Miljkovic: Offsetting Behavior and the Benefits of Food Safety Policies in Vegetable Preparation and Consumption, Agribusiness and Applied Economics Report No. 620, North Dakota State University, April 2008. Littlefield, R. S. (2007, August). Addressing risk and crisis communication among vulnerable populations. ND Department of Public Health Risk Communication Conference, Bismarck, ND. Littlefield, R. S., Cowden, K., Beauchamp, K. (2007, October 23). Learning styles and risk communication: A preliminary report of project findings. Working paper presented for the NCFPD, Washington, DC. Magnan, R.E., Hinsz, V.B., Lawrence, D.M., and Ladbury, J.L. (2008). Disgusting Images Can Spoil Intentions to Consume Meats. Presented at the meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Albuquerque, NM. Nickell, G.S., and Hinsz, V.B. (2008). Conscientiousness moderates the impact of an organizational climate of safety in food processing. Presented in a symposium at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Francisco. <BR> PARTICIPANTS: Catherine M. Logue PI worked on microbiological studies; Margaret Khaitsa coPI; worked on the epidemiological studies Suranjan Panigrah co-PI worked on the enginering and sensor development Verlin Hinsz coPI; worked on the psychological studies Cliff Hall worked on sensor studies with Panigrahi Jake Glover worked on sensor studies with Panigrahi Robert Littlefield and Tim Sellnow worked on communications projects W Nganje and D. Milovic worked on the economic aspects of risk Partnerships with organizations include other Univerisities - Iowa State, Cornell, Penn State, Univerisity of Minnseota Moorhead, National Center for Food Protection and Defense, University of Arizona, University of Kentucky <BR> TARGET AUDIENCES: Target audiences include professinal researchers in microbiology, animal disesae and health, psychologists, regulatory and economics experts, communication experts and minorities and underserved groups within the population. We have also aimed material at local and national stakeholders, the public and consumers. <BR> <BR>
IMPACT: 2007/08 TO 2008/07<BR>
The microbiologsists and epidemiologists have evaluated pathogens in production animals and meats and the traits associated with pathogenesis and disease, as well as resistance traits and mechanisms; thus broadening our understanding of food pathogen contaminants. Our psychologists have evaluated messages and understanding of making food safer at various levels and images that promote safer food preparation or the motivation to enhance our food production to be safer. Our communications experts have assessed messages for groups and minoroties in improving food safety and understanding of risk. Our engineers have continued to assess new sensing materials with a focus in improving the sensitivity and specifity of materials and technologies for enhancing the detection of pathogens in meat and other foodstuffs. These technologies will allow us to develop rapid methods for accurate and sensitive detection of a range of pathogens. Such technologies have been designed around multi array type sensors which allow many aspects to be detected simultaneously thus enhancing our capabiliites in pathogen detection.
<P> PROGRESS: 2006/08/01 TO 2007/07/31<BR>
OUTPUTS: The microbiologists have explored Salmonella and Campylobacter in poultry production and assessing risks using rapid methods for the detection of Salmonella in turkey and comparative genetics for analysis of Campylobacter. Papers and presentations have been generated. Our psychologists have explored the role that psychological factors have on perceptions and judgments of risk as well as serve as a motivation to prevent unsafe activities with food. Presentations have been generated. Our risk communications experts evaluated individual responses to risk communication messages about food contamination or adulteration (unintentional and unintentional) by testing risk communication messages to determine the degree to which the messages are efficient, comprehendible, and promote compliance. Papers and presentations were generated. Our economists have developed stochastic optimization and stochastic dominance models to evaluate food safety risk mitigation strategies at retail facilities using real option models to evaluate where investments will reduce intentional contamination risks in the food supply chain. From this they have developed models to test the existence of off-setting behavior in food safety policy/information delivery and evaluated incentives and efficient policy design to mitigate foodborne pathogen outbreaks. Presentations and papers were generated. New projects have focused Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacteriaceae, and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk and milk products from supermarket and raw milk samples of North Dakota dairies. Our epidemiologists have studied the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella shedding at the time of slaughter in cattle in North Dakota. They are measuring the efficacy and cost effectiveness of an intervention strategy to reduce shedding of E. coli O157:H7 by cattle pre-harvest and the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in raw ground beef. Papers and presentations were generated. Our agricultural engineers have investigated different sensing materials for indicator compounds associated with Salmonella contamination of packaged meat. A configuration for an integrated electronic nose system has been developed. Experiments have been conducted to characterize liquid metabolites in Salmonella contaminated meat using LC-MS. Parallel work has investigated strategies for small datasets associated with a typical biological study including mega-trend diffusion (MTD) and functional virtual population (FVP) techniques for data domain expansion and synthetic sample generation. Artificial neural networks were used for classifications. A presentation was generated. <BR> PARTICIPANTS: Catherine M. Logue PI Associate Professor of Microbiology; Chantal W. Nde - Graduate Researcher; Mohamed K. Fakhr Post Doctoral Researcher; Margaret L. Khaitsa - Assistant Professor of Epidemiology; Redempta Kegode - Graduate Researcher; James Oloya - Post Doctoral Researcher; William E. Nganje - Associate Professor of Agribusiness and Applied Economics; Simeon Kaitibie - Post Doctoral Researcher; Alexandre Sorin - Graduate Researcher; Linda Lehrke - Graduate Researcher; Agnes Lyonga - Graduate Researcher; Timothy L. Sellnow - Professor of Communication; Steven Venette - Post Doctoral Researcher; Julie Novak - Graduate Researcher; Verlin Hinsz - Professor of Psychology; Gary Nickell - Professor of Psychology - Research Associate <BR> TARGET AUDIENCES: Policy makers and Regulators - eg. USDA FSIS, FDA; State and Federal Regulators; Researchers in Microbiology; Researchers in Epidemiology; Researchers in Food Safety and Risk; Researchers in Psychology; Researchers in Communication; Researchers in Engineering; Researchers in Economics and Agribusiness; Producers and Processors; Consumer groups; Food safety advocates;
IMPACT: 2006/08/01 TO 2007/07/31<BR>
Microbiologists assessed rapid methods for the detection of Salmonella in turkey and comparative genetics for analysis of Campylobacter, and examined the prevalence of virulence and resistance genes in Salmonella associated with poultry to understand their distribution in the food chain. The psychologists examined experimental activation of motives among participants and its influence on judgments of risk for food-borne contamination and found motives influenced judgments of contamination. The study examined how psychological traits motivate individuals to care more about food safety and act to avoid contamination. The trait of conscientiousness of food handlers and preparers was assessed; those with higher levels of conscientiousness had more positive opinions about following food safety practices and being more likely to engage in such behaviors. The communications team surveyed diverse public groups including general American macro-culture and underserved populations to explore the impact of culture, learning styles, public outrage, and message source on message receptivity. The economists developed real option models (Tomato Garden Models) to: a)evaluate where investments reduce intentional contamination risks in the food supply chain, b) test the existence of off-setting behavior in food safety policy/information delivery and c)examine the effect of incentives and efficient policy design to mitigate foodborne pathogen outbreaks. Enterobacter sakazakii has not been detected in milk to date. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of fecal coliforms (E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter spp. non-sakazakii), indicate many possess therapeutic level resistance to tetracycline, cephalothin, ampicillin, and nalidixic acid. The epidemiologists investigated E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella shedding at time of slaughter in North Dakota cattle, and their antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. They are measuring the efficacy and cost effectiveness of an intervention strategy to reduce shedding of E. coli O157:H7 by cattle pre-harvest and the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in raw ground beef. The agricultural engineers investigated sensing materials for indicator compounds associated with Salmonella in packaged meat. Composite polymers were made using conducting polymers and carbon black particles and deposited on interdigitated gold electrodes to develop sensor heads. The heads were used for sensing ethanol and acetic acid. Polyvinylphenol and Polyethylenimine showed best sensitivity. Ongoing work is validating sensitivities at low ppm levels. A configuration for an integrated electronic nose system has been developed; design of the sensing chamber, sampling devices is complete. Experiments characterizing liquid metabolites of Salmonella contaminated meat using LC-MS found liquid samples are complex; investigations are determining non-volatile constituents. Parallel work investigating strategies for small dataset analysis using mega-trend diffusion (MTD) and functional virtual population (FVP) techniques for data domain expansion and synthetic sample generation is ongoing.