An official website of the United States government.

Official websites use .gov
A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS
A lock ( ) or https:// means you've safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

Identification and Use of Genomic Markers of Antibiotic Resistance in Campylobacters, Salmonellae and Enterococci


To identify detectable markers of antibiotic resistance which will enable the tracking of resistant bacterial strains through the food chain. Such markers are likely to vary both between bacterial species and with antibiotic type. <P>

Molecular subtyping and/or fingerprinting techniques will be used to detect markers in Camplyobacters, Salmonellae and Enterococci, which have experimentally, or naturally acquired resistance. <P>
Techniques such as MLST enable the investigation of clonal relationships between antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Analysis of molecular profiles throughout the food chain will provide a microbiological framework for the development of intervention

More information

Progress: Colonisation levels of all challenge strains were consistent with those obtained by individual administration and PFGE profiles of dosing and recovered strains were indistinguishable, suggesting each of the challenge strains occupy a unique niche. Application of Maxus showed no effect on colonisation levels or avilmycin MIC values of the dosing strains. Baytril produced no determinable effect on colonisation levels on C. jejuni, E. coli or enterococci, but levels of salmonellas were significantly affected. Salmonellae were recovered after 3 days, but then not until 3 weeks post challenge. Resistance to enterofloxin and ciprofloxacin, observed as a 7-8 fold increase in MIC, was observed in all C. jejuni recovered 48 hours after start of treatment.
Established a generic model for investigating development of Antimicrobial resistance in multiple zoonotic bacteria and demonstrated that enrofloxacin resistance in C. jejuni is induced rapidly on exposure


Veterinary Laboratories Agency, UK
Start date
End date
Project number